College Algebra Demystified
Demystiﬁed Series Advanced Statistics Demystiﬁed Algebra Demystiﬁed Anatomy Demystiﬁed As...

Author:
Rhonda Huettenmueller

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College Algebra Demystified

Demystiﬁed Series Advanced Statistics Demystiﬁed Algebra Demystiﬁed Anatomy Demystiﬁed Astronomy Demystiﬁed Biology Demystiﬁed Business Statistics Demystiﬁed Calculus Demystiﬁed Chemistry Demystiﬁed College Algebra Demystiﬁed Earth Science Demystiﬁed Everyday Math Demystiﬁed Geometry Demystiﬁed Physics Demystiﬁed Physiology Demystiﬁed Pre-Algebra Demystiﬁed Project Management Demystiﬁed Statistics Demystiﬁed Trigonometry Demystiﬁed

COLLEGE ALGEBRA DEMYSTIFIED

Rhonda Huettenmueller

McGRAW-HILL New York Chicago San Francisco Lisbon London Madrid Mexico City Milan New Delhi San Juan Seoul Singapore Sydney Toronto

Copyright © 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Manufactured in the United States of America. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher. 0-07-147103-0 The material in this eBook also appears in the print version of this title: 0-07-143928-5. All trademarks are trademarks of their respective owners. Rather than put a trademark symbol after every occurrence of a trademarked name, we use names in an editorial fashion only, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. Where such designations appear in this book, they have been printed with initial caps. McGraw-Hill eBooks are available at special quantity discounts to use as premiums and sales promotions, or for use in corporate training programs. For more information, please contact George Hoare, Special Sales, at [email protected] or (212) 904-4069. TERMS OF USE This is a copyrighted work and The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. (“McGraw-Hill”) and its licensors reserve all rights in and to the work. Use of this work is subject to these terms. Except as permitted under the Copyright Act of 1976 and the right to store and retrieve one copy of the work, you may not decompile, disassemble, reverse engineer, reproduce, modify, create derivative works based upon, transmit, distribute, disseminate, sell, publish or sublicense the work or any part of it without McGraw-Hill’s prior consent. You may use the work for your own noncommercial and personal use; any other use of the work is strictly prohibited. Your right to use the work may be terminated if you fail to comply with these terms. THE WORK IS PROVIDED “AS IS.” McGRAW-HILL AND ITS LICENSORS MAKE NO GUARANTEES OR WARRANTIES AS TO THE ACCURACY, ADEQUACY OR COMPLETENESS OF OR RESULTS TO BE OBTAINED FROM USING THE WORK, INCLUDING ANY INFORMATION THAT CAN BE ACCESSED THROUGH THE WORK VIA HYPERLINK OR OTHERWISE, AND EXPRESSLY DISCLAIM ANY WARRANTY, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. McGraw-Hill and its licensors do not warrant or guarantee that the functions contained in the work will meet your requirements or that its operation will be uninterrupted or error free. Neither McGraw-Hill nor its licensors shall be liable to you or anyone else for any inaccuracy, error or omission, regardless of cause, in the work or for any damages resulting therefrom. McGraw-Hill has no responsibility for the content of any information accessed through the work. Under no circumstances shall McGraw-Hill and/or its licensors be liable for any indirect, incidental, special, punitive, consequential or similar damages that result from the use of or inability to use the work, even if any of them has been advised of the possibility of such damages. This limitation of liability shall apply to any claim or cause whatsoever whether such claim or cause arises in contract, tort or otherwise. DOI: 10.1036/0071439285

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CONTENTS

Preface

vii

CHAPTER 1

Completing the Square

1

CHAPTER 2

Absolute Value Equations and Inequalities

14

CHAPTER 3

The x y Coordinate Plane

29

CHAPTER 4

Lines and Parabolas

58

CHAPTER 5

Nonlinear Inequalities

124

CHAPTER 6

Functions

148

CHAPTER 7

Quadratic Functions

199

CHAPTER 8

Transformations and Combinations

219

CHAPTER 9

Polynomial Functions

278

CHAPTER 10

Systems of Equations and Inequalities

354

CHAPTER 11

Exponents and Logarithms

402

Final Exam

432

Index

443 v

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PREFACE

Early in my teaching career, I realized two seemingly contradictory facts— that students are fully capable of understanding mathematical concepts but that many have had little success with mathematics. There are several reasons people struggle with mathematics. One is a weak background in basic mathematics. Most topics in mathematics are sequential. Weaknesses in any area will likely cause problems later. Another is that textbooks tend to present too many concepts at once, keeping students from being able to absorb them. I wrote this book (as well as my previous book, Algebra Demystiﬁed) with these issues in mind. Each section is short, containing exactly one new concept. This gives you a chance to absorb the material. Also, I have included detailed examples and solutions so that you can concentrate on the new lesson without being distracted by missing steps. The extra detail will also help you to review important skills. You will get the most out of this book if you work on it several times a week, a little at a time. Before working on a new section, review the previous sections. Most sections expand on the ideas in previous sections. Study for the end-of-chapter reviews and ﬁnal exam as you would a regular test. This will help you to see the big picture. Finally, study the graphs and their equations. Even with graphing calculators to plot graphs, it is important in college algebra and more advanced courses to understand why graphs behave the way they do. Because testing has become so important, I would like to leave you with a few tips on how to study for and to take a mathematics test. * *

Study at regular, frequent intervals. Do not cram. Prepare one sheet of notes as if you were allowed to bring it into the test. This exercise will force you to summarize the concepts and to focus on what is important.

vii Copyright © 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click here for terms of use.

PREFACE

viii *

*

*

Imagine explaining the material to someone else. You will have mastered the material only when you can explain it in your own words. When taking a test, read it over before answering any questions. Answer the easy questions ﬁrst. By the time you get to the more diﬃcult problems, your mind will already be thinking mathematically. Also, this can keep you from spending too much valuable test time on harder problems. Be patient with yourself while you are learning. Understanding will not come all at once. But it will come.

Acknowledgments I am very grateful to my family for tolerating my neglect while ﬁnishing this book. I also want to express my appreciation to my friends at the University of North Texas for their encouragement. In particular, I want to thank my colleague Mary Ann Teel for her suggestions. Finally, I want to thank my editor Judy Bass for her enthusiasm and support.

Copyright © 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click here for terms of use.

1

CHAPTER

Completing the Square

Quadratic equations (those of the form ax2 þ bx þ c ¼ 0, where a 6¼ 0) are usually solved by factoring and setting each factor equal to zero or by using the quadratic formula pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ b b2 4ac x¼ : 2a Another method used to solve quadratic equations is called completing the square. This method is also useful in graphing circles and parabolas. The goal is to rewrite the quadratic equation in the form ‘‘ðx þ aÞ2 ¼ number’’ or ‘‘ðx aÞ2 ¼ number.’’ To see how we can begin, we will use the FOIL method (First ﬁrst þ Outer outer þ Inner inner þ Last last) on two perfect squares. ðx aÞ2 ¼ ðx aÞðx aÞ ðx þ aÞ2 ¼ ðx þ aÞðx þ aÞ ¼ x2 þ 2ax þ a2

¼ x2 2ax þ a2

1 Copyright © 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click here for terms of use.

CHAPTER 1 Completing the Square

2

The constant term is a2 and the coeﬃcient of x is 2a or 2a. This means that, in a perfect square, the constant term is the square of half of the coeﬃcient of x: ð2a=2Þ2 ¼ a2 . (Ignore the sign in front of x.) EXAMPLES * ðx þ 3Þ2 ¼ x2 þ 6x þ 9 * ðx 5Þ2 ¼ x2 10x þ 25 * ðx þ 4Þ2 ¼ x2 þ 8x þ 16 * ðx 12Þ2 ¼ x2 x þ 14

Half Half Half Half

of of of of

6 is 3 and 32 is 9. 10 is 5 and 52 is 25. 8 is 4 and 42 is 16. 1 is 12 and ð12Þ2 is 14.

One of the steps on any completing the square problem is to decide what constant term should be added to the x2 and x terms to ‘‘complete the square.’’ Divide the coeﬃcient of x by 2, then square that number. EXAMPLES Fill in the blank with the number that completes the square. *

x2 þ 12x þ

12 2

¼ 6 and 62 ¼ 36

*

x2 4x þ

4 2

*

x2 þ 16x þ

16 2

*

x2 þ 2x þ

2 2

¼ 1 and 12 ¼ 1

*

x2 þ 13 x þ

1 2

13 ¼ 16 and

*

x2 25 x þ

1 2

25 ¼ 15 and

¼ 2 and 22 ¼ 4 ¼ 8 and 82 ¼ 64

12 6

12 5

1 ¼ 36 1 ¼ 25

x2 þ 12x þ 36 is a perfect square. 2 x 4x þ 4 is a perfect square. 2 x þ 16x þ 64 is a perfect square. 2 x þ 2x þ 1 is a perfect square. 2 1 x þ 13 x þ 36 is a perfect square. 1 x2 25 x þ 25 is a perfect square.

PRACTICE Fill in the blank with the number that completes the square. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

x2 þ 18x þ x2 þ 14x þ x2 22x þ x2 þ 30x þ x2 7x þ x2 þ 14 x þ x2 þ 43 x þ

CHAPTER 1 Completing the Square

3

SOLUTIONS 1. x2 þ 18x þ 81 2. x2 þ 14x þ 49 3. x2 22x þ 121 4. x2 þ 30x þ 225 5. x2 7x þ 49 4 1 6. x2 þ 14 x þ 64

7. x2 þ 43 x þ 49 Another step in completing the square is to rewrite the expression as a perfect square. First we write ðx þ Þ2 if the ﬁrst sign is a plus sign, and write ðx Þ2 if the ﬁrst sign is a minus sign. Then we can ﬁll in the blank in one of two ways. Divide the coeﬃcient of x by 2 (multiplying by 12 is the same thing) or take the square root of the constant term. EXAMPLES * x2 þ 12x þ 36 ¼ ðx þ Þ2 ¼ ðx þ 6Þ2 * x2 4x þ 4 ¼ ðx Þ2 ¼ ðx 2Þ2 2 * x þ 16x þ 64 ¼ ðx þ Þ2 ¼ ðx þ 8Þ2 * x2 þ 2x þ 1 ¼ ðx þ Þ2 ¼ ðx þ 1Þ2 2 1 * x þ 13 x þ 36 ¼ ðx þ Þ2 2 ¼ x þ 16 *

1 x2 25 x þ 25 ¼ ðx Þ2 2 ¼ x 15

Use 6 in the blank pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ because 6 ¼ 12 36. 2 ¼ Use 2 in the blank pﬃﬃﬃ because 2 ¼ 42 ¼ 4: Use 8 in the blank pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ because 8 ¼ 16 64: 2 ¼ Use 1 in the blank pﬃﬃﬃ because 1 ¼ 22 ¼ 1: Use 16 in the blank qﬃﬃﬃﬃ because 16 ¼ 12 13 ¼

Use

1 36:

1 5

in the blankqﬃﬃﬃﬃ 1 because 15 ¼ 12 25 ¼ 25 :

PRACTICE Write the quadratic expression as a perfect square. These are the same problems as used in the previous practice problems. 1. 2. 3. 4.

x2 þ 18x þ 81 ¼ x2 þ 14x þ 49 ¼ x2 22x þ 121 ¼ x2 þ 30x þ 225 ¼

CHAPTER 1 Completing the Square

4 5. x2 7x þ 49 4 ¼ 1 ¼ 6. x2 þ 14 x þ 64

7. x2 þ 43 x þ 49 ¼ SOLUTIONS 1. x2 þ 18x þ 81 ¼ ðx þ 9Þ2 2. x2 þ 14x þ 49 ¼ ðx þ 7Þ2 3. x2 22x þ 121 ¼ ðx 11Þ2 4. x2 þ 30x þ 225 ¼ ðx þ 15Þ2 7 2 5. x2 7x þ 49 4 ¼ ðx 2Þ 1 6. x2 þ 14 x þ 64 ¼ ðx þ 18Þ2 ðsince

7. x2 þ 43 x þ 49 ¼ ðx þ 23Þ2 ðsince

1 2 1 2

14 ¼ 18Þ

43 ¼ 23Þ

To solve an equation of the form ðx þ aÞ2 ¼ number or ðx aÞ2 ¼ number, we will take the square root of each side of the equation, then solve for x. ðx aÞ2 ¼ number pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ x a ¼ number pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ x ¼ a number

ðx þ aÞ2 ¼ number pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ x þ a ¼ number pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ x ¼ a number

We need to use the ‘‘’’ symbol in the second and third steps to get both solutions (most quadratic equations have two solutions). EXAMPLES * ðx 1Þ2 ¼ 9 pﬃﬃﬃ x 1 ¼ 9 ¼ 3 x ¼ 1 3 ¼ 1 þ 3ó 1 3 x ¼ 4ó 2 *

2 x þ 12 ¼ 5 pﬃﬃﬃ 1 xþ ¼ 5 2 1 pﬃﬃﬃ x¼ 5 2

CHAPTER 1 Completing the Square *

ðx 6Þ2 ¼ 0 pﬃﬃﬃ x6¼ 0¼0 x¼6

PRACTICE Solve for x. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

ðx 2Þ2 ¼ 4 ðx þ 1Þ2 ¼ 25 ðx 4Þ2 ¼ 9 ðx þ 5Þ2 ¼ 10 ðx þ 13Þ2 ¼ 1

6. ðx 25Þ2 ¼ 0 SOLUTIONS 1. ðx 2Þ2 ¼ 4 x 2 ¼ 2 x ¼ 2 2 ¼ 2 þ 2ó 2 2 x ¼ 4ó 0 2. ðx þ 1Þ2 ¼ 25 x þ 1 ¼ 5 x ¼ 1 5 ¼ 1 þ 5ó 1 5 x ¼ 4ó 6 3. ðx 4Þ2 ¼ 9 x 4 ¼ 3 x ¼ 4 3 ¼ 4 þ 3ó 4 3 x ¼ 7ó 1

5

CHAPTER 1 Completing the Square

6 4.

ðx þ 5Þ2 ¼ 10 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ x þ 5 ¼ 10 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ x ¼ 5 10 5.

1 xþ 3

2 ¼1

pﬃﬃﬃ 1 x þ ¼ 1 ¼ 1 3 1 1 3 x¼ 1¼ 3 3 3 2 4 x¼ ó 3 3 6.

2 x 5

2 ¼0

2 x ¼ 0 ¼ 0 5 2 x¼ 5

Completing the Square To Solve a Quadratic Equation We can solve a quadratic equation in the form ax2 þ bx þ c ¼ 0, with a 6¼ 0, by completing the square if we follow the steps below. 1. 2. 3.

4.

Move the constant term to the other side of the equation. (Sometimes this step is not necessary.) Divide both sides of the equation by a. (Sometimes this step is not necessary.) Find the constant that would make the left-hand side of the equation a perfect square. (This is what we did in earlier practice problems.) Add this number to both sides of the equation. Rewrite the left-hand side as a perfect square.

CHAPTER 1 Completing the Square 5. 6. 7.

7

Take the square root of both sides of the equation. Remember to use a ‘‘’’symbol on the right-hand side of the equation. Move the constant to the right-hand side of the equation. Simplify the right-hand side. (Sometimes this step is not necessary.)

EXAMPLES * x2 þ 6x 7 ¼ 0 x2 þ 6x ¼ 7

Step 1

x2 þ 6x þ 9 ¼ 7 þ 9

Step 3

2

ðx þ 3Þ ¼ 16 pﬃﬃﬃ x þ 3 ¼ 16 ¼ 4

*

Step 5

x ¼ 3 4 ¼ 3 þ 4ó 3 4

Step 6

x ¼ 1ó 7

Step 7

x2 þ 4x ¼ 1 x2 þ 4x þ 4 ¼ 1 þ 4 ðx þ 2Þ2 ¼ 3

pﬃﬃﬃ xþ2¼ 3

pﬃﬃﬃ x ¼ 2 3

*

Step 4

Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6

2x2 2x 24 ¼ 0 2x2 2x ¼ 24 2 2 2 24 x x¼ 2 2 2 2 x x ¼ 12 1 1 x2 x þ ¼ 12 þ 4 4 48 1 49 ¼ þ ¼ 4 4 4 1 2 49 ¼ x 2 4

Step 1 Step 2

Step 3

Step 4

CHAPTER 1 Completing the Square

8

rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 1 49 x ¼ 2 4 1 7 x ¼ 2 2 1 7 x¼ 2 2 1 7 1 7 x¼ þ ó 2 2 2 2 x ¼ 4ó 3 *

Step 6

Step 7

3x2 þ 15x ¼ 4 3 2 15 4 x þ x¼ 3 3 3 4 2 x þ 5x ¼ 3 25 4 25 x2 þ 5x þ ¼ þ 4 3 4 4 25 16 75 59 þ ¼ þ ¼ ¼ 3 4 12 12 12 5 2 59 xþ ¼ 2 12 rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 5 59 xþ ¼ 2 12 rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 59 59 ¼ ¼ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 12 12 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ 59 59 3 ¼ pﬃﬃﬃ ¼ pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ 2 3 2 3 3 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 177 177 5 ¼ xþ ¼ 2 3 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ6ﬃ 2 177 5 x¼ 2 6

PRACTICE Solve for x by completing the square. 1. 2. 3.

Step 5

x2 10x þ 24 ¼ 0 x2 þ 6x þ 5 ¼ 0 2x2 8x 24 ¼ 0

Step 2

Step 3

Step 4 Step 5

Step 6

CHAPTER 1 Completing the Square 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

x2 þ 5x þ 6 ¼ 0 x2 3x ¼ 4 4x2 þ 11x ¼ 6 x2 þ 7x þ 2 ¼ 0 3x2 þ 9x 2 ¼ 0

SOLUTIONS 1. x2 10x þ 24 ¼ 0 x2 10x ¼ 24 x2 10x þ 25 ¼ 24 þ 25 ðx 5Þ2 ¼ 1 x 5 ¼ 1 x ¼ 5 1 ¼ 5 þ 1ó 5 1 x ¼ 6ó 4 2. x2 þ 6x þ 5 ¼ 0 x2 þ 6x ¼ 5 x2 þ 6x þ 9 ¼ 5 þ 9 ðx þ 3Þ2 ¼ 4 x þ 3 ¼ 2 x ¼ 3 2 ¼ 3 þ 2ó 3 2 x ¼ 1ó 5 3. 2x2 8x 24 ¼ 0 2x2 8x ¼ 24 2 2 8 24 x x¼ 2 2 2 2 x 4x ¼ 12 x2 4x þ 4 ¼ 12 þ 4 ðx 2Þ2 ¼ 16 x 2 ¼ 4 x ¼ 2 4 ¼ 2 þ 4ó 2 4 x ¼ 6ó 2

9

CHAPTER 1 Completing the Square

10 4.

x2 þ 5x þ 6 ¼ 0 x2 þ 5x ¼ 6 25 25 24 25 x2 þ 5x þ ¼ 6 þ ¼ þ 4 4 4 4 5 2 1 xþ ¼ 2 4 rﬃﬃﬃ 5 1 1 ¼ xþ ¼ 2 4 2 5 1 5 1 5 1 x¼ ¼ þ ó 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 6 x ¼ ó ¼ 2ó 3 2 2 5. x2 3x ¼ 4 9 9 16 9 x2 3x þ ¼ 4 þ ¼ þ 4 4 4 4 3 25 x ¼ 2 4 rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 3 25 5 x ¼ ¼ 2 4 2 3 5 3 5 3 5 x¼ ¼ þ ó 2 2 2 2 2 2 8 2 x ¼ ó ¼ 4ó 1 2 2 6. 4x2 þ 11x ¼ 6 4 2 11 6 3 x þ x¼ ¼ 4 4 4 2 11 121 3 121 xþ ¼ þ x þ 4 64 2 64 2

since

! 1 11 2 121 ¼ 2 4 64

CHAPTER 1 Completing the Square

11 2 96 121 xþ ¼ þ 8 64 64 25 64 rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 11 25 5 xþ ¼ ¼ 8 64 8 11 5 11 5 11 5 x¼ ¼ þ ó 8 8 8 8 8 8 6 16 3 x¼ ó ¼ ó 2 8 8 4 ¼

7. x2 þ 7x þ 2 ¼ 0 x2 þ 7x ¼ 2 49 49 8 49 ¼ 2 þ ¼ þ 4 4 4 4 2 7 41 xþ ¼ 2 4 rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 41 41 7 41 ¼ pﬃﬃﬃ ¼ xþ ¼ 2 4 2 4 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 41 7 7 41 x¼ or 2 2 2

x2 þ 7x þ

8. 3x2 þ 9x 2 ¼ 0 3x2 þ 9x ¼ 2 3 2 9 2 x þ x¼ 3 3 3 2 3 9 2 9 8 27 x2 þ 3x þ ¼ þ ¼ þ 4 3 4 12 12 x2 þ 3x ¼

11

12

CHAPTER 1 Completing the Square 3 2 35 xþ ¼ 2 12 rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 35 35 3 35 xþ ¼ ¼ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ¼ pﬃﬃﬃpﬃﬃﬃ 2 12 12 4 3 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 35 3 105 105 3 x þ ¼ pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ ¼ ¼ 2 3 6 2 3 2 3 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 105 3 x¼ 6 2 Not every quadratic equation has real number solutions. p For ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃexample, ðx 1Þ2 ¼ 10 has no real number solutions. This is because 10 is not a real number. The equation does have two complex number solutions, though. Now that we are experienced at solving quadratic equations by completing the square, we can see why the quadratic formula works. The quadratic formula comes from solving ax2 þ bx þ c ¼ 0 for x by completing the square. ax2 þ bx þ c ¼ 0 ax2 þ bx ¼ c

Step 1

a 2 b c x þ x¼ a a a

Step 2

b b2 c b2 x2 þ x þ 2 ¼ þ 2 a a 4a 4a

Step 3

b b2 c 4a b2 x2 þ x þ 2 ¼ þ 2 a a 4a 4a 4a

Simplify

b b2 4ac þ b2 x2 þ x þ 2 ¼ a 4a 4a2 b 2 b2 4ac xþ ¼ 2a 4a2 sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ b b2 4ac xþ ¼ 2a 4a2 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ b2 4ac b xþ ¼ 2a 2a

Simplify Step 4

Step 5 Simplify

CHAPTER 1 Completing the Square

13

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ b b2 4ac x¼ 2a ﬃ 2a pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2 b b 4ac x¼ 2a

Step 6 Step 7

Chapter 1 Review 1.

What number completes the square for x2 8x? a) 4 b) 4 c) 16 d) 16

2.

x2 þ 5x þ 25 4 ¼ 5 2 b) ðx þ 54Þ2 a) ðx þ 2Þ

3.

2 c) ðx þ 25 2Þ

2 d) ðx þ 25 4Þ

What are the solutions for ðx þ 1Þ2 ¼ 9? a) x ¼ 2 and x ¼ 4 b) x ¼ 2 and x ¼ 4 d) x ¼ 8 and x ¼ 10

c) x ¼ 8 and x ¼ 10

4.

What number completes the square for x2 þ 23 x? b) 49 c) 13 d) 16 a) 19

5.

x2 þ 14 x 2 ¼ 0 is equivalent to 1 2 1 2 Þ ¼ 17 b) ðx þ 16 Þ ¼ 33 a) ðx þ 16 8 16 d) ðx þ 18Þ2 ¼ 17 8

c) ðx þ 18Þ2 ¼ 129 64

6.

What are the solutions for ðx 3Þ2p¼ﬃﬃﬃ 12? pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ a) x ¼ 3 2 3 b) x ¼ 3 2 3 c) x ¼ 3 3 2 pﬃﬃﬃ d) x ¼ 3 3 2

7.

3x2 6x 2 ¼ 0 is equivalent to b) ðx 3Þ2 ¼ 7 a) ðx 3Þ2 ¼ 11 d) ðx 1Þ2 ¼ 53

SOLUTIONS 1. c) 2. a)

3. a)

4. a)

5. c)

c) ðx 1Þ2 ¼ 3

6. b)

7. d)

2

CHAPTER

Absolute Value Equations and Inequalities

The absolute value of a number is its distance from 0 on the number line. Because distances are not negative, the absolute value of a number is never negative. The symbol for the absolute value is a pair of absolute value bars, ‘‘j j.’’ Hence j 3j ¼ 3 because 3 is 3 units away from 0 on the number line. A number written without absolute value bars gives both the distance from 0 as well as the direction. For example, 3 is 3 units to the left of 0 and 3 is 3 units to the right of 0, but j 3j ¼ 3 simply means 3 units away from 0. Because 0 is no distance from 0, j0j ¼ 0.

14 Copyright © 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click here for terms of use.

CHAPTER 2 Absolute Value EXAMPLES * j100j 5 ¼ 5100 ¼ * 2 2 * j10 1j ¼ 9

* * *

15

j 83j ¼ 83 j5 11j ¼ 6 j68 90j ¼ 22

PRACTICE 1. j 6:75j ¼ 2. j8j ¼ 3. j 4j ¼ 4. j8 19j ¼ 5. j13 25j ¼ SOLUTIONS 1. j 6:75j ¼ 6:75 2. j8j ¼ 8 3. j 4j ¼ 4 4. j8 19j ¼ 11 5. j13 25j ¼ 12 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ to believe Technically x2 ¼ jxj instead of x, unless we have pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ x is pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃreason 2 2 ¼ 16 ¼ 4, ¼ ð4Þ not negative. For example,psuppose x ¼ 4. Then x ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2 not 4. But j4j ¼ 4, so ð4Þ ¼pj4j ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ is a true statement. For any even number n and any real number a, n an ¼ jaj.

Absolute Value Equations The equation jxj ¼ 5 is really the question, ‘‘What numbers are 5 units away from 0?’’ Two numbers are 5 units from 0, 5 and 5, so there are two solutions, x ¼ 5 and x ¼ 5. Absolute value equations often have two solutions. One can solve an equation of the type jexpressionj ¼ positive number by solving the two equations: expression ¼ negative number and expression ¼ positive number. Equations such as jxj ¼ 6 have no solution because no number has a negative distance from 0. However, jxj ¼ 6, which is equivalent to jxj ¼ 6, does have solutions. EXAMPLES * jxj ¼ 16 The solutions are x ¼ 16ó 16.

CHAPTER 2

16 *

jx þ 3j ¼ 5 x þ 3 ¼ 5 x ¼ 8

*

Absolute Value

xþ3¼5 x¼2

The solutions are x ¼ 8 and x ¼ 2. j6 8xj ¼ 0 Because 0 and 0 are the same number, there is only one equation to solve. 6 8x ¼ 0 8x ¼ 6 6 3 x¼ ¼ 8 4

PRACTICE Solve for x. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

j 5x þ 1j ¼ 6 j 34 x 8j ¼ 1 jx þ 12 j ¼ 23 j3x þ 4j ¼ 2 j2x 9j ¼ 0 3x 2 5 ¼7

SOLUTIONS 1. 5x þ 1 ¼ 6

5x þ 1 ¼ 6

5x ¼ 5

5x ¼ 7 7 x¼ 5

x ¼ 1 2. 3 x8¼1 4 3 x¼9 4 4 x ¼ 9 ¼ 12 3

3 x 8 ¼ 1 4 3 x¼7 4 4 28 x¼ 7¼ 3 3

CHAPTER 2 Absolute Value

17

3. 1 2 xþ ¼ 2 3 1 2 x¼ þ 2 3 3 4 1 x¼ þ ¼ 6 6 6 4.

1 2 xþ ¼ 2 3 1 2 x¼ 2 3 3 4 7 x¼ ¼ 6 6 6

j3x þ 4j ¼ 2 becomes j3x þ 4j ¼ 2 3x þ 4 ¼ 2

3x þ 4 ¼ 2

3x ¼ 2

3x ¼ 6

2 x¼ 3

x ¼ 2

5. 2x 9 ¼ 0 2x ¼ 9 9 x¼ 2 6. 3x 2 ¼7 5 3x 2 ¼ 5ð7Þ 5 5

3x 2 ¼ 7 5 3x 2 ¼ 5ð7Þ 5 5

3x 2 ¼ 35

3x 2 ¼ 35

3x ¼ 37

3x ¼ 33

x¼

37 3

x¼

33 ¼ 11 3

Sometimes an absolute value expression is part of a more complex equation. We need to isolate the absolute value expression on one side of the equation, then we can solve it as before.

CHAPTER 2

18 EXAMPLES * 2jx 4j þ 7 ¼ 13 7 7

2jx 4j ¼ 6 2jx 4j 6 ¼ 2 2 jx 4j ¼ 3 x4¼3

x 4 ¼ 3

x¼7 *

1 3 j2x

x¼1

þ 8j 10 ¼ 2 þ10 þ 10 1 j2x þ 8j ¼ 8 3 1 3 j2x þ 8j ¼ 3ð8Þ 3 j2x þ 8j ¼ 24 2x þ 8 ¼ 24

2x þ 8 ¼ 24

2x ¼ 16

2x ¼ 32

x¼8

x ¼ 16

PRACTICE Solve for x. 1. 2. 3.

4j5x 2j þ 3 ¼ 11 3 2jx 9j ¼ 1 2 5 j4x 3j 9 ¼ 1

SOLUTIONS 1. 4j5x 2j þ 3 ¼ 11 3

3

Absolute Value

CHAPTER 2 Absolute Value

19

4j5x 2j ¼ 8 4j5x 2j 8 ¼ 4 4 j5x 2j ¼ 2 5x 2 ¼ 2

5x 2 ¼ 2

5x ¼ 4 x¼

5x ¼ 0

4 5

x¼

0 ¼0 5

2. 3 2jx 9j ¼ 1 3

3

2jx 9j ¼ 2 2jx 9j 2 ¼ 2 2 jx 9j ¼ 1 x9¼1

x 9 ¼ 1

x ¼ 10

x¼8

3. 2 j4x 3j 9 ¼ 1 5 þ9

þ9

2 j4x 3j ¼ 8 5 5 2 5 j4x 3j ¼ 8 2 5 2 j4x 3j ¼ 20

CHAPTER 2

20 4x 3 ¼ 20

4x 3 ¼ 20

4x ¼ 23

4x ¼ 17

x¼

23 4

x¼

Absolute Value

17 4

Absolute Value Inequalities The inequality jxj < 4 is, in mathematical symbols, the question,‘‘What real numbers are closer to 0 than 4 is?’’ A look at the number line might help with this question.

Fig. 2-1.

From the number line we can see that the numbers between 4 and 4 have an absolute value less than 4. The solution to jxj < 4 is the interval ð4ó 4Þ. In inequality notation, the solution is 4 < x < 4. (A double inequality of the form smaller number < x < larger number is shorthand for x > smaller number and x < larger number.) Similarly, the solution to the inequality jxj > 3 is all numbers further from 0 than 3 is.

Fig. 2-2.

The solution is all numbers smaller than 3 or larger than 3. In interval notation, the solution is ð1ó 3Þ [ ð3ó 1Þ. The ‘‘[’’ symbol means ‘‘or.’’ In inequality notation, the solution is x < 3 or x > 3. The notation ‘‘3 < x < 3’’ has no meaning because no number x is both larger than 3 and smaller than 3.

CHAPTER 2 Absolute Value

21

Absolute value

Inequalities

Interval(s)

jxj < positive number

neg. number < x < pos. number

ðneg: no:ó pos: no:Þ

jxj positive number

neg. number x pos. number

½neg: no:ó pos: no:

jxj > positive number

x < neg. number or x > pos. number

ð1ó neg: no:Þ [ ðpos: no:ó 1Þ

jxj positive number

x neg. number or x pos. number

ð1ó neg: no: [ ½pos: no:ó 1Þ

EXAMPLES Absolute value

Inequalities

Interval(s)

jxj < 1

1 < x < 1

ð1ó 1Þ

jxj > 16

x < 16 or x > 16

ð1ó 16Þ [ ð16ó 1Þ

jxj 3

x 3 or x 3

ð1ó 3 [ ½3ó 1Þ

jxj 5

5 x 5

½5ó 5

8 jxj is equivalent to jxj 8

8 x 8

½8ó 8

21 < jxj is equivalent to jxj > 21

x < 21 or x > 21

ð1ó 21Þ [ ð21ó 1Þ

Some absolute value inequalities, like absolute value equations, have no solution: jxj < 6. Because absolute values are not negative, no number has an absolute value smaller than 6. If we switch the inequality sign, jxj > 6, then we get an inequality for which every real number is a solution. PRACTICE Solve the inequality and give the solution in inequality and interval notation. 1. 2. 3. 4.

jxj > 12 jxj 9 jxj < 10 jxj 25

CHAPTER 2

22 SOLUTIONS 1. jxj > 12 2. jxj 9 3. jxj < 10 4. jxj 25

x < 12 or x > 12 9x9 10 < x < 10 x 25 or x 25

Absolute Value

ð1ó 12Þ [ ð12ó 1Þ ½9ó 9 ð10ó 10Þ ð1ó 25 [ ½25ó 1Þ

For some absolute value inequalities, ﬁnding the inequalities is only the ﬁrst step toward ﬁnding the solution. EXAMPLES * j4x 5j 9

Fig. 2-3.

From the number line, we can see that either 4x 5 9 or 4x 5 9. These are the inequalities we need to solve. 4x 5 9 4x 4

4x 5 9 4x 14 14 7 ¼ x 1 x 4 2 The solution in interval notation is ð1ó 1 [ 72 ó 1 . *

j2x þ 5j < 11

Fig. 2-4.

From the number line, we can see that 2x þ 5 is between 11 and 11. This means that 11 < 2x þ 5 < 11. 11 < 2x þ 5 < 11 16 < 2x < 6 8 < x < 3 ð8ó 3Þ

CHAPTER 2 Absolute Value *

23

j9 3xj < 12 12 < 9 3x < 12

*

21 < 3x < 3 21 3 3 > x> 3 3 3 7 > x > 1 or ð2 3xÞ=4 > 1

Reverse the signs at this step. 1<x1 4

2 3x < 4

2 3x > 4

3x < 6

3x > 2

ð1ó 7Þ

2 2 1ó [ ð2ó 1Þ 3 3 Tables 2-1 and 2-2 should help to set up the inequalities for an absolute value inequality. x>2

x pos. number

Expression < neg. number or Expression > pos. number

jExpressionj pos. number

Expression neg. number or Expression pos. number

jExpressionj < pos. number

neg. number < Expression < pos. number

jExpressionj pos. number

neg. number Expression pos. number

Table 2-2 Absolute value inequality

Interval notation

jalgebraic expressionj > positive number

ð1; aÞ [ ðb; 1Þ

jalgebraic expressionj positive number

ð1; a [ ½b; 1Þ

jalgebraic expressionj < positive number

ða; bÞ

jalgebraic expressionj positive number

½a; b

CHAPTER 2

24

Absolute Value

PRACTICE Solve the inequality and give the solution in interval notation. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

j3x þ 4j < 5 jx 2j > 4 j6 2xj 4 x 4 3 < 2 j8 3xj 5 j 13 x þ 2j < 4

SOLUTIONS 1. 5 < 3x þ 4 < 5 9 < 3x < 1 1 1 3ó 3 < x < 3 3 2. x 2 < 4

x2>4

x < 2

x>6

ð1ó 2Þ [ ð6ó 1Þ

3. 4 6 2x 4 10 2x 2 10 2 2 x 2 2 2 5x1 1x5

½1ó 5

4. x4 3 7x þ 4 < 3 7x < 7 x < 1

7x þ 4 > 3 7x > 1 1 x> 7

1 ð1ó 1Þ [ ó 1 7

Chapter 2 Review 1. 2.

What is the solution for jx 7j ¼ 1? a) x ¼ 8 b) x ¼ 6 and x ¼ 8 c) x ¼ 8 and x ¼ 8 What is the solution for jxj > 4? a) ð4ó 4Þ b) ð4ó 4Þ c) ð4ó 1Þ

d) x ¼ 6

d) ð1ó 4Þ [ ð4ó 1Þ

CHAPTER 2

28 3.

4. 5. 6.

Solve for x: 12 jx 6j 4 ¼ 1. a) x ¼ 12 b) x ¼ 8 and x ¼ 4 no solution

Absolute Value

c) x ¼ 12 and x ¼ 0

d) There is

What is the solution for j2x 3j 1? a) ð1ó 2 b) ð1ó 1 [ ½2ó 1Þ c) ð1ó 1 [ ½1ó 2

d) ½1ó 2

What is the solution for j 12 x þ 5j > 1? a) ð1ó 8Þ [ ð12ó 1Þ b) ð8ó 12Þ c) ð1ó 12Þ [ ð8ó 1Þ

d) ð12ó 8Þ

Solve for x: j3x 1j ¼ 2. a) x ¼ 1 b) x ¼ 1 and x ¼ 13 1 and x ¼ 3

SOLUTIONS 1. b) 2. d)

3. c)

4. d)

5. a)

c) x ¼ 1 and x ¼ 1

6. b)

d) x ¼ 1

3

CHAPTER

The xy Coordinate Plane

The xy coordinate plane (or plane) is made from two number lines. The vertical number line is called the y-axis, and the horizontal number line is called the x-axis. The number lines cross at 0. This point is called the origin. Points on the plane can be located and identiﬁed by coordinates: ðxó yÞ. The ﬁrst number is called the x-coordinate. This number describes how far left or right to go from the origin to locate the point. A negative number tells us that we need to move to the left, and a positive number tells us that we need to move to the right. The second number is called the y-coordinate. This number describes how far up or down to go from the origin to locate the point. A negative number tells us that we need to move down, and a positive number tells us that we need to move up. ðþrightó þupÞ

ðleftó þupÞ ðþrightó downÞ

ðleftó downÞ

29 Copyright © 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click here for terms of use.

CHAPTER 3 The xy Coordinate Plane

30

EXAMPLES * (4, 1) Right 4, up 1 * ð1ó 5Þ Left 1, down 5 * (0, 2) No horizontal

* * *

ð2ó 5Þ Left 2, up 5 ð5ó 3Þ Right 5, down 3 ð3ó 0Þ Left 3, no vertical

movement, up 2

movement

Fig. 3-1.

PRACTICE Describe the horizontal and vertical movement and locate the point on the plane. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

ð4ó 5Þ ð1ó 3Þ ð1ó 4Þ ð2ó 2Þ ð6ó 4Þ ð0ó 3Þ ð4ó 0Þ ð0ó 0Þ

SOLUTIONS 1. ð4ó 5Þ Right 4, up 5

CHAPTER 3 The xy Coordinate Plane

Fig. 3-2.

2.

ð1ó 3Þ Left 1, down 3

Fig. 3-3.

3.

ð1ó 4Þ Right 1, down 4

Fig. 3-4.

31

CHAPTER 3 The xy Coordinate Plane

32 4.

ð2ó 2Þ Right 2, up 2

Fig. 3-5.

5.

ð6ó 4Þ Left 6, up 4

Fig. 3-6.

6.

ð0ó 3Þ No horizontal movement, up 3

Fig. 3-7.

CHAPTER 3 The xy Coordinate Plane 7.

33

ð4ó 0Þ Left 4, no vertical movement

Fig. 3-8.

8.

ð0ó 0Þ No horizontal movement, no vertical movement. These are the coordinates of the origin.

Fig. 3-9.

The Distance Between Two Points At times we need to ﬁnd the distance between two points. If the points are on the same vertical line (the x-coordinates are the same), the distance between the points is the absolute value of the diﬀerence between the y-coordinates. If the points are on the same horizontal line (the y-coordinates are the same), the distance between the points is the absolute value of the diﬀerence between the x-coordinates.

CHAPTER 3 The xy Coordinate Plane

34

EXAMPLES * The distance between ð1ó 4Þ and ð1ó 2Þ is j4 2j ¼ j2j ¼ 2.

Fig. 3-10. *

The distance between ð2ó 3Þ and ð2ó 4Þ is j 4 3j ¼ j 7j ¼ 7.

Fig. 3-11. *

The distance between j 5 þ 1j ¼ j 4j ¼ 4.

ð5ó 3Þ

Fig. 3-12.

and

ð1ó 3Þ

is

j 5 ð1Þj ¼

CHAPTER 3 The xy Coordinate Plane PRACTICE Find the distance between the two points. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

ð5ó 6Þ and ð1ó 6Þ ð4ó 3Þ and ð4ó 8Þ ð1ó 2Þ and ð1ó 9Þ ð3ó 1Þ and ð3ó 4Þ ð6ó 0Þ and ð2ó 0Þ

SOLUTIONS 1. j5 1j ¼ j4j ¼ 4 2. j3 8j ¼ j 5j ¼ 5 3. j2 9j ¼ j 7j ¼ 7 4. j1 ð4Þj ¼ j1 þ 4j ¼ j5j ¼ 5 5. j6 2j ¼ j4j ¼ 4 In the rest of this chapter, we will be working with formulas involving two points. We will call one of them Point 1 with coordinates ðx1 ó y1 Þ and the other Point 2 with coordinates ðx2 ó y2 Þ. Suppose we have two points that are not on the same vertical line or the same horizontal line. By using Pythagoras’ theorem in a clever way, we can ﬁnd the distance between any two points.

Fig. 3-13.

Draw a vertical line through one of the points and a horizontal line through the other. The point where these lines cross will have the x-coordinate of one of the points and the y-coordinate of the other.

35

36

CHAPTER 3 The xy Coordinate Plane

Fig. 3-14.

The three points form a right triangle. The length of the hypotenuse of this triangle is the distance between ðx1 ó y1 Þ and ðx2 ó y2 Þ. We can ﬁnd this length using Pythagoras’ theorem: a2 þ b2 ¼ c2 .

Fig. 3-15.

a ¼ distance between ðx1 ó y1 Þ and ðx2 ó y1 Þ ¼ jx2 x1 j; a2 ¼ jx2 x1 j2 ¼ ðx2 x1 Þ2 ; b ¼ distance between ðx2 ó y1 Þ and ðx2 ó y2 Þ ¼ jy2 y1 j; b2 ¼ 2 2 2 ó yﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ jy2 y1 j2 ¼ ðy2 y1 Þ2 ; c ¼ distance between ðx1p 1 Þ and ðx2 ó y2 Þ; c ¼ a ﬃ þ b or c2 ¼ ðx2 x1 Þ2 þ ðy2 y1 Þ2 . This means c ¼ ðx2 x1 Þ2 þ ðy2 y1 Þ2 . The formula, then, for the distance between two points ðx1 ó y1 Þ and ðx2 ó y2 Þ is pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ﬃ d ¼ ðx2 x1 Þ2 þ ðy2 y1 Þ2 .

CHAPTER 3 The xy Coordinate Plane EXAMPLES Use the distance formula to find the distance between the two points. *

ð1ó 3Þ and ð4ó 7Þ x1 ¼ 1ó y1 ¼ 3ó x2 ¼ 4ó y2 ¼ 7. qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ d ¼ ð4 1Þ2 þ ð7 3Þ2 ¼ 32 þ 42 ¼ 25 ¼ 5

*

ð2ó 5Þ and ð1ó 4Þ x1 ¼ 2ó y1 ¼ 5ó x2 ¼ 1ó y2 ¼ 4 qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ d ¼ ð1 ð2ÞÞ2 þ ð4 5Þ2 ¼ ð1 þ 2Þ2 þ ð4 5Þ2 qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ¼ 32 þ ð1Þ2 ¼ 10

*

ð0ó 7Þ and ð2ó 4Þ x1 ¼ 0ó y1 ¼ 7ó x2 ¼ 2ó y2 ¼ 4 qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ d ¼ ð2 0Þ2 þ ð4 ð7ÞÞ2 ¼ ð2Þ2 þ ð4 þ 7Þ2 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ ¼ 125 ¼ 5 5

*

ð12 ó 4Þ and ð2ó 13Þ x1 ¼ 12 ó y1 ¼ 4ó x2 ¼ 2ó y2 ¼ 13 sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2 1 2 1 4 1 2 1 12 2 d¼ 2 þ 4 ¼ þ 2 3 2 2 3 3 sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2 3 11 2 9 121 ¼ þ þ ¼ 2 3 4 9 rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 81 484 565 ¼ þ ¼ 36 36 36 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 565 565 ¼ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ¼ 6 36

This formula even works for two points on the same horizontal or vertical line. For example, we know the distance between ð3ó 8Þ and ð3ó 6Þ is 2. Let us see what happens in the formula. qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ d ¼ ð3 3Þ2 þ ð6 8Þ2 ¼ 02 þ ð2Þ2 ¼ 4 ¼ 2 PRACTICE Find the distance between the points. 1. 2.

ð1ó 4Þó ð3ó 3Þ ð6ó 4Þó ð2ó 5Þ

37

CHAPTER 3 The xy Coordinate Plane

38 3. 4. 5.

ð0ó 8Þó ð2ó 1Þ ð7ó 3Þó ð5ó 3Þ ð2ó 23Þó ð15 ó 14Þ

SOLUTIONS 1. 2.

qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ d ¼ ð3 ð1ÞÞ2 þ ð3 4Þ2 ¼ ð3 þ 1Þ2 þ ð1Þ2 ¼ 17

qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ d ¼ ð2 6Þ2 þ ð5 ð4ÞÞ2 ¼ ð8Þ2 þ ð5 þ 4Þ2 ¼ 65

3. d¼ 4. d¼ 5.

qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ð2 0Þ2 þ ð1 8Þ2 ¼ 22 þ ð7Þ2 ¼ 53

qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ð5 7Þ2 þ ð3 ð3ÞÞ2 ¼ ð2Þ2 þ ð3 þ 3Þ2 ¼ 2

sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2 1 1 2 2 1 10 2 3 8 2 d¼ þ 2 þ ¼ 5 4 3 5 5 12 12 sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2 9 5 2 81 25 ¼ þ ¼ þ 5 12 25 144 rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 11ó664 625 12ó289 12ó289 þ ¼ ¼ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ¼ 3600 3600 3600 3600 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 12ó289 ¼ 60

Sometimes we are asked to show that groups of points form shapes such as squares and right triangles. We can use the distance formula to show that the distance between the vertices of a square are equal or that the distances between the vertices of a right triangle follow Pythagoras’ theorem. EXAMPLES * Show that the points ð2ó 13 2 Þ, ð1ó 2Þ, and ð4ó 4Þ are the vertices of a right triangle. To use the distance formula on this problem, we need to show that if we square then add the lengths of the two legs (the sides that are not

CHAPTER 3 The xy Coordinate Plane the hypotenuse), this will equal the square of the hypotenuse. While not really necessary, we should plot the points to see which two sides are the legs and which side is the hypotenuse.

Fig. 3-16.

From the graph we can see that a is the distance from ð2ó 13 2 Þ to ð1ó 2Þ; b is the distance from ð1ó 2Þ to ð4ó 4Þ; and c is the distance from ð2ó 13 2Þ to ð4ó 4Þ. sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 13 2 81 117 2 a ¼ ð1 ð2ÞÞ þ 2 ¼ 9þ ¼ 2 4 4 qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ b ¼ ð4 1Þ2 þ ð4 2Þ2 ¼ 9 þ 4 ¼ 13 sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 13 2 25 169 2 c ¼ ð4 ð2ÞÞ þ 4 ¼ 36 þ ¼ 2 4 4 ! rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2 117 117 2 a ¼ ¼ 4 4 b2 ¼

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ2 13 ¼ 13

rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ!2 169 169 c2 ¼ ¼ 4 4

39

CHAPTER 3 The xy Coordinate Plane

40

Is it true that a2 þ b2 ¼ c2 ? a2 þ b2 ¼

*

117 117 52 169 þ 13 ¼ þ ¼ ¼ c2 4 4 4 4

Because a2 þ b2 ¼ c2 is a true statement, ð2ó 13 2 Þó ð1ó 2Þó and ð4ó 4Þ are the vertices of a right triangle. Show that ð2ó 5Þó ð6ó 3Þó and ð2ó 1Þ are the vertices of an isosceles triangle. Two sides of an isosceles triangle have the same length. If we plot the points, we should be able to tell which sides have equal length.

Fig. 3-17.

It appears that sides b and c have equal length, where b ¼ the distance between ð2ó 5Þ and ð6ó 3Þ and c ¼ the distance between ð2ó 1Þ and ð6ó 3Þ. qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ b ¼ ð6 2Þ2 þ ð3 5Þ2 ¼ 16 þ 4 ¼ 20 qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ c ¼ ð6 2Þ2 þ ð3 1Þ2 ¼ 16 þ 4 ¼ 20 Because b ¼ c, the points ð2ó 5Þó ð6ó 3Þó and ð2ó 1Þ are the vertices of an isosceles triangle. PRACTICE 1. Show that ð3ó 1Þó ð10ó 0Þó and ð9ó 7Þ are the vertices of an isosceles triangle. 2. Show that ð3ó 2Þó ð4ó 0Þó and ð1ó 9Þ are the vertices of a right triangle. 3. Show that ð21ó 4Þó ð4ó 3Þó ð9ó 9Þó and ð16ó 8Þ are the vertices of a square.

CHAPTER 3 The xy Coordinate Plane SOLUTIONS 1. It appears that sides b and c are equal.

Fig. 3-18.

b¼

qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ð10 3Þ2 þ ð0 1Þ2 ¼ 49 þ 1 ¼ 50

qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ c ¼ ð9 10Þ2 þ ð7 0Þ2 ¼ 1 þ 49 ¼ 50 Because b ¼ có ð3ó 1Þó ð10ó 0Þó and ð9ó 7Þ are the vertices of an isosceles triangle. 2. We want to show that a2 þ b2 ¼ c2 .

Fig. 3-19.

41

CHAPTER 3 The xy Coordinate Plane

42

qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ a ¼ ð1 ð3ÞÞ2 þ ð9 2Þ2 ¼ ð1 þ 3Þ2 þ 72 ¼

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 4 þ 49 ¼ 53

qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ b ¼ ð3 4Þ2 þ ð2 0Þ2 ¼ ð7Þ2 þ 22 ¼ c¼ ¼ a2 þ b2 ¼

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 49 þ 4 ¼ 53 qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ð1 4Þ2 þ ð9 0Þ2 ¼ ð5Þ2 þ 92 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 25 þ 81 ¼ 106

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ2 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ2 53 þ 53

¼ 106 ¼

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ2 106 ¼ c2

This means that ð3ó 2Þó ð4ó 0Þó and ð1ó 9Þ are the vertices of a right triangle. 3. We want to show that a ¼ b ¼ c ¼ d.

Fig. 3-20.

CHAPTER 3 The xy Coordinate Plane

43

qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ a ¼ ð16 ð21ÞÞ2 þ ð8 4Þ2 qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ¼ ð16 þ 21Þ2 þ ð12Þ2 ¼ 25 þ 144 ¼ 13 qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ b ¼ ð4 ð16ÞÞ2 þ ð3 ð8ÞÞ2 qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ¼ ð4 þ 16Þ2 þ ð3 þ 8Þ2 ¼ 144 þ 25 ¼ 13 qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ c ¼ ð9 ð4ÞÞ2 þ ð9 ð3ÞÞ2 qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ¼ ð9 þ 4Þ2 þ ð9 þ 3Þ2 ¼ 25 þ 144 ¼ 13 qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ d ¼ ð21 ð9ÞÞ2 þ ð4 9Þ2 qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ¼ ð21 þ 9Þ2 þ ð5Þ2 ¼ 144 þ 25 ¼ 13 Because a ¼ b ¼ c ¼ dó ð21ó 4Þó ð4ó 3Þó ð9ó 9Þ and ð16ó 8Þ are the vertices of a square.

The Midpoint Formula To ﬁnd the midpoint between two points ðx1 ó y1 Þ and ðx2 ó y2 Þ use the midpoint formula:

x þ x y þ y 1 2 2 ó 1 : 2 2 This formula is easy to remember if we think of ﬁnding the average of the x-values and the average of the y-values. As with the distance formula, it does not matter which point is called ðx1 ó y1 Þ and which is called ðx2 ó y2 Þ. EXAMPLES Find the midpoint between the given points. *

ð1ó 3Þ and ð4ó 7Þ

1þ4 3þ7 5 ó ó5 ¼ 2 2 2

CHAPTER 3 The xy Coordinate Plane

44 *

ð2ó 5Þ and ð1ó 4Þ

*

*

2 þ 1 5 þ 4 1 9 ó ¼ ó 2 2 2 2

ð0ó 7Þ and ð2ó 4Þ 0 þ ð2Þ 7 þ 4 3 ó ¼ 1ó 2 2 2 ð12 ó 4Þ and ð2ó 13Þ ð1=2Þ þ 2 4 þ ð1=3Þ 5=2 13=3 ó ó ¼ 2 2 2 2 5 13 5 1 13 1 2ó 2 ¼ ó ¼ 2 3 2 2 3 2 5 13 ¼ ó 4 6

PRACTICE Find the midpoint between the points. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

(3, 5) and (1, 2) (1, 4) and (3, 3) (6, 4) and (2, 5) (0, 8) and (2, 1) (7, 3) and (5, 3)

SOLUTIONS 1.

3þ1 5þ2 7 ¼ 2ó ó 2 2 2

2. 1 þ 3 4 þ 3 7 ó ¼ 1ó 2 2 2 3.

6 þ ð2Þ 4 þ ð5Þ 9 ó ¼ 2ó 2 2 2

CHAPTER 3 The xy Coordinate Plane

45

4.

0þ2 8þ1 9 ó ¼ 1ó 2 2 2

5.

7 þ 5 3 þ ð3Þ ó ¼ ð6ó 3Þ 2 2

Circles An equation with two variables can be graphed on the xy-plane. Think of a graph as a ‘‘picture’’ of all solutions to the equation. Every point on the graph is a solution to the equation and every solution to the equation is a point on the graph. For example, in the equation x þ y ¼ 5, any pair of numbers whose sum is 5 will be on the graph of the equation. Some of those pairs of numbers are (0, 5), (1, 4), (3, 2), (4, 1), (5, 0), (6, 1), (7, 2), ð4, 9), (10, 5), (4 12 ó 12), and ( 12 ó 5 12). Now let us plot them.

Fig. 3-21.

All of these points lie on a line. For this reason, equations like x þ y ¼ 5 are called linear equations. If we were to draw a line through these points, the sum of the coordinates for every point on the line would be 5.

CHAPTER 3 The xy Coordinate Plane

46

Graphing equations will be a major part of this book. We will learn how to choose points to plot so that we get a good idea of what an equation’s graph looks like with a minimum amount of work. Every point on a circle is the same distance from the center of the circle. That distance is called the radius. This fact along with the distance formula will allow us to discover a formula for the circle in the xy-plane. Call the center of the circle ðhó kÞ. That is, the x-coordinate of the circle is h and the y-coordinate is k. Call the radius of the circle r. A point ðxó yÞ is on the circle if its distance from ðhó kÞ is r. When we put this information in the distance formula, it becomes qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ðx hÞ2 þ ðy kÞ2 ¼ r: If we square both sides of this equation, we get ðx hÞ2 þ ðy kÞ2 ¼ r2 : This is the formula for a circle in the xy-plane with radius r and center ðhó kÞ. When we are given the center and radius of a circle, we only need to put these three numbers, hó kó r, in the formula to get an equation for that circle. EXAMPLES Find an equation of the circle with the given radius and center. *

Center ð1ó 4Þ, radius 3. Here h ¼ 1ó k ¼ 4ó r ¼ 3ó r2 ¼ 9 and ðx hÞ2 þ ðy kÞ2 ¼ r2 becomes ðx 1Þ2 þ ðy 4Þ2 ¼ 9

*

Center ð0ó 9Þ, radius 4. h ¼ 0ó k ¼ 9ó r ¼ 4ó r2 ¼ 16 ðx 0Þ2 þ ðy 9Þ2 ¼ 16 We want to simplify ðx 0Þ2 to x2 . x2 þ ðy 9Þ2 ¼ 16

*

Center ð3ó 2Þ, radius 12. h ¼ 3ó k ¼ 2ó r ¼ 12 ó r2 ¼ 14 ðx 3Þ2 þ ðy 2Þ2 ¼

1 4

CHAPTER 3 The xy Coordinate Plane *

Center ð2ó 1Þ, radius r ¼ 6 h ¼ 2ó k ¼ 1ó r ¼ 6ó r2 ¼ 36 ðx ð2ÞÞ2 þ ðy 1Þ2 ¼ 36 We want to simplify ðx ð2ÞÞ2 to ðx þ 2Þ2 . ðx þ 2Þ2 þ ðy 1Þ2 ¼ 36

PRACTICE Find an equation of the circle with the given center and radius. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Center Center Center Center Center Center Center

ð5ó 3Þ, radius 2 ð4ó 1Þ, radius 7 ð3ó 6Þ, radius 1 ð0ó 2Þ, radius 3 ð0ó 0Þ, radius 5 ð4ó 1Þ, radius 2 ð5ó 2Þ, radius 8

SOLUTIONS 1. h ¼ 5ó k ¼ 3ó r ¼ 2ó r2 ¼ 4 ðx 5Þ2 þ ðy 3Þ2 ¼ 4 2.

h ¼ 4ó k ¼ 1ó r ¼ 7ó r2 ¼ 49 ðx 4Þ2 þ ðy 1Þ2 ¼ 49

3.

h ¼ 3ó k ¼ 6ó r ¼ 1ó r2 ¼ 1 ðx 3Þ2 þ ðy 6Þ2 ¼ 1

4.

h ¼ 0ó k ¼ 2ó r ¼ 3ó r2 ¼ 9 ðx 0Þ2 þ ðy 2Þ2 ¼ 9 x2 þ ðy 2Þ2 ¼ 9

47

CHAPTER 3 The xy Coordinate Plane

48 5.

h ¼ 0ó k ¼ 0ó r ¼ 5ó r2 ¼ 25 ðx 0Þ2 þ ðy 0Þ2 ¼ 25 x2 þ y2 ¼ 25

6.

h ¼ 4ó k ¼ 1ó r ¼ 2ó r2 ¼ 4 ðx 4Þ2 þ ðy ð1ÞÞ2 ¼ 4 ðx 4Þ2 þ ðy þ 1Þ2 ¼ 4

7.

h ¼ 5ó k ¼ 2ó r ¼ 8ó r2 ¼ 64 ðx ð5ÞÞ2 þ ðy ð2ÞÞ2 ¼ 64 ðx þ 5Þ2 þ ðy þ 2Þ2 ¼ 64

When the equation of a circle is in the form ðx hÞ2 þ ðy kÞ2 ¼ r2 , we have a good idea of what it looks like. If h, k, and r are integers we can even graph the circle with practically no work. We can mark the center and go up, down, left, and right r units to get four points on the circle. Next draw a circle through these four points. Then we will erase the mark for the center because the center is not really on the circle. EXAMPLE Consider the equation ðx 2Þ2 þ ðy þ 1Þ2 ¼ 4. The center of the circle is at ð2ó 1Þ and the radius is 2.

Fig. 3-22.

CHAPTER 3 The xy Coordinate Plane

Fig. 3-23.

PRACTICE Identify the center and radius and graph the circle. 1. 2. 3. 4.

ðx 3Þ2 þ ðy 2Þ2 ¼ 9 ðx þ 1Þ2 þ ðy þ 3Þ2 ¼ 4 ðx 4Þ2 þ y2 ¼ 1 x2 þ y2 ¼ 16

SOLUTIONS 1. Center = ð3ó 2Þ, radius = 3

Fig. 3-24.

49

CHAPTER 3 The xy Coordinate Plane

50 2.

Center = ð1ó 3Þ, radius = 2

Fig. 3-25.

3.

Center = ð4ó 0Þ, radius = 1

Fig. 3-26.

4.

Center = ð0ó 0Þ, radius = 4

Fig. 3-27.

CHAPTER 3 The xy Coordinate Plane We can ﬁnd an equation of a circle without directly knowing its center and radius. When given the endpoints of a diameter (a line segment that stretches the full width of a circle), we can ﬁnd the center of the circle by ﬁnding the midpoint of the diameter. Once we know ðhó kÞ, we can use the coordinates of one of the points for x and y in the equation ðx hÞ2 þ ðy kÞ2 ¼ r2 to ﬁnd r2 . EXAMPLES * The endpoints of a diameter of a circle are ð2ó 4Þ and ð8ó 12Þ. Find an equation of the circle. The center of the circle can be found by ﬁnding the midpoint of ð2ó 4Þ and ð8ó 12Þ.

x þ x y þ y 2 þ 8 4 þ 12 2 2 ¼ ð5ó 8Þ ðhó kÞ ¼ 1 ó ó 1 ¼ 2 2 2 2 So far, we know that the equation is ðx 5Þ2 þ ðy 8Þ2 ¼ r2 . To ﬁnd r2 , we will use the endpoint ð2ó 4Þ. (The endpoint ð8ó 12Þ would also work.) We will substitute x ¼ 2 and y ¼ 4 in the equation and solve for r2 . ðx 5Þ2 þ ðy 8Þ2 ¼ r2 ð2 5Þ2 þ ð4 8Þ2 ¼ r2 ð3Þ2 þ ð4Þ2 ¼ r2 9 þ 16 ¼ r2 25 ¼ r2

*

An equation of the circle is ðx 5Þ2 þ ðy 8Þ2 ¼ 25. A circle has center ð4ó 3Þ and the point ð2ó 11Þ is on the circle. Find an equation of the circle. Because ð4ó 3Þ is the center, we already know the equation is ðx þ 4Þ2 þ ðy 3Þ2 ¼ r2 . Let x ¼ 2 and y ¼ 11 in this equation to ﬁnd r2 . ð2 þ 4Þ2 þ ð11 3Þ2 ¼ r2 62 þ 82 ¼ r2 100 ¼ r2 An equation for the circle is ðx þ 4Þ2 þ ðy 3Þ2 ¼ 100:

51

CHAPTER 3 The xy Coordinate Plane

52

PRACTICE Use the information given about the circle to find its equation. 1. 2. 3. 4.

A diameter to the circle has endpoints ð2ó 1Þ and ð4ó 9Þ. A diameter to the circle has endpoints ð0ó 4Þ and ð12ó 9Þ. The center of the circle has coordinates ð1ó 8Þ and the point ð13ó 13Þ is on the circle. The center of the circle is ð5ó 0Þ and ð5ó 6Þ is on the circle.

SOLUTIONS 1. The midpoint will be the center of the circle. 2 þ ð4Þ 1 þ 9 ó ¼ ð1ó 5Þ ðhó kÞ ¼ 2 2 So far, we know the equation is ðx þ 1Þ2 þ ðy 5Þ2 ¼ r2 . We could use either ð2ó 1Þ or ð4ó 9Þ in the equation to ﬁnd r2 . Here, ð2ó 1Þ will be used. ð2 þ 1Þ2 þ ð1 5Þ2 ¼ r2 9 þ 16 ¼ r2 25 ¼ r2 The equation is ðx þ 1Þ2 þ ðy 5Þ2 ¼ 25. 2. The midpoint will be the center of the circle. 0 þ ð12Þ 4 þ 9 13 ¼ 6ó ó ðhó kÞ ¼ 2 2 2 2 2 So far, we know the equation is ðx þ 6Þ2 þ ðy 13 2 Þ ¼ r . We will use 2 ð0ó 4Þ to ﬁnd r . 13 2 ¼ r2 ð0 þ 6Þ þ 4 2 2 5 2 6 þ ¼ r2 2 25 36 þ ¼ r2 4 169 ¼ r2 4 2 169 The equation is ðx þ 6Þ2 þ ðy 13 2Þ ¼ 4 .

CHAPTER 3 The xy Coordinate Plane 3.

The center of the circle is (1, 8) . This means that the circle equation begins as ðx 1Þ2 þ ðy 8Þ2 ¼ r2 . We will use ð13ó 13Þ to ﬁnd r2 . ð13 1Þ2 þ ð13 8Þ2 ¼ r2 144 þ 25 ¼ r2 169 ¼ r2

The equation is ðx 1Þ2 þ ðy 8Þ2 ¼ 169. 4. Because the center is ð5ó 0Þ, we know the equation begins as ðx 5Þ2 þ y2 ¼ r2 . We will use ð5ó 6Þ to ﬁnd r2 . ð5 5Þ2 þ 62 ¼ r2 100 þ 36 ¼ r2 136 ¼ r2 The equation is ðx 5Þ þ y2 ¼ 136. Equations of circles are not always written in the form ðx hÞ2 þ ðy kÞ2 ¼ r2 . For example, the equation ðx 2Þ2 þ ðy þ 3Þ2 ¼ 16 might be written in its expanded form. ðx 2Þ2 þ ðy þ 3Þ2 ¼ 16 ðx 2Þðx 2Þ þ ðy þ 3Þðy þ 3Þ ¼ 16 x2 4x þ 4 þ y2 þ 6y þ 9 ¼ 16

After using the FOIL method

x2 þ y2 4x þ 6y 3 ¼ 0 In the following, we will be given equations like the one above and use completing the square to rewrite them in the form ðx hÞ2 þ ðy kÞ2 ¼ r2 . EXAMPLES * x2 þ y2 12x þ 4y þ 36 ¼ 0 For the ﬁrst step, move the constant term (the number without a variable) to the right side of the equation, writing the left side with the x-terms together and the y-terms together. x2 12x þ y2 þ 4y ¼ 36

53

CHAPTER 3 The xy Coordinate Plane

54

Next, we will complete the square for the x-terms and the y-terms and will add both numbers to each side of the equation. x2 12x þ 36 þ y2 þ 4y þ 4 ¼ 36 þ 36 þ 4 In the last step, we will write the left side of the equation as the sum 2 2 of þ 36 ¼ ðx pﬃﬃﬃ Þ , we will use pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃtwo perfect 2squares. For x 12x 2 36 ¼ 6. For y þ 4y þ 4 ¼ ðy þ Þ , we will use 4 ¼ 2. ðx 6Þ2 þ ðy þ 2Þ2 ¼ 4

*

Now we can see that this equation is an equation of a circle which has center ð6ó 2Þ and radius 2. x2 þ y2 8x 4y ¼ 11 x2 8x þ þ y2 4y þ ¼ 11 þ 2 2 8 4 ¼ 16 and ¼4 2 2

þ

x2 8x þ 16 þ y2 4y þ 4 ¼ 11 þ 16 þ 4 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ¼ﬃﬃﬃðx Þ2 , we will use 16 ¼ 4. For y2 4y þ 4 ¼ For x2 8x þ 16 p ðy Þ2 , we use 4 ¼ 2. ðx 4Þ2 þ ðy 2Þ2 ¼ 9 *

x2 þ y2 2y 14 ¼ 0 Because x2 already is a perfect square, we only need to complete the square on the y-terms. x2 þ y2 2y þ ¼ 14 þ 2 2 ¼1 2 x2 þ y2 2y þ 1 ¼ 14 þ 1 pﬃﬃﬃ For y2 2y þ 1 ¼ ðy Þ2 we will use 1 ¼ 1 x2 þ ðy 1Þ2 ¼ 15

*

59 x2 þ y2 x þ 45 y 100 ¼0

It might be tempting to clear the fraction on this problem (that is, to multiply both sides of the equation by the least common denominator).

CHAPTER 3 The xy Coordinate Plane This will not work because the coeﬃcients of x2 and y2 must be 1 when completing the square. 1 4 4 59 1 4 þ þ x2 x þ þ y2 þ y þ ¼ 4 5 25 100 4 25 59 1 4 59 25 16 100 þ þ ¼ þ þ ¼ ¼1 100 4 25 100 100 100 100 1 2 2 2 þ yþ ¼1 x 2 5 PRACTICE Complete the square to find the center and radius of the circle. 1. 2. 3. 4.

x2 þ y2 14x 10y þ 68 ¼ 0 x2 þ y2 þ 4x 8y þ 11 ¼ 0 x2 þ y2 12x ¼ 21 x2 þ y2 32 x þ 6y 247 16 ¼ 0

SOLUTIONS 1. x2 14x þ

þ y2 10y þ

¼ 68 þ

þ

x2 14x þ 49 þ y2 10y þ 25 ¼ 68 þ 49 þ 25 ðx 7Þ2 þ ðy 5Þ2 ¼ 6 pﬃﬃﬃ The center is ð7ó 5Þ and the radius is 6. 2. x2 þ 4x þ þ y2 8y þ ¼ 11 þ þ x2 þ 4x þ 4 þ y2 8y þ 16 ¼ 11 þ 4 þ 16 ðx þ 2Þ2 þ ðy 4Þ2 ¼ 9

3.

The center is ð2ó 4Þ and the radius is 3. x2 12x þ þ y2 ¼ 21 þ x2 12x þ 36 þ y2 ¼ 21 þ 36 ðx 6Þ2 þ y2 ¼ 15 The center is ð6ó 0Þ and the radius is

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 15.

55

CHAPTER 3 The xy Coordinate Plane

56 4.

x2 32 x þ

þ y2 þ 6y þ

¼ 247 16 þ

þ

3 9 247 9 x2 x þ þ y2 þ 6y þ 9 ¼ þ þ9 2 16 16 16 247 9 247 9 144 400 þ þ9¼ þ þ ¼ ¼ 25 16 16 16 16 16 16 3 2 þðy þ 3Þ2 ¼ 25 x 4 The center is ð34 ó 3Þ and the radius is 5. Sometimes the coeﬃcient of x2 and y2 is not 1. In this case, we must divide both sides of the equation by this number before completing the square. It is worth mentioning that in equations of circles, x2 and y2 will always have the same coeﬃcient. If the coeﬃcients are diﬀerent, the graph of the equation will not be a circle. EXAMPLE 3x2 þ 3y2 30x 12y þ 84 ¼ 0 1 1 2 3x þ 3y2 30x 12y ¼ ð84Þ 3 3 x2 þ y2 10x 4y ¼ 28 x2 10x þ

þ y2 4y þ

¼ 28 þ

þ

x2 10x þ 25 þ y2 4y þ 4 ¼ 28 þ 25 þ 4 ðx 5Þ2 þ ðy 2Þ2 ¼ 1

Chapter 3 Review 1.

What 4Þ and ð2ó 9Þ? pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃis the distance between ð3ó pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ a) 24 b) 4 c) 24 d) 26

2.

What are the center and radius of the circle whose equation is x2 þ ðy þ 1Þ2 ¼ 5? a) The center is ð0ó 1Þ, and the radius is 5. pﬃﬃﬃ b) The center is ð0ó 1Þ, and the radius is 5. c) The center is ð0ó 1Þ, and the radius is 5. pﬃﬃﬃ d) The center is ð0ó 1Þ, and the radius is 5.

CHAPTER 3 The xy Coordinate Plane 3.

What are the center and radius of the circle whose equation is x2 þ y2 þ 6x 8y ¼ 75? pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ a) The center is ð3ó 4Þ, and the radius is 75. b) The center is ð3ó 4Þ, and the radius is 10. pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ c) The center is ð3ó 4Þ, and the radius is 75. d) The center is ð3ó 4Þ, and the radius is 10.

4.

TRUE OR FALSE: ð3ó 14Þ, ð10ó 3Þ, ð15ó 9Þ, ð2ó 2Þ are the vertices of a square. a) True b) False c) Cannot be determined

5.

What is the midpoint between the points ð3ó 2Þ and ð1ó 6Þ? b) ð2ó 2Þ c) ð1ó 4Þ d) ð 52 ó 52Þ a) ð 12 ó 72Þ

6.

What is an equation of the circle which has a diameter with endpoints ð6ó 1Þ and ð2ó 5Þ? bÞ ðx 6Þ2 þ ðy þ 1Þ2 ¼ 16 aÞ ðx 4Þ2 þ ðy þ 3Þ2 ¼ 8 2 2 cÞ ðx 2Þ þ ðy þ 5Þ ¼ 16 dÞ ðx 2Þ2 þ ðy 2Þ2 ¼ 17

SOLUTIONS 1. d) 2. d)

3. b)

4. a)

5. c)

6. a)

57

4

CHAPTER

Lines and Parabolas

The graph to an equation of the form Ax þ By ¼ C will be a line. An equation that can be put in this form is called a linear equation. We only need two points to graph a line. It does not matter which two points, but we will choose points that would be easy to graph. If A and B are each nonzero, we can pick two x-values at random. We will put them into the equation to compute the y-values. EXAMPLES * 2x þ 3y ¼ 6 We can choose any two numbers for x. Here we will use x ¼ 0 and x ¼ 6. 2ð0Þ þ 3y ¼ 6

2ð6Þ þ 3y ¼ 6

3y ¼ 6

12 þ 3y ¼ 0

y¼2

3y ¼ 6 y ¼ 2

58 Copyright © 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click here for terms of use.

CHAPTER 4 Lines and Parabolas

59

Plot ð0ó 2Þ and ð6ó 2Þ.

Fig. 4-1. *

4x y ¼ 7 We will use x ¼ 0 and x ¼ 2. 4ð0Þ y ¼ 7

4ð2Þ y ¼ 7

y ¼ 7

8y¼7

y ¼ 7

y ¼ 1 y¼1

Plot ð0ó 7Þ and ð2ó 1Þ.

Fig. 4-2.

PRACTICE Find the y-values for the given x-values and use the two points to plot the line. 1.

3x þ y ¼ 5ó x ¼ 0 and x ¼ 1

CHAPTER 4

60 2. 3. 4.

Lines and Parabolas

2x þ 4y ¼ 8ó x ¼ 0 and x ¼ 2 x 4y ¼ 12ó x ¼ 0 and x ¼ 4 3x þ 4y ¼ 6ó x ¼ 0 and x ¼ 4

SOLUTIONS 1. Put x ¼ 0 and x ¼ 1 in 3x þ y ¼ 5 to ﬁnd y. 3ð0Þ þ y ¼ 5

3ð1Þ þ y ¼ 5

y¼5

3þy¼5 y¼2

Plot ð0ó 5Þ and ð1ó 2Þ.

Fig. 4-3.

2.

Put x ¼ 0 and x ¼ 2 in 2x þ 4y ¼ 8 to ﬁnd y. 2ð0Þ þ 4y ¼ 8

2ð2Þ þ 4y ¼ 8

4y ¼ 8

4 þ 4y ¼ 8

y¼2

4y ¼ 12 y¼3

CHAPTER 4 Lines and Parabolas Plot ð0ó 2Þ and ð2ó 3Þ.

Fig. 4-4.

3.

Put x ¼ 0 and x ¼ 4 in x 4y ¼ 12 to ﬁnd y. 0 4y ¼ 12 y ¼ 3

4 4y ¼ 12 4y ¼ 8 y ¼ 2

Plot ð0ó 3Þ and ð4ó 2Þ

Fig. 4-5.

61

CHAPTER 4

62 4.

Lines and Parabolas

Put x ¼ 0 and x ¼ 4 in 3x þ 4y ¼ 6 to ﬁnd y. 3ð0Þ þ 4y ¼ 6 6 4 3 y¼ 2 y¼

3ð4Þ þ 4y ¼ 6 12 þ 4y ¼ 6 4y ¼ 6 þ 12 ¼ 6 y¼

Plot ð0ó 32Þ and ð4ó 32Þ.

6 3 ¼ 4 2

Fig. 4-6.

You might have noticed that x ¼ 0 was selected for one of the points in all of the previous examples and practice problems. This point was chosen for two reasons: one, computing y is easier if x ¼ 0; and two, it is an important point in its own right. A point on a graph whose x-coordinate is 0 is called a y-intercept. This is where the graph touches the y-axis. Many of the graphs in this book will have exactly one y-intercept. Some graphs have more than one y-intercept and some have none. See the ﬁgures below.

Fig. 4-7.

CHAPTER 4 Lines and Parabolas

Fig. 4-8.

The y-coordinate is 0 for points on the graph that touch the x-axis. This point is called the x-intercept. Some of the graphs in this book will have exactly one x-intercept, some will have more than one, and still others will not have any.

Fig. 4-9.

Fig. 4-10.

63

CHAPTER 4

64

Lines and Parabolas

Fig. 4-11.

One way to ﬁnd the intercepts is by looking at the graph. Rather than say ðaó 0Þ is an x-intercept, we say for short that a is an x-intercept. The x-intercept in Fig. 4-9 is 1 and the y-intercept is 1. The x-intercepts in Fig. 4-11 are 2ó 1, and 3. The y-intercept is 6. PRACTICE Find the x- and y-intercepts on the graphs. 1.

Fig. 4-12.

The x-intercept(s) is/are ___ The y-intercept(s) is/are ___

CHAPTER 4 Lines and Parabolas 2.

Fig. 4-13.

The x-intercept(s) is/are ___ The y-intercept(s) is/are ___ 3.

Fig. 4-14.

The x-intercept(s) is/are ___ The y-intercept(s) is/are ___ SOLUTIONS 1. The x-intercept is 2, and the y-intercept is 3. 2. The x-intercepts are 1 and 3, and the y-intercept is 3. 3. The x-intercepts are 3 and 3, and the y-intercepts are 3 and 3.

65

CHAPTER 4

66

Lines and Parabolas

Intercepts can be found without looking at the graph. We can ﬁnd the intercepts algebraically (if an equation has intercepts), by substituting 0 for one of the variables and solving for the other variable. To ﬁnd the x-intercept, let y ¼ 0 and solve for x. To ﬁnd the y-intercept, let x ¼ 0 and solve for y. EXAMPLES * 2x þ 3y ¼ 6

*

y¼0

x¼0

2x þ 3ð0Þ ¼ 6

2ð0Þ þ 3y ¼ 6

2x ¼ 6

3y ¼ 6

x¼3

y¼2

The x-intercept is 3, and the y-intercept is 2. y ¼ x2 x 2 y¼0 x2 x 2 ¼ 0 ðx 2Þðx þ 1Þ ¼ 0

x¼0 y ¼ 02 0 2 y ¼ 2

x 2 ¼ 0 and x þ 1 ¼ 0 x¼2

*

and x ¼ 1

The x-intercepts are 2 and 1, and the y-intercept is 2. x2 þ y2 ¼ 16 y¼0

x¼0

x2 þ 02 ¼ 16

02 þ y2 ¼ 16

x2 ¼ 16

y2 ¼ 16

x ¼ 4

y ¼ 4

The x-intercepts are 4 and 4, and the y-intercepts are 4 and 4.

CHAPTER 4 Lines and Parabolas *

67

y ¼ ðx þ 8Þ=ðx 2Þ The only way a fraction can be zero is if the numerator is zero. Here the numerator is x þ 8, so we will solve x þ 8 ¼ 0 to ﬁnd the x-intercept. y¼0 xþ8¼0 x ¼ 8

x¼0 y¼

0þ8 02

y ¼ 4

The x-intercept is 8, and the y-intercept is 4. PRACTICE Find the x- and y-intercepts algebraically. 1. 2. 3. 4.

x 2y ¼ 4 y ¼ 3x 12 y ¼ x2 þ 3x 4 xþ6 y¼ x þ 12

SOLUTIONS 1. x 2y ¼ 4 x 2ð0Þ ¼ 4

0 2y ¼ 4

x¼4

2y ¼ 4 y ¼ 2

2.

The x-intercept is 4, and the y-intercept is 2. y ¼ 3x 12 3x 12 ¼ 0 3x ¼ 12

y ¼ 3ð0Þ 12 y ¼ 12

x¼4 The x-intercept is 4, and the y-intercept is 12.

CHAPTER 4

68 3.

y ¼ x2 þ 3x 4 x2 þ 3x 4 ¼ 0

y ¼ 02 þ 3ð0Þ 4

ðx þ 4Þðx 1Þ ¼ 0 xþ4¼0

y ¼ 4

and x 1 ¼ 0

x ¼ 4

4.

Lines and Parabolas

and x ¼ 1

The x-intercepts are 4 and 1, and the y-intercept is 4. y ¼ ðx þ 6Þ=ðx þ 12Þ When ﬁnding the x-intercept, we only need to solve x þ 6 ¼ 0 because the only way a fraction can be zero is if its numerator is zero. xþ6¼0 x ¼ 6

y¼

0þ6 0 þ 12

y¼

6 1 ¼ 12 2

The x-intercept is 6, and the y-intercept is 12. We can tell whether or not a graph has intercepts by looking at it. What happens if we do not have the graph? A graph will not have an x-intercept if when we let y ¼ 0 in its equation we do not get a real number solution. A graph will not have a y-intercept if when we let x ¼ 0 in its equation we do not get a real number solution. EXAMPLES

Fig. 4-15.

CHAPTER 4 Lines and Parabolas

69

The graph of y ¼ x2 þ 4 in Fig. 4-15 does not have any x-intercepts. Let us see what happens if we try to find the x-intercepts algebraically. x2 þ 4 ¼ 0 x2 ¼ 4 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ x ¼ 4

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 4 is not a real number, so the equation x2 þ 4 ¼ 0 does not have any real solution.

Fig. 4-16.

The graph of y ¼ 1=x in Fig. 4-16 does not have any intercepts at all. y¼0

x¼0

1 1 ¼0 ¼y x 0 As was mentioned earlier, a fraction can equal zero only if the numerator is zero. The equation 1=x ¼ 0 has no solution because the fraction is zero but the numerator, 1, is never zero. This shows that the graph of y ¼ 1=x has no x-intercept. The equation 1=0 ¼ y has no solution because 1=0 is not a number. This shows that the graph of y ¼ 1=x has no y-intercept, either.

The Slope of a Line Another important part of a line is its slope. The slope is a measure of a line’s tilt. Some lines have steep slopes and others have more gradual slopes. A line that tilts upward will have a diﬀerent slope than one that tilts downward.

70

CHAPTER 4

Lines and Parabolas

A line has a steep slope if a small horizontal change results in a large vertical change.

Fig. 4-17.

A line has a more gradual slope if a large horizontal change results in a small vertical change.

Fig. 4-18.

The slope of a line is measured by a number. This number is a quotient (a fraction) where the vertical change is divided by the horizontal change. In Fig. 4-17, to move from one point to the other, we had a vertical change of down 4 and a horizontal change of 1. This means that the slope of the line 4x þ y ¼ 8 is 4 1 . In Fig. 4-18, to move from one point to the other, we moved up 1 and to the right 5. The slope to the line x 5y ¼ 10 is 15. One of the convenient things about the slope of a line is that it does not matter which two points we use—the quotient of the vertical change to the horizontal change will be the same. Suppose we use two other points on the line 4x þ y ¼ 8. If we moved from ð4ó 24Þ to ð2ó 0Þ, then we would go down

CHAPTER 4 Lines and Parabolas 4 24 (a change of 24) and to the right 6. This quotient is 24 6 ¼ 1 , the same as with the two points in Fig. 4-17. This idea leads us to the slope formula. This formula is important and is worth memorizing. If ðx1 ó y1 Þ and ðx2 ó y2 Þ are two points on a line, then the slope, m, of the line is the number

m¼

y2 y1 vertical change : ¼ x2 x1 horizontal change

EXAMPLES Find the slope of the line using the given points. *

2x þ 3y ¼ 6 ð0ó 2Þ and ð3ó 0Þ Here ðx1 ó y1 Þ ¼ ð0ó 2Þ and ðx2 ó y2 Þ ¼ ð3ó 0Þ. m¼

0 ð2Þ 2 2 ¼ ¼ 3 0 3 3

It does not matter which point we call ðx1 ó y1 Þ and which we call ðx2 ó y2 Þ. We will compute m with ðx1 ó y1 Þ ¼ ð3ó 0Þ and ðx2 ó y2 Þ ¼ ð0ó 2Þ. m¼ *

3x y ¼ 4

ð1ó 1Þ and ð2ó 10Þ m¼

*

2 0 2 2 ¼ ¼ 0 ð3Þ 3 3

10 ð1Þ 9 3 ¼ ¼ ¼3 2 1 3 1

Normally, when the denominator is 1, we write the slope as an integer. x 2y ¼ 2 ð4ó 3Þ and ð2ó 0Þ m¼

03 3 1 ¼ ¼ 2 4 6 2

PRACTICE Find the slope of the line using the given points. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

2x þ 3y ¼ 12 ð0ó 4Þ and ð3ó 6Þ 2x y ¼ 1 ð0ó 1Þ and ð1ó 1Þ xy¼4 ð3ó 1Þ and ð2ó 2Þ x þ 2y ¼ 6 ð2ó 2Þ and ð4ó 5Þ 3x 5y ¼ 10 ð10ó 4Þ and ð5ó 1Þ

71

CHAPTER 4

72

Lines and Parabolas

SOLUTIONS 1. m¼

6 ð4Þ 2 2 ¼ ¼ 30 3 3

2. m¼

1 ð1Þ 2 ¼ ¼2 10 1

3. m¼

2 ð1Þ 1 ¼ ¼1 23 1

m¼

52 3 1 ¼ ¼ 4 2 6 2

4.

5. m¼

14 3 3 ¼ ¼ 5 10 5 5

Horizontal and Vertical Lines The y-values of a horizontal line are the same number. The equation of a horizontal line is in the form y ¼ number.

Fig. 4-19.

CHAPTER 4 Lines and Parabolas What would the slope of a horizontal line be? No matter which two points we choose, their y-values will be the same. This means that y1 and y2 will be equal, so y2 y1 ¼ 0. m¼

y2 y1 0 ¼ ¼0 x2 x1 x2 x1

The slope of any horizontal line is 0. The x-values of a vertical line are the same number. The equation of a vertical line is in the form x ¼ number.

Fig. 4-20.

Because all of the x-values on a vertical line are the same, x2 and x1 are the same. This means that the denominator of the slope of a vertical line is 0, so the slope is undeﬁned. m¼

y2 y1 y2 y1 ¼ x2 x1 0

In addition to saying that the slope of a vertical line is undeﬁned, we also say it does not exist. To say that the slope of a line does not exist is not the same as saying that the slope is 0. The slope of horizontal line is 0; the slope of a vertical line does not exist. PRACTICE Graph each line. State whether the slope is zero or does not exist. 1. 2. 3.

x¼1 y¼4 x ¼ 32

73

CHAPTER 4

74 SOLUTIONS 1.

Fig. 4-21.

2.

Fig. 4-22.

3.

Fig. 4-23.

Lines and Parabolas

CHAPTER 4 Lines and Parabolas

75

Two points on a line not only allow us to graph the line, they also give us enough information to ﬁnd an equation for the line. First, we need to use the slope formula to ﬁnd the slope of the line. Second, we need to use the slope and one of the points in the point–slope formula. y y1 ¼ mðx x1 Þ This formula comes directly from the slope formula. All that was done to the slope formula was to replace ðx2 ó y2 Þ with ðxó yÞ and to clear the fraction. m¼

y y1 x x1

ðx x1 Þm ¼ ðx x1 Þ

y y1 x x1

ðx x1 Þm ¼ y y1 y y1 ¼ mðx x1 Þ In the following examples and practice problems, we will be putting linear equations in the general form Ax þ By ¼ C, where Aó Bó and C are integers and A is not negative. EXAMPLES Find the equation of the line containing the given points. *

ð3ó 5Þ and ð6ó 13Þ First ﬁnd the slope of the line containing these points. m¼

13 5 18 ¼ ¼2 6 3 9

We can use either ð3ó 5Þ or ð6ó 13Þ as ðx1 ó y1 Þ in the point–slope formula. If we use ð3ó 5Þ, y y1 ¼ mðx x1 Þ becomes y 5 ¼ 2ðx 3Þ Now we will put this equation in the general form. y 5 ¼ 2ðx 3Þ y 5 ¼ 2x 6

We need x and y on the same side.

2x þ y ¼ 1 ð2x þ yÞ ¼ ð1Þ 2x y ¼ 1

A needs to be positive.

CHAPTER 4

76

Lines and Parabolas

To see that it does not matter which point we choose for ðx1 ó y1 Þ, we will ﬁnd this equation using ð6ó 13Þ. y ð13Þ ¼ 2ðx ð6ÞÞ y þ 13 ¼ 2x þ 12 2x þ y ¼ 1 2x y ¼ 1 *

ð4ó 0Þ and ð0ó 4Þ (These are the intercepts.) m¼

40 4 ¼ ¼1 0 ð4Þ 4

Use ð4ó 0Þ as ðx1 ó y1 Þ. y 0 ¼ 1ðx ð4ÞÞ y¼xþ4 x þ y ¼ 4 x y ¼ 4 *

ð3ó 2Þ and ð6ó 1Þ m¼

1 ð2Þ 3 1 ¼ ¼ 6 ð3Þ 9 3

Use ð3ó 2Þ as ðx1 ó y1 Þ. 1 y ð2Þ ¼ ðx ð3ÞÞ 3 1 y þ 2 ¼ ðx þ 3Þ 3 1 3 ðx þ 3Þ 3ðy þ 2Þ ¼ 3 3y þ 6 ¼ x þ 3 x þ 3y ¼ 3 x 3y ¼ 3

Multiply by the lowest common denominator

CHAPTER 4 Lines and Parabolas *

ð4ó 6Þ and ð3ó 6Þ The y-values are the same, making this a horizontal line. The equation for this line is y ¼ 6—no work is necessary. The method used above will still work on horizontal lines, though.

m¼

66 0 ¼ ¼0 3 4 7

y 6 ¼ 0ðx 4Þ y6¼0 *

or y ¼ 6

ð2ó 0Þ and ð2ó 5Þ This line is a vertical line because the x-values are the same. The equation for this line is x ¼ 2. No work is necessary (or even possible).

PRACTICE Find an equation of the line containing the given points. Put the equation in the general form Ax þ By ¼ C, where Aó B, and C are integers and A is not negative, or in the form x ¼ number or y ¼ number. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

ð1ó 2Þ and ð5ó 2Þ ð2ó 7Þ and ð1ó 5Þ ð4ó 6Þ and ð4ó 2Þ ð5ó 1Þ and ð10ó 10Þ ð1ó 5Þ and ð4ó 2Þ ð4ó 8Þ and ð1ó 8Þ ð1ó 32Þ and ð2ó 32Þ ð2ó 6Þ and ð13 ó 1Þ

SOLUTIONS 1. m¼

2 2 4 ¼ ¼ 1 51 4

y 2 ¼ 1ðx 1Þ y 2 ¼ x þ 1 xþy¼3

77

CHAPTER 4

78

Lines and Parabolas

2. m¼

5 ð7Þ 12 ¼ ¼ 4 1 2 3

y ð7Þ ¼ 4ðx 2Þ y þ 7 ¼ 4x þ 8 4x þ y ¼ 1 3.

The x-values are the same, making this a vertical line. The equation is x ¼ 4.

4. m¼

10 ð1Þ 9 3 ¼ ¼ 10 5 15 5

3 y ð1Þ ¼ ðx 5Þ 5 3 5ðy þ 1Þ ¼ 5 ðx 5Þ 5 5y þ 5 ¼ 3ðx 5Þ 5y þ 5 ¼ 3x 15 3x þ 5y ¼ 20 3x 5y ¼ 20 5. m¼

2 5 3 ¼ ¼ 1 41 3

y 5 ¼ 1ðx 1Þ y 5 ¼ x þ 1 xþy¼6

CHAPTER 4 Lines and Parabolas 6.

Because the y-values are the same, this line is horizontal. The equation is y = 8.

7. m¼

ð3=2Þ ð3=2Þ ð6=2Þ 3 ¼ ¼ ¼ 1 2 ð1Þ 3 3

3 y ¼ 1ðx ð1ÞÞ 2 3 y ¼ ðx þ 1Þ 2 3 y ¼ x 1 2 3 xþy¼ 1 2 1 xþy¼ 2 1 2ðx þ yÞ ¼ 2 We want C to be an integer: 2 2x þ 2y ¼ 1 8. m¼

16 5 ¼ ð1=3Þ 2 ð1=3Þ ð6=3Þ ¼

5 5 ¼ 5 ð5=3Þ 3

¼ 5

3 5

¼3 y 6 ¼ 3ðx 2Þ y 6 ¼ 3x 6 3x þ y ¼ 0 3x y ¼ 0

79

CHAPTER 4

80

Lines and Parabolas

The Slope–Intercept Form of the Line Now we are ready to learn a new form of the line. Remember when a circle is in the form ðx hÞ2 þ ðy kÞ2 ¼ r2 we know the circle’s center and radius. There is a form of the line which gives the same kind of information. This form is called the slope–intercept form of the line. When an equation is in this form, we know the line’s slope and y-intercept. To discover this form, we will examine a practice problem from an earlier practice set. Two points on the line are ð0ó 4Þ (this is the y-intercept) and ð3ó 6Þ. The slope of the line is 23 and the general form of the equation is 2x þ 3y ¼ 12. Solve this equation for y (this means to isolate y on one side of the equation). 2x þ 3y ¼ 12 3y ¼ 2x 12 3y 2x 12 ¼ 3 3 3 2 y¼ x4 3 The coeﬃcient of x is 23, which is the slope; and the constant term is 4, the y-intercept. This will happen every time a linear equation is solved for y. This is why y ¼ mx þ b is called the slope–intercept form of the line. Because a vertical line has no y term and no slope, there is no slope–intercept form for a vertical line. EXAMPLES * y ¼ 3x þ 4. The slope is 3. The y-intercept is 4. * y ¼ x 2. The slope is 1. The y-intercept is 2. * y ¼ 12. This equation could be rewritten as y ¼ 0x 12. The slope is 0. The y-intercept is 12. * y ¼ x. This equation could be rewritten as y ¼ 1x þ 0. The slope is 1. The y-intercept is 0. PRACTICE Identify the slope and y-intercept. 1. 2. 3.

y ¼ 2x þ 6 y ¼ 34 x 5 y ¼ x þ 23

CHAPTER 4 Lines and Parabolas 4. 5.

81

y ¼ 4x y ¼ 10

SOLUTIONS 1. The slope is 2, and the y-intercept is 6. 2. The slope is 34, and the y-intercept is 5. 3. The slope is 1, and the y-intercept is 23. 4. The equation can be rewritten as y ¼ 4x þ 0. The slope is 4, and the y-intercept is 0. 5. The equation can be rewritten as y ¼ 0x þ 10. The slope is 0, and the y-intercept is 10.

Graphing a Line Using the Slope and y-Intercept We can graph a line using the slope and any point on the line. In particular, we can graph a line using the slope and y-intercept. Remember what information the slope is giving: the vertical change over the horizontal change. We will begin by plotting the y-intercept. Then we will use the slope to get another point on the line. Finally, we will draw a line through these two points. EXAMPLES * y ¼ 23 x þ 1 Plot (0, 1).

Fig. 4-24.

CHAPTER 4

82

Lines and Parabolas

The slope is 23. From the point already plotted, go up 2 units and to the right 3 units.

Fig. 4-25.

Fig. 4-26. *

y ¼ 35 x 2 First plot ð0ó 2Þ. Next, go up 3 units and to the right 5 units.

Fig. 4-27.

CHAPTER 4 Lines and Parabolas *

y ¼ 3x þ 1 ¼ 31 x þ 1 Plot ð0ó 1Þ then go up 3 units and to the right 1 unit.

Fig. 4-28.

*

5 y ¼ 52 x ¼ 52 x þ 0 ¼ 5 2 x þ 0 ¼ 2 x þ 0 Plot ð0ó 0Þ. Either go down 5 units then to the right 2 units or go up 5 units then to the left 2 units.

Fig. 4-29.

83

CHAPTER 4

84 *

Lines and Parabolas

y ¼ 2 ¼ 0x þ 2 Plot ð0ó 2Þ. Go to the left or right any distance; do not move up or down.

Fig. 4-30.

Parallel and Perpendicular Lines Two lines are parallel if they have the same slope or if each slope is undeﬁned. EXAMPLES *

Fig. 4-31.

CHAPTER 4 Lines and Parabolas *

Fig. 4-32. *

Fig. 4-33. *

Fig. 4-34.

85

CHAPTER 4

86

Lines and Parabolas

Two lines are perpendicular (that is, they form a 90 angle where they cross each other) if their slopes are negative reciprocals of each other (or one is vertical and the other is horizontal). Two numbers are negative reciprocals of each other if * *

one is positive and the other negative; and inverting one gets the other.

EXAMPLES * The negative * The negative * The negative * The negative * The negative * The negative

reciprocal reciprocal reciprocal reciprocal reciprocal reciprocal

of 23 is 32. of 45 is 54. of 2 is 12. of 58 is 85. of 14 is 4. of 1 is 1.

PRACTICE Find the negative reciprocal for the given number. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

2 7

43 1 5

3 1

SOLUTIONS 1. 72 2. 34 3. 5 4. 13 5. 1 EXAMPLES We can determine whether two lines are parallel, perpendicular, or neither parallel nor perpendicular, by putting their equations in the form y ¼ mx þ b. If m is the same for each line (or both are vertical), the lines are parallel. If one m is the negative reciprocal of the other (or one is vertical and the other horizontal), the lines are perpendicular. Otherwise, the lines are neither parallel nor perpendicular.

CHAPTER 4 Lines and Parabolas

Fig. 4-35.

Fig. 4-36.

Fig. 4-37.

87

CHAPTER 4

88

Lines and Parabolas

EXAMPLES Determine if the lines are parallel, perpendicular, or neither. *

2x y ¼ 4 2x y ¼ 5 First, solve for y in each equation. 2x y ¼ 4 y ¼ 2x þ 4 y ¼ 2x 4

*

2x y ¼ 5 y ¼ 2x 5 y ¼ 2x þ 5

Each slope is 2 so the lines are parallel. 4x þ y ¼ 6 8x þ 2y ¼ 4 4x þ y ¼ 6 y ¼ 4x þ 6

8x þ 2y ¼ 4 2y ¼ 8x þ 4 y ¼ 4x þ 2

*

Each slope is 4 so the lines are parallel. x 3y ¼ 6 3x þ y ¼ 2 x 3y ¼ 6 3y ¼ x 6

3x þ y ¼ 2 y ¼ 3x þ 2

x 6 3 3 1 y¼ xþ2 3 y¼

*

The slopes are negative reciprocals of each other, so the lines are perpendicular. 3x 4y ¼ 4 4x þ 3y ¼ 9 3x 4y ¼ 4 4y ¼ 3x þ 4 3 y¼ x1 4

4x þ 3y ¼ 9 3y ¼ 4x þ 9 4 y¼ þ3 3

The slopes are not equal and they are not negative reciprocals, so the lines are neither parallel nor perpendicular.

CHAPTER 4 Lines and Parabolas *

89

x¼4 y ¼ 2 The ﬁrst line is vertical and the second line is horizontal. These lines are perpendicular.

PRACTICE Determine if the lines are parallel, perpendicular, or neither. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

3x 8y ¼ 8 and 3x 8y ¼ 16 3x 4y ¼ 8 and 4x 3y ¼ 3 3x 5y ¼ 10 and 5x þ 3y ¼ 3 y ¼ 6 and y ¼ 4 3x 3y ¼ 2 and 4x þ 4y ¼ 1 2x y ¼ 4 and 6x 3y ¼ 9 x ¼ 1 and y ¼ 1

SOLUTIONS 1. Parallel. 3x 8y ¼ 8 8y ¼ 3x þ 8 3 y¼ x1 8 2.

4y ¼ 3x 8 3 y¼ xþ2 4

4x 3y ¼ 3 3y ¼ 4x þ 3 4 y¼ x1 3

Perpendicular. 3x 5y ¼ 10 5y ¼ 3x 10 3 y¼ xþ2 5

4.

8y ¼ 3x 16 3 y¼ xþ2 8

Neither. 3x 4y ¼ 8

3.

3x 8y ¼ 16

5x þ 3y ¼ 3 3y ¼ 5x 3 5 y¼ x1 3

Both lines are horizontal, so they are parallel.

CHAPTER 4

90 5.

Perpendicular (1 and 1 are negative reciprocals). 3x 3y ¼ 2

4x þ 4y ¼ 1

3y ¼ 3x þ 2 2 y ¼ 1x 3 2 y¼x 3 6.

4y ¼ 4x þ 1 1 y ¼ 1x þ 4 1 y ¼ x þ 4

Parallel. 2x y ¼ 4

7.

Lines and Parabolas

6x 3y ¼ 9

y ¼ 2x þ 4

3y ¼ 6x þ 9

y ¼ 2x 4

y ¼ 2x 3

One line is vertical and the other is horizontal, so these lines are perpendicular.

There is another way to ﬁnd an equation of a line when we know the slope and a point that is a little faster than using the point–slope form (y y1 ¼ mðx x1 Þ). We can put the slope and the point we know into the slope–intercept form (y ¼ mx þ b). The only unknown would then be b. EXAMPLES * The slope is 4 and the point ð1ó 2Þ is on the line. Because m ¼ 4, y ¼ mx þ b becomes y ¼ 4x þ b. We can ﬁnd b by letting x ¼ 1 and y ¼ 2 in y ¼ 4x þ b. 2 ¼ 4ð1Þ þ b 2 ¼ 4 þ b 6 ¼ b *

The equation containing ð1ó 2Þ with slope 4 is y ¼ 4x 6. The slope is 2 and the x-intercept is 3. To say that the x-intercept is 3 is the same as saying ð3ó 0Þ is a point on the line. y ¼ 2x þ b 0 ¼ 2ð3Þ þ b 6 ¼ b y ¼ 2x 6

CHAPTER 4 Lines and Parabolas PRACTICE Find the equation of the line. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

The The The The The

slope slope slope slope slope

is is is is is

3 and ð1ó 8Þ is on the line. 1 2 and ð2ó 5Þ is on the line. 49 and ð18ó 8Þ is on the line. 5 and the x-intercept is 1. 2 and the y-intercept is 6.

SOLUTIONS 1. m ¼ 3ó x ¼ 1ó y ¼ 8 y ¼ mx þ b 8 ¼ 3ð1Þ þ b 5 ¼ b y ¼ 3x 5 2.

m ¼ 12 ó x ¼ 2ó y ¼ 5 y ¼ mx þ b 1 5 ¼ ð2Þ þ b 2 5¼1þb 4¼b 1 y¼ xþ4 2

3.

m ¼ 49 ó x ¼ 18ó y ¼ 8 y ¼ mx þ b 4 8 ¼ ð18Þ þ b 9 8 ¼ 8 þ b 0¼b 4 y¼ x 9

91

CHAPTER 4

92 4.

Lines and Parabolas

m ¼ 5. To say that the x-intercept is 1 is another way of saying ð1ó 0Þ is on the line, so x ¼ 1ó y ¼ 0. y ¼ mx þ b 0 ¼ 5ð1Þ þ b 5¼b y ¼ 5x þ 5

5.

The y-intercept is 6 and m ¼ 2. There is nothing we need to do but write down the equation: y ¼ 2x þ 6.

The relationship between many pairs of variables can be described by linear equations. These variables are called linearly related. For example, if one is paid $12 per hour, the daily pay (before deductions) would be described by the equation p ¼ 12h, where p represents the daily pay, and h represents the number of hours worked for the day. The slope of this line is 12 and the p-intercept (this is like the y-intercept) is 0. We will ﬁrst use linear equations to answer such questions as, ‘‘If you were paid $60, how many hours did you work?’’ Later we will use two pairs of numbers to ﬁnd a linear equation. EXAMPLES * An electric company bills y dollars for x kilowatt hours used each month. The equation for each family’s electric bill is y ¼ 0:06x þ 20. If a family’s electric bill one month was $68, how many kilowatt hours were used? The information given in the problem is y ¼ 68 for y ¼ 0:06x þ 20. Substitute y ¼ 68 in the equation and solve for x, the number of kilowatt hours used. y ¼ 0:06x þ 20 68 ¼ 0:06x þ 20 48 ¼ 0:06x 48 ¼x 0:06 800 ¼ x The family used 800 kilowatt hours of electricity.

CHAPTER 4 Lines and Parabolas *

The relationship between degrees Celsius and Fahrenheit is F ¼ 95 C þ 32. (a) If the temperature in Fahrenheit is 86 degrees, what is the temperature in Celsius? (b) If the temperature is 20 degrees Celsius, what is the temperature on the Fahrenheit scale? (a)

Substitute F ¼ 86 in F ¼ 95 C þ 32 and solve for C. 9 F ¼ C þ 32 5 9 86 ¼ C þ 32 5 9 54 ¼ C 5 5 54 ¼ C 9 30 ¼ C

(b)

The temperature is 30 degrees Celsius. Substitute C ¼ 20 and compute F. 9 F ¼ ð20Þ þ 32 5 F ¼ 36 þ 32 ¼ 4

*

The temperature is 4 degrees Fahrenheit. For the years 1990–1999, enrollment at a small college is approximated by the equation y ¼ 75x þ 1100, where y represents the number of students enrolled and x represents the number of years after 1990. Find the approximate enrollment for the years 1990, 1996, and 1999. In what year was enrollment about 1475? Because x represents the number of years after 1990, x ¼ 0 is the year 1990; x ¼ 6 is the year 1996; and x ¼ 9 is the year 1999. (Because the equation is only good for the years 1990–1999, the only values of x we can use are x ¼ 0ó 1ó 2ó . . . ó 9.) We want to ﬁnd y for x ¼ 0ó x ¼ 6ó x ¼ 9. When x ¼ 0, y ¼ 75ð0Þ þ 1100. Enrollment for 1990 was about 1100.

93

CHAPTER 4

94

Lines and Parabolas

When x ¼ 6, y ¼ 75ð6Þ þ 1100 ¼ 1550. Enrollment for 1996 was about 1550. When x ¼ 9, y ¼ 75ð9Þ þ 1100 ¼ 1775. Enrollment for 1999 was about 1775. For the question ‘‘In what year was enrollment about 1475?’’ let y ¼ 1475 and solve for x. 1475 ¼ 75x þ 1100 375 ¼ 75x 5¼x Enrollment was about 1475 in the year 1990 þ 5 = 1995. PRACTICE 1. A saleswoman’s salary is given by the equation y ¼ 0:08x þ 15ó000, where y is her annual salary and x is her annual sales level. (a) If her annual sales level was $190,000, what was her annual salary? (b) If her annual salary was $25,080, what was her annual sales level? 2.

The relationship between degrees Celsius and degrees Fahrenheit is given by the equation C ¼ 59 ðF 32Þ. (a) What is the temperature on the Celsius scale when it is 113 degrees Fahrenheit? (b) What is the temperature on the Fahrenheit scale when it is 35 degrees Celsius?

3.

A package delivery company added vans to its ﬂeet at one of its centers between the years 1995 and 2002. The number of vans in the center’s ﬂeet is given by the equation y ¼ 10x þ 90, where y is the number of vans and x is the number of years after 1995. (a) How many vans were in the ﬂeet for the years 1995, 1999, and 2002? (b) In what year did the center have 110 vans?

SOLUTIONS 1. (a) Her annual sales level was $190,000. Let x ¼ 190ó000 in the equation y ¼ 0:08x þ 15ó000 and compute y. y ¼ 0:08ð190ó000Þ þ 15ó000 y ¼ 15ó200 þ 15ó000 ¼ 30ó200 Her annual salary was $30,200.

CHAPTER 4 Lines and Parabolas (b)

Her annual salary was $25,080. Let y ¼ 25ó080 in the equation and solve for x. 25ó080 ¼ 0:08x þ 15ó000 10ó080 ¼ 0:08x 10ó080 ¼x 0:08 126ó000 ¼ x

2.

(a)

Her annual sales level was $126,000. Substitute F ¼ 113 in C ¼ 59 ðF 32Þ. 5 C ¼ ð113 32Þ 9 5 C ¼ ð81Þ ¼ 45 9

(b)

The temperature is 45 degrees Celsius. Substitute C ¼ 35 in the equation and solve for F. 5 35 ¼ ðF 32Þ 9 5 9ð35Þ ¼ 9 ðF 32Þ 9 315 ¼ 5ðF 32Þ 315 ¼ 5F 160 475 ¼ 5F 95 ¼ F

3.

The temperature is 95 degrees Fahrenheit. (a) The year 1995 is 0 years after 1995, so x ¼ 0. Substitute x ¼ 0 in the equation y ¼ 10x þ 90 and compute y. y ¼ 10ð0Þ þ 90 y ¼ 90 The center had 90 vans in its ﬂeet in the year 1995.

95

96

CHAPTER 4

Lines and Parabolas

The year 1999 is 4 years after 1995, so x ¼ 4. y ¼ 10ð4Þ þ 90 y ¼ 40 þ 90 ¼ 130 The center had 130 vans in its ﬂeet in the year 1999. The year 2002 is 7 years after 1995, so x ¼ 7. y ¼ 10ð7Þ þ 90 y ¼ 70 þ 90 ¼ 160 The center had 160 vans in its ﬂeet in the year 2002. (b) Let y ¼ 110 in the equation and solve for x. 110 ¼ 10x þ 90 20 ¼ 10x 2¼x There were 110 vans in the ﬂeet when x ¼ 2, that is, in the year 1995+2=1997. In the last problems in this section, we will be given enough information to ﬁnd a linear equation. In the ﬁrst problem set, we will be given enough information to ﬁnd two points on the line. In the second problem set, we will be given enough information to ﬁnd a point and the slope. EXAMPLES * A company pays its entry-level sales representatives a commission that is a percentage of their monthly sales plus a certain base salary. This month, the sales representative from City A earned $5000 from sales of $35,000. The sales representative from City B earned $5300 on sales of $37,500. What percentage of monthly sales does the company pay in commission? What is its base salary? Salaries that are based on commission (with or without a base salary) are based on a linear equation. If y is the amount paid, m is the commission percentage, and x is the sales level, then the equation is y ¼ mx (without a base salary) and y ¼ mx þ b (with base salary b). What do the ordered pairs ðxó yÞ mean for this problem? The x-coordinate is a sales representative’s sales level, and the y-coordinate is his pay amount. With this in mind, we can view the sentence, ‘‘The sales representative from City A earned $5000 from sales of $35,000’’ as the ordered pair ð35ó000ó 5000Þ on the line y ¼ mx þ b. The other sales representative’s pay amount of $5300 on sales of

CHAPTER 4 Lines and Parabolas $37,500 becomes the point ð37ó500ó 5300Þ. Now that we have two points on a line, we can ﬁnd the equation of the line containing the points. m¼

5300 5000 300 ¼ ¼ 0:12 37ó500 35ó000 2500

Using m ¼ 0:12 and ð35ó000ó 5000Þ in y y1 ¼ mðx x1 Þ, we get y 5000 ¼ 0:12ðx 35ó000Þ y 5000 ¼ 0:12x 4200 y ¼ 0:12x þ 800:

*

The commission rate is 12% of sales and the monthly base rate is $800. The manager of a grocery store notices that sales of bananas are proportionate to sales of milk. On one Friday, 400 pounds of bananas are sold and 1700 gallons of milk are sold. On the following Friday, 360 pounds of bananas are sold and 1540 gallons of milk are sold. Find an equation that gives the number of gallons of milk sold in terms of the number of pounds of bananas sold. We will ﬁnd a linear equation in the form y ¼ mx þ b. For some problems, it does not matter which quantity x represents and which y represents. In this problem, it does matter because of the sentence, ‘‘Find an equation that gives the number of gallons of milk sold in terms of the number of pounds of bananas sold.’’ The equation y ¼ mx þ b gives y in terms of x. This means that y will need to represent the number of gallons of milk and x will represent the number of pounds of bananas. The ordered pairs will be (bananas, milk). Our points, then, are ð360ó 1540Þ and ð400ó 1700Þ. m¼

1700 1540 160 ¼ ¼4 400 360 40

Using m ¼ 4 and ð400ó 1700Þ in y y1 ¼ mðx x1 Þ, we get y 1700 ¼ 4ðx 400Þ y 1700 ¼ 4x 1600 y ¼ 4x þ 100

97

CHAPTER 4

98

Lines and Parabolas

What does the slope mean in these two problems? In the ﬁrst equation, y ¼ 0:12x þ 800, the slope tells us how a sales representative’s pay increases for each one-dollar increase in sales.

m¼

$0:12 increase in pay ¼ $1:00 increase in sales

In the second equation, y ¼ 4x þ 100, the slope tells us that each pound of bananas sold results in four gallons of milk sold. m¼4¼

4 4 gallons of milk ¼ 1 1 pound of bananas

PRACTICE 1. A marketing director notices that the sales level for a certain product and amount spent on television advertising are linearly related. When $6000 is spent on television advertising, sales for the product are $255,000, and when $8000 is spent on television advertising, sales for the product are $305,000. Find an equation that gives the sales level for the product in terms of the amount spent on television advertising. 2. Show that the formula C ¼ 59 ðF 32Þ gives the degrees Celsius in terms of degrees Fahrenheit. Use the fact that water freezes at 0 C and 32 F and boils at 100 C and 212 F. 3. A car rental company charges a daily fee plus a mileage fee. A businesswoman’s bill for one day was $42.55 after driving 55 miles. The bill for the next day was $36.40 after driving 40 miles. How much did it cost for each mile? What was the daily fee? SOLUTIONS 1. Because we want the sales level in terms of the amount spent on television advertising, we will let y represent the sales level and x represent the amount spent on advertising. Our points are ð6000ó 255ó000Þ and ð8000ó 305ó000Þ.

m¼

305ó000 255ó000 50ó000 ¼ ¼ 25 8000 6000 2000

CHAPTER 4 Lines and Parabolas y 255ó000 ¼ 25ðx 6000Þ y 255ó000 ¼ 25x 150ó000 y ¼ 25x þ 105ó000 2.

(Every dollar in advertising results in $25 in sales:Þ

We will treat C like y and F like x. Our points will have the form (degrees Fahrenheit, degrees Celsius), that is, ð32ó 0Þ and ð212ó 100Þ. m¼

100 0 100 5 ¼ ¼ 212 32 180 9

5 C 0 ¼ ðF 32Þ 9 5 C ¼ ðF 32Þ 9 3.

In the equation y ¼ mx þ b, we will let x represent the number of miles driven and y represent the daily cost. The ordered pair ðxó yÞ is (miles, cost). The points are ð55ó 42:55Þ and ð40ó 36:40Þ. m¼

36:40 42:55 6:15 ¼ ¼ 0:41 40 55 15

y 36:40 ¼ 0:41ðx 40Þ y 36:40 ¼ 0:41x 16:40 y ¼ 0:41x þ 20 The daily fee is $20 and each mile costs $0.41. In these last problems, we will be given one pair of numbers, which will be a point on the line, and information on the rate of change. The rate of change is the slope. EXAMPLES * A utilities company charges 4 12 cents per kilowatt hour for electricity plus a monthly base charge. Find an equation that gives the monthly costs in terms of the number of kilowatt hours of electricity used if the bill for one month for a certain family is $62.55 for 1050 kilowatt hours of electricity used. In the equation y ¼ mx þ b (where y is the cost and x is the number of kilowatt hours used), the slope is the cost per kilowatt

99

CHAPTER 4

100

Lines and Parabolas

hour of electricity used. This means that m ¼ 0:045, and a point is ð1050ó 62:55Þ. We could use either y y1 ¼ mðx x1 Þ (as before) or y ¼ mx þ b. We will use y ¼ mx þ b with y ¼ 62:55, m ¼ 0:045 and x ¼ 1050. 62:55 ¼ 0:045ð1050Þ þ b 15:30 ¼ b

*

The equation is y ¼ 0:045x þ 15:30. A recipe calls for two cups of biscuit mix and 23 cups of milk. Find a linear equation that gives the amount of milk in terms of the amount of biscuit mix. Because we need to give the milk in terms of the biscuit mix, we will let y represent the number of cups of milk and x represent the number of cups of biscuit mix. The ordered pair ðxó yÞ is (biscuit mix, milk). Also, the slope is ðchange in yÞ=ðchange in xÞ which is ðchange in milkÞ=ðchange in mixÞ. We will use the fact that if we increase the number of cups of biscuit mix by two cups, we need to increase the number of cups of milk by 23, giving us a slope of 2=3 2 2 1 1 ¼ 2¼ ¼ : 2 3 3 2 3

*

So far we have y ¼ 13 x þ b. We need more information to ﬁnd b. Although another point is not explicitly given, we can ﬁgure one out—when no biscuit mix is used, no milk is used. In other words, ð0ó 0Þ is a point on the line. This means that b, the y-intercept, is 0. The equation is y ¼ 13 x. The dosage for a certain cattle drug is 4.5 cm3 per 100 pounds of body weight. Find an equation that gives the amount of the drug in terms of a cow’s weight. We want the amount of the drug in terms of a cow’s weight, so we will let y represent the number of cubic centimeters of the drug and x represent a cow’s weight in pounds. What is the slope of our line? m¼

change in drug amount 4:5 ¼ ¼ 0:045 change in weight 100

This means that 0.045 cm3 of the drug is needed for each pound of a cow’s weight. Again, ð0ó 0Þ is a point on the line, so b ¼ 0. The equation is y ¼ 0:045x.

CHAPTER 4 Lines and Parabolas PRACTICE 1. Each unit of a product costs $1.75 to make. The total cost to produce 20,000 units one week was $41,000. Find an equation that gives the total cost in terms of the number of units produced. 2. The manager of a movie theater believes that for every 200 tickets sold, 15 buckets of popcorn are sold. Find an equation that gives the amount of buckets of popcorn sold in terms of the number of tickets sold. 3. An oﬃce manager notices that the oﬃce copier uses one container of toner for every 25 reams of paper. Find an equation that gives the amount of toner used in terms of the amount of paper used. 4. A garden hose is used to ﬁll a tall rectangular tank. The water level rises six inches every 20 minutes. If the water level was already eight inches before the water was turned on, ﬁnd an equation that gives the water level in terms of the time the hose is used. SOLUTIONS 1. Let y represent the total cost and x the number of units produced. This means that ð20ó000ó 41ó000Þ is a point on the line. Each unit costs $1.75 to produce, so the slope is 1.75. We will let x ¼ 20ó000, y ¼ 41ó000, and m ¼ 1:75 in y ¼ mx þ b. 41ó000 ¼ 1:75ð20ó000Þ þ b 6000 ¼ b

2.

The equation is y ¼ 1:75x þ 6000. ($6000 represents ﬁxed costs, costs such as rent, loan payments, salaries, etc.) Let y represent the number of buckets of popcorn sold and x represent the number of tickets sold. The slope is m¼

3.

change in popcorn sales 15 ¼ ¼ 0:075: change in tickets sold 200

Because 0 buckets of popcorn are sold when 0 tickets are sold, ð0ó 0Þ is on the line and b, the y-intercept, is 0. The equation is y ¼ 0:075x. Let y represent the number of toner containers used and x the number of reams of paper used. The slope is m¼

change in toner used 1 ¼ : change in paper used 25

101

CHAPTER 4

102

4.

Lines and Parabolas

The point ð0ó 0Þ is on the graph, so b, the y-intercept, is 0. The equation 1 is y ¼ 25 x. Let y represent the water level in inches and x the time in minutes that the hose is used. When the time is 0 minutes, the water level is 8 inches, giving us the point ð0ó 8Þ. This means that b, the y-intercept, is 8. The slope is m¼

6 inches ¼ 0:3: 20 minutes

The equation is y ¼ 0:3x þ 8.

Parabolas The graph of any quadratic equation (y ¼ ax2 þ bx þ c) will look like one of the graphs below.

Fig. 4-38.

Fig. 4-39.

CHAPTER 4 Lines and Parabolas These graphs are called parabolas. Parabolas occur in nature. To see a parabola, toss a small object up and watch its path—it will be part of a parabola. The graph of every parabola has a vertex, the point where the graph turns around. For a parabola that opens up, the vertex is the lowest point. The vertex is the highest point for a graph that opens down. When a quadratic equation is in the form y ¼ aðx hÞ2 þ k, the vertex is the point ðhó kÞ. EXAMPLES * y ¼ 2ðx 4Þ2 þ 5 a ¼ 2ó h ¼ 4ó k ¼ 5. The vertex is ð4ó 5Þ. * y ¼ ðx 2Þ2 1 a ¼ 1ó h ¼ 2ó k ¼ 1. The vertex is ð2ó 1Þ. * y ¼ 3ðx 1Þ2 þ 2 a ¼ 3ó h ¼ 1ó k ¼ 2. The vertex is ð1ó 2Þ. * y ¼ 12 ðx þ 4Þ2 þ 1 a ¼ 12 ó h ¼ 4ó k ¼ 1. The vertex is ð4ó 1Þ. * y ¼ 2x2 4 ¼ 2ðx 0Þ2 4 a ¼ 2ó h ¼ 0ó k ¼ 4. The vertex is ð0ó 4Þ. * y ¼ ðx 8Þ2 ¼ ðx 8Þ2 þ 0 a ¼ 1ó h ¼ 8ó k ¼ 0. The vertex is ð8ó 0Þ. PRACTICE Identify a and the vertex. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

y ¼ ðx 2Þ2 þ 4 y ¼ 10ðx þ 1Þ2 2 y ¼ 12 ðx þ 5Þ2 þ 4 y ¼ ðx þ 6Þ2 y ¼ x2

SOLUTIONS 1. a ¼ 1. The vertex is ð2ó 4Þ. 2. a ¼ 10. The vertex is ð1ó 2Þ. 3. a ¼ 12. The vertex is ð5ó 4Þ. 4. a ¼ 1. The vertex is ð6ó 0Þ. 5. a ¼ 1. The vertex is ð0ó 0Þ. When graphing parabolas, we will begin with the vertex. We will graph two points to the left and to the right of the vertex. One pair of points should be fairly close to the vertex to show the curving around the vertex. Another pair should be further away to show how steep the ends are. What do ‘‘fairly close’’ and ‘‘a little further away’’ mean? There is no standard answer. For

103

104

CHAPTER 4

Lines and Parabolas

some parabolas, one unit is ‘‘close’’ but for others, one unit is ‘‘far away.’’ It all depends on a. A good rule of thumb is to plot two points a units to the left and to the right of the vertex and two other points that are 2a units to the left and right of the vertex. The sign on a is also important. When a is positive, the parabola opens up (see Fig. 4-40). When a is negative, the parabola opens down (see Fig. 4-41).

Fig. 4-40.

Fig. 4-41.

We will start the T-table (Table 4-1) with ﬁve x-values. Because parabolas are symmetric (the left half is a mirror-image of the right half), the y-values Table 4-1 x

y

h 2a ha h hþa h þ 2a

k vertex

CHAPTER 4 Lines and Parabolas for h a and h þ a will be the same; and the y-values for h 2a and h þ 2a will be the same. This can save some computation. EXAMPLES * y ¼ 2ðx 4Þ2 8 * a ¼ 2ó h ¼ 4ó k ¼ 8 (Table 4-2). Table 4-2 x

y

0 2 4

8 vertex

6 8

h 2a ¼ 4 2ð2Þ ¼ 0 ha¼42¼2 hþa¼4þ2¼6 h þ 2a ¼ 4 þ 2ð2Þ ¼ 8 Compute the y-values (Table 4-3). Table 4-3 x

y

0

24

2

0

4

8

6

0

8

24

105

CHAPTER 4

106

Lines and Parabolas

x¼0

y ¼ 2ð0 4Þ2 8 ¼ 24

x¼2

y ¼ 2ð2 4Þ2 8 ¼ 0

x¼6

y ¼ 2ð6 4Þ2 8 ¼ 0

x¼8

y ¼ 2ð8 4Þ2 8 ¼ 24

Fig. 4-42.

*

2ðx 1Þ2 þ 5 a ¼ 2ó h ¼ 1ó k ¼ 5 h 2a ¼ 1 2ð2Þ ¼ 5 h a ¼ 1 ð2Þ ¼ 3 h þ a ¼ 1 þ ð2Þ ¼ 1 h þ 2a ¼ 1 þ 2ð2Þ ¼ 3 Compute the y-values (Table 4-4). x¼5

y ¼ 2ð5 1Þ2 þ 5 ¼ 27

x¼3

y ¼ 2ð3 1Þ2 þ 5 ¼ 3

x ¼ 1

y ¼ 2ð1 1Þ2 þ 5 ¼ 3

x ¼ 3

y ¼ 2ð3 1Þ2 þ 5 ¼ 27

CHAPTER 4 Lines and Parabolas Table 4-4 x

y 5

27

3

3

1

5

1

3

3

27

Fig. 4-43. *

y ¼ 12 ðx þ 4Þ2 þ 1 a ¼ 12 ó h ¼ 4ó k ¼ 1 1 ¼ 5 2 1 1 h a ¼ 4 ¼ 4 2 2 1 1 h þ a ¼ 4 þ ¼ 3 2 2 1 h þ 2a ¼ 4 þ 2 ¼ 3 2 h 2a ¼ 4 2

107

CHAPTER 4

108

Lines and Parabolas

Compute the y-values (Table 4-5). x ¼ 5 x ¼ 4

1 2

x ¼ 3

1 2

x ¼ 3

1 1 y ¼ ð5 þ 4Þ2 þ1 ¼ 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 4 þ 4 þ1 ¼ 1 y¼ 2 2 8 2 1 1 1 3 þ 4 þ1 ¼ 1 y¼ 2 2 8 1 1 y ¼ ð3 þ 4Þ2 þ1 ¼ 1 2 2 Table 4-5 x

y

5

1 12

4 12

1 18

4

1

3 12

1 18

3

1 18

Fig. 4-44.

CHAPTER 4 Lines and Parabolas PRACTICE Graph the quadratic equations. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

y ¼ ðx 2Þ2 þ 4 y ¼ ðx 3Þ2 1 y ¼ 12 ðx þ 5Þ2 þ 4 y ¼ ðx þ 6Þ2 y ¼ x2 (Square x then take the negative. For example 32 ¼ 9.)

SOLUTIONS 1. a ¼ 1ó h ¼ 2ó k ¼ 4 (Table 4-6).

Table 4-6 x

y

4

0

3

3

2

4

1

3

0

0

Fig. 4-45.

109

CHAPTER 4

110 2.

a ¼ 1ó h ¼ 3ó k ¼ 1 (Table 4-7). Table 4-7 x

y

1

3

2

0

3

1

4

0

5

3

Fig. 4-46.

3.

a ¼ 12 ó h ¼ 5ó k ¼ 4 (Table 4-8). Table 4-8 x

y

6

4 12

5 12

4 18

5

4

4 12

4 18

4

4 12

Lines and Parabolas

CHAPTER 4 Lines and Parabolas

Fig. 4-47.

4.

a ¼ 1ó h ¼ 6ó k ¼ 0 (Table 4-9). Table 4-9 x

y

8

4

7

1

6

0

5

1

4

4

Fig. 4-48.

111

CHAPTER 4

112 5.

Lines and Parabolas

a ¼ 1ó h ¼ 0ó k ¼ 0 (Table 4-10). Table 4-10 x

y 2

4

1

1

0

0

1

1

2

4

Fig. 4-49.

It might seem that y ¼ aðx hÞ2 þ k should either be y ¼ aðx þ hÞ2 þ k or y ¼ aðx hÞ2 k. The reason that the signs in front of h and k are diﬀerent is that k (the y-coordinate of the vertex) is on the same side as x. If k were on the same side as y, then the signs on h and k would be the same: y k ¼ aðx hÞ2 . Quadratic equations are normally written in the form y ¼ ax2 þ bx þ c, not y ¼ aðx hÞ2 þ k. As with circle equations, to put an equation in the ﬁrst form into one that is in the second form we will need to complete the square. Completing the square on these equations can be more of a problem. 1. 2.

Factor a from the x2 and x terms. Complete the square on the x2 and x terms.

CHAPTER 4 Lines and Parabolas 3. 4.

Compute the constant that needs to be added to c. This step is the diﬃcult part. Write the expression in the parentheses as a perfect square.

EXAMPLES * y ¼ x2 6x þ 1 Because a ¼ 1, Step 1 is not necessary. Complete the square on x2 6x. y ¼ ðx2 6x þ 9Þ þ 1 þ ? We need to balance the equation so that it is the same as the original equation. To balance ‘‘þ9’’, add ‘‘9’’ to 1. y ¼ ðx2 6x þ 9Þ þ 1 þ ð9Þ y ¼ ðx2 6x þ 9Þ 8 y ¼ ðx 3Þ2 8 *

y ¼ x2 þ 8x þ 5 Because a ¼ 1, Step 1 is not necessary. Complete the square on x2 þ 8x. y ¼ ðx2 þ 8x þ 16Þ þ 5 þ ? To balance the ‘‘þ16’’ in the parentheses, add ‘‘16’’ to 5. y ¼ ðx2 þ 8x þ 16Þ þ 5 þ ð16Þ y ¼ ðx2 þ 8x þ 16Þ 11 y ¼ ðx þ 4Þ2 11

*

y ¼ 2x2 þ 16x 1 Factor 2 from 2x2 þ 16x. We must do this step before completing the square. y ¼ 2ðx2 þ 8xÞ 1 y ¼ 2ðx2 þ 8x þ 16Þ 1 þ ? Adding ‘‘16’’ to 1 might seem to be the next step. This would not get an equivalent equation. We will simplify y ¼ 2ðx2 þ 8x þ 16Þ 1 to see what eﬀect adding 16 in the parentheses has on the equation. y ¼ 2ðx2 þ 8x þ 16Þ 1 ¼ 2x2 þ 16x þ 32 1

113

CHAPTER 4

114

Lines and Parabolas

By putting ‘‘þ16’’ in the parentheses, we are really adding 2ð16Þ ¼ 32. To balance the equation, we need to add ‘‘32’’ to 1. y ¼ 2ðx2 þ 8x þ 16Þ 1 32 y ¼ 2ðx2 þ 8x þ 16Þ 33 y ¼ 2ðx þ 4Þ2 33 When factoring fractions (or other unusual quantities) from algebraic expressions, write each term to be factored as the numerator of a fraction. The quantity to be factored will be the denominator of the fraction. Simplify this fraction. The simpliﬁed fraction is what goes inside the parentheses. EXAMPLES * Factor

1 4

from 2x 3. 2x 1 ¼ 2x ¼ 2x 4 ¼ 8x 1=4 4 3 1 ¼ 3 ¼ 3 4 ¼ 12 1=4 4 1 2x 3 ¼ ð8x 12Þ 4

*

Factor 53 from 6x2 2x þ 1. 6x2 5 3 18x2 18 ¼ 6x2 ¼ 6x2 ¼ ¼ x2 3 5 5 5=3 5 2x 5 3 6x 6 ¼ 2x ¼ 2x ¼ ¼ x 5=3 3 5 5 5 1 5 3 3 ¼1 ¼1 ¼ 5=3 3 5 5 5 18 6 3 2 2 6x 2x þ 1 ¼ x þ x 3 5 5 5

Now we can complete the square on y ¼ ax2 þ bx þ c when a is a fraction. EXAMPLES Put the following equations in the form y ¼ aðx hÞ2 þ k. *

y ¼ 12 x2 þ 3x 4

CHAPTER 4 Lines and Parabolas First we will factor

1 2

from 12 x2 þ 3x.

ð1=2Þx2 1 cancels ¼ x2 2 1=2 3x 1 ¼ 3x ¼ 3x 2 ¼ 6x 1=2 2 1 2 y ¼ ðx þ 6xÞ 4 2 Now we can complete the square. 1 y ¼ ðx2 þ 6x þ 9Þ 4 þ ? 2 By putting ‘‘þ9’’ in the parentheses, we are really adding 12 ð9Þ ¼ 92. To balance the equation, add 92 to 4. 1 2 9 y ¼ ðx þ 6x þ 9Þ 4 þ 2 2 1 17 y ¼ ðx2 þ 6x þ 9Þ 2 2 1 17 y ¼ ðx þ 3Þ2 2 2 *

y ¼ 3x2 þ 12x þ 2 First we will factor 3 from 3x2 þ 12x. 3x2 ¼ x2 3 12x ¼ 4x 3 y ¼ 3ðx2 4xÞ þ 2 We are ready to complete the square. y ¼ 3ðx2 4x þ 4Þ þ 2 þ ? By putting ‘‘þ4’’ in the parentheses, we are really adding 3ð4Þ ¼ 12. Balance this by adding 12 to 2. y ¼ 3ðx2 4x þ 4Þ þ 2 þ 12 y ¼ 3ðx2 4x þ 4Þ þ 14 y ¼ 3ðx 2Þ2 þ 14

115

CHAPTER 4

116

Lines and Parabolas

PRACTICE Put the quadratic equations in the form y ¼ aðx hÞ2 þ k. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

y ¼ x2 10x þ 6 y ¼ x2 4x þ 3 y ¼ 5x2 þ 10x þ 6 y ¼ 3x2 þ 12x 4 y ¼ 2x2 þ 4x þ 3 y ¼ 23 x2 þ 4x 2

SOLUTIONS 1. y ¼ ðx2 10x þ 25Þ þ 6 þ ð25Þ y ¼ ðx2 10x þ 25Þ 19 y ¼ ðx 5Þ2 19 2. y ¼ x2 4x þ 3 y ¼ ðx2 þ 4xÞ þ 3 y ¼ ðx2 þ 4x þ 4Þ þ 3 þ ? By putting ‘‘þ4’’ in the parentheses, we are adding ð4Þ ¼ 4. We will balance this by adding 4 to 3. y ¼ ðx2 þ 4x þ 4Þ þ 3 þ 4 y ¼ ðx2 þ 4x þ 4Þ þ 7 y ¼ ðx þ 2Þ2 þ 7 3. y ¼ 5x2 þ 10x þ 6 y ¼ 5ðx2 þ 2xÞ þ 6 y ¼ 5ðx2 þ 2x þ 1Þ þ 6 þ ?

CHAPTER 4 Lines and Parabolas By putting ‘‘þ1’’ in the parentheses, we are adding 5ð1Þ ¼ 5. Balance this by adding 5 to 6. y ¼ 5ðx2 þ 2x þ 1Þ þ 6 þ ð5Þ y ¼ 5ðx2 þ 2x þ 1Þ þ 1 y ¼ 5ðx þ 1Þ2 þ 1 4. y ¼ 3x2 þ 12x 4 y ¼ 3ðx2 þ 4xÞ 4 y ¼ 3ðx2 þ 4x þ 4Þ 4 þ ? By putting ‘‘þ4’’ inside the parentheses, we are adding 3ð4Þ ¼ 12. Balance this by adding 12 to 4. y ¼ 3ðx2 þ 4x þ 4Þ 4 þ ð12Þ y ¼ 3ðx2 þ 4x þ 4Þ 16 y ¼ 3ðx þ 2Þ2 16 5. y ¼ 2x2 þ 4x þ 3 y ¼ 2ðx2 2xÞ þ 3 y ¼ 2ðx2 2x þ 1Þ þ 3 þ ? By putting ‘‘þ1’’ inside the parentheses, we are adding 2ð1Þ ¼ 2. Balance this by adding 2 to 3. y ¼ 2ðx2 2x þ 1Þ þ 3 þ 2 y ¼ 2ðx2 2x þ 1Þ þ 5 y ¼ 2ðx 1Þ2 þ 5 6. 2 y ¼ x2 þ 4x 2 3

117

CHAPTER 4

118 Factor

2 3

Lines and Parabolas

from 23 x2 þ 4x. ð2=3Þx2 ¼ x2 2=3 4x 2 3 ¼ 4x ¼ 4x ¼ 6x 2=3 3 2 2 y ¼ ðx2 þ 6xÞ 2 3 2 y ¼ ðx2 þ 6x þ 9Þ 2 þ ? 3

By putting ‘‘þ9’’ in the parentheses, we are adding 23 ð9Þ ¼ 6. Balance this by adding 6 to 2. 2 y ¼ ðx2 þ 6x þ 9Þ 2 þ ð6Þ 3 2 y ¼ ðx2 þ 6x þ 9Þ 8 3 2 y ¼ ðx þ 3Þ2 8 3 There is a shortcut for ﬁnding the vertex of a parabola without having to put the equation in the form y ¼ aðx hÞ2 þ k. The shortcut involves a formula for h. We can compute k by putting x ¼ h in the equation. The shortcut for h comes from completing the square on y ¼ ax2 þ bx þ c. y ¼ ax2 þ bx þ c Factor a from ax2 þ bx. ax2 ¼ x2 a bx b ¼ x a a b y ¼ a x2 þ x þ c a

CHAPTER 4 Lines and Parabolas

119

Complete the square by adding ð1=2 b=aÞ2 ¼ b2 =4a2 . Putting this in the parentheses is adding aðb2 =4a2 Þ ¼ b2 =4a. Subtract this from c. ! 2 b b b2 y ¼ a x2 þ x þ 2 þ c a 4a 4a 2 b b2 þc y¼a xþ 2a 4a

h¼

b 2a

k¼c

b2 4a

It is usually easier to compute k by letting x ¼ h in the equation rather than using the above formula for k. EXAMPLES Find the vertex using h ¼ b=2a. *

y ¼ x2 þ 6x þ 4 a¼1

b¼6

h¼

b 6 ¼ ¼ 3 2a 2ð1Þ

k ¼ ð3Þ2 þ 6ð3Þ þ 4 ¼ 5

*

The vertex is ð3ó 5Þ. y ¼ 2x2 12x 7 a¼2

b ¼ 12

h¼

b ð12Þ ¼ ¼3 2a 2ð2Þ

k ¼ 2ð3Þ2 12ð3Þ 7 ¼ 25 *

The vertex is ð3ó 25Þ. y ¼ x2 þ 2x 4 b¼2

a ¼ 1ó

h¼

b 2 ¼ ¼1 2a 2ð1Þ

k ¼ ð1Þ2 þ 2ð1Þ 4 ¼ 3 The vertex is ð1ó 3Þ.

CHAPTER 4

120

Lines and Parabolas

PRACTICE Find the vertex using h ¼ b=2a. 1. 2. 3. 4.

y ¼ x2 þ 6x þ 5 y ¼ 12 x2 3x þ 4 y ¼ 4x2 6x þ 8 y ¼ x2 5x þ 3

SOLUTIONS 1. a ¼ 1ó b ¼ 6 h¼

b 6 ¼ ¼ 3 2a 2ð1Þ

k ¼ ð3Þ2 þ 6ð3Þ þ 5 ¼ 4 The vertex is ð3ó 4Þ. a ¼ 12 ó b ¼ 3 b ð3Þ 3 h¼ ¼ ¼ ¼3 2a 2 1=2 1 1 1 k ¼ ð3Þ2 3ð3Þ þ 4 ¼ 2 2 1 The vertex is ð3ó 2Þ. 3. a ¼ 4ó b ¼ 6 b ð6Þ 3 ¼ ¼ h¼ 2a 2ð4Þ 4 2 3 3 k¼4 þ8 6 4 4 9 9 23 þ8¼ ¼4 16 2 4 2.

The vertex is ð34 ó 23 4 Þ. 4. a ¼ 1ó b ¼ 5 b ð5Þ 5 ¼ ¼ 2a 2ð1Þ 2 2 5 5 k¼ 5 þ3 2 2 25 25 37 þ þ3¼ ¼ 4 2 4 h¼

The vertex is ð 52 ó

37 4 Þ.

CHAPTER 4 Lines and Parabolas

121

Chapter 4 Review 1.

Find the slope of the line containing the points ð1; 4Þ and ð3; 2Þ. d) 12 a) 2 b) 2 c) 12

2.

What is the vertex for y ¼ 2ðx 1Þ2 þ 3? a) ð2; 3Þ b) ð2; 3Þ c) ð1; 3Þ d) ð1; 3Þ

3.

What is the slope and y-intercept for the line y ¼ 25 x þ 4? a) The slope is 25, and the y-intercept is 4. b) The slope is 25, and the y-intercept is 4. c) The slope is 4, and the y-intercept is 25. d) The slope is 4, and the y-intercept is 25.

4.

Rewrite y ¼ 2x2 8x þ 5 in the form y ¼ aðx hÞ2 þ k. b) y ¼ 2ðx 2Þ2 þ 9 a) y ¼ 2ðx 4Þ2 11 c) y ¼ 2ðx 2Þ2 3 d) y ¼ 2ðx 4Þ2 þ 21

5.

Are the lines 2x 3y ¼ 9 and 2x þ 3y ¼ 6 parallel, perpendicular, or neither? a) Parallel b) Perpendicular c) Neither d) Cannot be determined

6.

What are the intercepts for y ¼ x2 2x 8? a) The x-intercept is 8, there is no y-intercept. b) The x-intercept is 4, and the y-intercept is 8. c) The x-intercepts are 4 and 2, and the y-intercept is 8. d) The x-intercepts are 4 and 2, and the y-intercept is 8.

7.

For y ¼ 34 ðx2 8x þ Þ þ 3 þ , what numbers should be put in the blanks to write the equivalent equation in the form y ¼ aðx hÞ2 þ k? a) Put 16 in the ﬁrst blank and 12 in the second blank. b) Put 16 in the ﬁrst blank and 12 in the second blank. c) Put 16 in the ﬁrst blank and 16 in the second blank. d) Put 16 in the ﬁrst blank and 16 in the second blank.

8.

Suppose the slope of a line is 23. What is the slope of a line that is perpendicular to it? a) 32 b) 32 c) 23 d) 23

CHAPTER 4

122 9. 10.

Lines and Parabolas

Find an equation of the line containing the points ð5; 1Þ and ð6; 8Þ. a) 7x y ¼ 34 b) 7x þ y ¼ 36 c) x 7y ¼ 2 d) x 7y ¼ 50 What is the vertex for y ¼ 3x2 þ 12x 4? a) ð2; 16Þ b) ð2; 32Þ c) ð4; 4Þ

d) ð4; 60Þ

11.

The equation y ¼ 0:05x þ 10 is a formula for a power company’s monthly charge for its service, where y is the monthly bill and x is the number of kilowatt hours of electricity used. How many kilowatts of electricity are used for a monthly bill to be $47.50? a) 700 b) 750 c) 800 d) 850

12.

The parabola in Fig. 4-50 is the graph of which equation? b) y ¼ ðx 1Þ2 2 a) y ¼ ðx 1Þ2 þ 2 c) y ¼ ðx þ 1Þ2 þ 2 d) y ¼ ðx þ 1Þ2 2

Fig. 4-50.

13.

Which of the following lines is perpendicular to the line x ¼ 2? a) x ¼ 12 b) y ¼ 2 c) x ¼ 2 d) y ¼ 12 x

14.

A gravy mix calls for two cups of water for each 34 cups of mix. Find an equation that gives the amount of water in terms of the amount of mix. a) y ¼ 83 x b) y ¼ 38 x c) y ¼ 32 x d) y ¼ 23 x

CHAPTER 4 Lines and Parabolas 15.

What is the equation of the line in Fig. 4-51? b) y ¼ 23 x þ 2 c) y ¼ 12 x þ 2 a) y ¼ 12 x þ 2 2 d) y ¼ 3 x þ 2

Fig. 4-51.

SOLUTIONS

1. c) 8. b) 14. a)

2. c) 3. b) 9. a) 10. a) 15. a)

4. c) 5. c) 6. d) 7. a) 11. b) 12. d) 13. b)

123

5

CHAPTER

Nonlinear Inequalities

There are times in algebra and other mathematics courses where we might need to know where a graph is above and/or below the x-axis.

Fig. 5-1.

124 Copyright © 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click here for terms of use.

CHAPTER 5 Nonlinear Inequalities For what x-values is this graph above the x-axis? Below the x-axis?

Fig. 5-2.

The graph is above the x-axis to the left of x ¼ 3 and between x ¼ 0 and x ¼ 5 (see the solid part of the graph). The graph is below the x-axis between x ¼ 3 and x ¼ 0 and to the right of x ¼ 5 (see the dashed part of the graph). When answering questions about graphs, we usually need to answer the question in interval notation. For example, to represent ‘‘to the left of x ¼ 3,’’ we write ð1ó 3Þ. To represent ‘‘between x ¼ 0 and x ¼ 5ó ’’ we write ð0ó 5Þ. EXAMPLES Determine where the following graphs are above the x-axis and where they are below the x-axis. *

Fig. 5-3.

125

CHAPTER 5

126

Nonlinear Inequalities

The graph is above the x-axis on ð1ó 12Þ (to the left of x ¼ 12) and on ð3ó 1Þ (to the right of x ¼ 3). The graph is below the x-axis on ð 12 ó 3Þ (between x ¼ 12 and x ¼ 3). *

Fig. 5-4.

The graph is above the x-axis on ð2ó 1Þ (to the right of x ¼ 2) and below the x-axis on ð1ó 2Þ (to the left of x ¼ 2). *

Fig. 5-5.

The graph is above the x-axis on ð3ó 1Þ (between x ¼ 3 and x ¼ 1) and on ð4ó 1Þ (to the right of x ¼ 4). The graph is below the x-axis on ð1ó 3Þ (to the left of x ¼ 3) and on ð1ó 4Þ (between x ¼ 1 and x ¼ 4).

CHAPTER 5 Nonlinear Inequalities *

Fig. 5-6.

The graph is never above the x-axis. The graph is below the x-axis on ð1ó 1Þ (this is interval notation for ‘‘all real numbers’’). PRACTICE Give the intervals of x where the graph is above the x-axis and below the x-axis. 1.

Fig. 5-7.

127

CHAPTER 5

128 2.

Fig. 5-8.

3.

Fig. 5-9.

4.

Fig. 5-10.

Nonlinear Inequalities

CHAPTER 5 Nonlinear Inequalities

129

SOLUTIONS 1. The graph is above the x-axis on ð3ó 1Þ. The graph is below the x-axis on ð1ó 3Þ and ð1ó 1Þ. 2. The graph is above the x-axis on ð3ó 1Þ and below the x-axis on ð1ó 3Þ. 3. The graph is above the x-axis on ð1ó 0Þ and ð2ó 1Þ. The graph is below the x-axis on ð1ó 1Þ and ð0ó 2Þ. 4. The graph is above the x-axis on ð1ó 1Þ (everywhere). The graph is never below the x-axis.

Solving Nonlinear Inequalities Solving linear inequalities is much like solving linear equations (except when multiplying or dividing by a negative number, we need to reverse the inequality symbol). Nonlinear inequalities are solved with a diﬀerent method. In order for this method to make sense, we need to look at the graphs of some nonlinear equations. Let us look at Fig. 5-5 again. The graph is above the x-axis when the y-values are positive. The graph is below the x-axis when the y-values are negative. Between any two consecutive x-intercepts (where the graph touches the x-axis) y-values are either all positive or they are all negative. To the left of the smallest x-intercept, either all the y-values are positive or they are all negative. To the right of the largest x-intercept, the y-values are either all positive or all negative. We will use these facts to solve nonlinear inequalities. For the graph in Fig. 5-5, the y-values are all negative to the left of x ¼ 3, the smallest x-intercept. The y-values are all positive between x-intercepts 3 and 1. The y-values are negative between x-intercepts 1 and 4 and are again positive to the right of x ¼ 4, the largest x-intercept. Here is an example of a nonlinear inequality. x2 2x 3 > 0

This inequality is asking the question, ‘‘For what values of x are the y-values for y ¼ x2 2x 3 positive?’’ The graph of y ¼ x2 2x 3 is shown in Fig. 5-11.

130

CHAPTER 5

Nonlinear Inequalities

Fig. 5-11.

We can see from the graph that x2 2x 3 is positive for ð1ó 1Þ (to the left of x ¼ 1) and for ð3ó 1Þ (to the right of x ¼ 3). According to the graph, the solution to x2 2x 3 > 0 is ð1ó 1Þ [ ð3ó 1Þ. Graphs are not usually used to solve nonlinear inequalities—algebra is. To use algebra to solve nonlinear inequalities, we ﬁrst need to ﬁnd the x-intercepts. Then we need to see if the y-values are positive or negative around the x-intercepts. We need to test one y-value to the left of the smallest x-intercept, one y-value between each pair of consecutive x-intercepts, and one y-value to the right of the largest x-intercept. We will ﬁnd the x-intercepts for y ¼ x2 2x 3 by setting y ¼ 0 and solving for x. 0 ¼ x2 2x 3 0 ¼ ðx 3Þðx þ 1Þ x3¼0 x¼3

xþ1¼0 x ¼ 1

The two x-intercepts are 1 and 3. Are the y-values to the left of x ¼ 1 positive or negative? We can answer this question by choosing any x-value smaller than 1. We will use x ¼ 2 here. Is the y-value for x ¼ 2 positive or negative? If it is positive, all y-values to the left of x ¼ 1 are positive. If it is negative, all y-values to the left of x ¼ 1 are negative. y ¼ ð2Þ2 2ð2Þ 3 ¼ þ5 This y-value is positive. All y-values to the left of x ¼ 1 are positive.

CHAPTER 5 Nonlinear Inequalities Are the y-values positive or negative between x ¼ 1 and x ¼ 3? We only need to check one y-value. We can choose any x-value between x ¼ 1 and x ¼ 3. We will use x ¼ 0 here. y ¼ 02 2ð0Þ 3 ¼ 3 The y-value for x ¼ 0 is negative. All the y-values between x ¼ 1 and x ¼ 3 are negative. Are the y-values positive or negative to the right of x ¼ 3? We can choose any x-value larger than 3. We will use x ¼ 4 here. y ¼ 42 2ð4Þ 3 ¼ þ5 The y-value for x ¼ 4 is positive. All y-values to the right of x ¼ 3 are positive. Values of x which have positive y-values are either smaller than 1 or larger than 3. The solution for the inequality x2 2x 3 > 0 is ð1ó 1Þ [ ð3ó 1Þ. Using a sign graph will help us to keep track of x-intervals having positive y-values and those having negative y-values. First we will draw the number line. Next we will compute the x-intercepts then put the x-intercepts on the sign graph. Then we will write a plus sign over the interval(s) having positive y-values and a minus sign over the interval(s) having negative y-values. The sign graph for the inequality x2 2x 3 > 0 looks like this.

Fig. 5-12.

Here are the steps for solving these kinds of nonlinear inequalities. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Get a zero on one side of the inequality. Find the x-intercepts. Mark the x-intercepts on a sign graph. Choose an x-value in each interval to test whether the y-value is positive or negative. Mark each interval with a plus sign or a minus sign, depending on whether the y-value for the interval is positive or negative.

131

CHAPTER 5

132 6. 7.

Nonlinear Inequalities

Look at the inequality to decide if the solution is the plus interval(s) or the minus interval(s). Write the solution in interval notation.

EXAMPLES * x2 þ 2x 8 < 0 Step 1 is not necessary because one side of the inequality is already 0. We will ﬁnd the x-intercept(s) for y ¼ x2 þ 2x 8 by setting y equal to 0 and solving for x. 0 ¼ x2 þ 2x 8 0 ¼ ðx þ 4Þðx 2Þ xþ4¼0 x ¼ 4

x2¼0 x¼2

Next we will put the x-intercepts on the sign graph.

Fig. 5-13.

We will use x ¼ 5 for the point to the left of x ¼ 4; x ¼ 0 for the point between x ¼ 4 and x ¼ 2; and x ¼ 3 for the point the right of x ¼ 2. For x ¼ 5, y ¼ ð5Þ2 þ 2ð5Þ 8 ¼ þ7. We need to put a plus sign on the sign graph to the left of 4.

Fig. 5-14.

For x ¼ 0, y ¼ 02 þ 2ð0Þ 8 ¼ 8. We need to put a minus sign on the sign graph between x ¼ 4 and x ¼ 2.

Fig. 5-15.

CHAPTER 5 Nonlinear Inequalities

133

For x ¼ 3, y ¼ 32 þ 2ð3Þ 8 ¼ þ7. We need to put a plus sign on the sign graph to the right of x ¼ 2.

Fig. 5-16.

*

The inequality reads ‘‘< 0’’ which means we want the negative y-values. The solution is the interval of numbers between x ¼ 4 and x ¼ 2: ð4ó 2Þ. x3 þ x2 2x 0 We will ﬁnd the x-intercepts by factoring y ¼ x3 þ x2 2x and setting each factor equal to 0. x3 þ x2 2x ¼ xðx2 þ x 2Þ ¼ xðx þ 2Þðx 1Þ x¼0

xþ2¼0 x ¼ 2

x1¼0 x¼1

Now we can put the x-intercepts on the graph.

Fig. 5-17.

We will use x ¼ 3 for the point to the left of x ¼ 2; x ¼ 1 for the point between x ¼ 2 and x ¼ 0; x ¼ 0:5 for the point between x ¼ 0 and x ¼ 1; and x ¼ 2 for the point to the right of x ¼ 1. For x ¼ 3, y ¼ ð3Þ3 þ ð3Þ2 2ð3Þ ¼ 12. A minus sign goes to the left of x ¼ 2. For x ¼ 1, y ¼ ð1Þ3 þ ð1Þ2 2ð1Þ ¼ þ2. A plus sign goes between x ¼ 2 and x ¼ 0.

CHAPTER 5

134

Nonlinear Inequalities

For x ¼ 0:5, y ¼ ð0:5Þ3 þ ð0:5Þ2 2ð0:5Þ ¼ 0:625. A minus sign goes between x ¼ 0 and x ¼ 1. For x ¼ 2, y ¼ 23 þ 22 2ð2Þ ¼ þ8. A plus sign goes to the right of x ¼ 1.

Fig. 5-18.

*

The inequality is ‘‘ 0’’ which means we want the positive intervals. The solution is ½2ó 0 [ ½1ó 1Þ. It seems that the signs always alternate between plus and minus signs. Signs on the sign graphs do not always alternate. ðx 3Þ2 ðx þ 2Þðx þ 1Þ < 0 ðx 3Þ2 ¼ 0 x3¼0

xþ2¼0 x ¼ 2

xþ1¼0 x ¼ 1

x¼3 For x ¼ 3, y ¼ ð3 3Þ2 ð3 þ 2Þð3 þ 1Þ ¼ þ72. We will put a plus sign to the left of x ¼ 2. For x ¼ 1:5, y ¼ ð1:5 3Þ2 ð1:5 þ 2Þð1:5 þ 1Þ ¼ 5:0625. We will put a minus sign between x ¼ 1 and x ¼ 2. For x ¼ 0, y ¼ ð0 3Þ2 ð0 þ 2Þð0 þ 1Þ ¼ þ18. We will put a plus sign between x ¼ 1 and x ¼ 3. For x ¼ 4, y ¼ ð4 3Þ2 ð4 þ 2Þð4 þ 1Þ ¼ þ30. We will put a plus sign to the right of x ¼ 3.

Fig. 5-19.

The inequality is ‘‘< 0’’ which means we want the minus interval. The solution is ð2ó 1Þ.

CHAPTER 5 Nonlinear Inequalities *

x2 þ 5x þ 9 < 3 We need to subtract 3 from each side of the inequality so that 0 is on one side. x2 þ 5x þ 6 < 0 x2 þ 5x þ 6 ¼ ðx þ 2Þðx þ 3Þ xþ2¼0

xþ3¼0

x ¼ 2

x ¼ 3

For x ¼ 4, y ¼ ð4 þ 2Þð4 þ 3Þ ¼ þ2. For x ¼ 2:5, y ¼ ð2:5 þ 2Þð2:5 þ 3Þ ¼ 0:25. For x ¼ 0, y ¼ ð0 þ 2Þð0 þ 3Þ=+6.

Fig. 5-20.

*

The solution is ð3ó 2Þ. x2 þ 1 > 0 The equality x2 þ 1 ¼ 0 has no solution, so the graph of y ¼ x2 þ 1 has no x-intercept. This means that either all y-values are positive or they are all negative. We need to check only one y-value. Choose any x-value. We will use x ¼ 0. For x ¼ 0, y ¼ 02 þ 1 ¼ þ1. Because this y-value is positive, all y-values are positive. The solution is ð1ó 1Þ.

PRACTICE Solve the inequalities. Give solutions in interval notation. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

x2 þ 3x 4 < 0 x2 x þ 6 14 x3 2x2 4x þ 8 > 0. Hint: factor by grouping. x4 13x2 þ 36 0. Hint: x4 13x2 þ 36 ¼ ðx2 4Þðx2 9Þ ¼ ðx 2Þðx þ 2Þðx 3Þðx þ 3Þ x2 þ 9 0

135

CHAPTER 5

136

Nonlinear Inequalities

SOLUTIONS 1. x2 þ 3x 4 ¼ ðx þ 4Þðx 1Þ xþ4¼0 x ¼ 4

x1¼0 x¼1

For x ¼ 5, y ¼ ð5 þ 4Þð5 1Þ ¼ 6. For x ¼ 0, y ¼ ð0 þ 4Þð0 1Þ ¼ 4. For x ¼ 2, y ¼ ð2 þ 4Þð2 1Þ ¼ 6.

Fig. 5-21.

2.

The solution is ð4ó 1Þ. First we need to add 14 to both sides of the inequality to get x2 xþ 20 0. Then x2 x þ 20 ¼ ðx2 þ x 20Þ ¼ ðx þ 5Þðx 4Þ: ðx þ 5Þ ¼ 0

x4¼0

x 5 ¼ 0

x¼4

x ¼ 5 x ¼ 5 For x ¼ 6, y ¼ ð6 þ 5Þð6 4Þ ¼ 10. For x ¼ 0, y ¼ ð0 þ 5Þð0 4Þ ¼ 20. For x ¼ 5, y ¼ ð5 þ 5Þð5 4Þ ¼ 10.

Fig. 5-22.

The solution is ½5ó 4.

CHAPTER 5 Nonlinear Inequalities

137

3. x3 2x2 4x þ 8 ¼ x2 ðx 2Þ 4ðx 2Þ ¼ ðx2 4Þðx 2Þ ¼ ðx 2Þðx þ 2Þðx 2Þ ¼ ðx 2Þ2 ðx þ 2Þ ðx 2Þ2 ¼ 0

xþ2¼0 x ¼ 2

x2¼0 x¼2

For x ¼ 3, y ¼ ð3 2Þ2 ð3 þ 2Þ ¼ 25. For x ¼ 0, y ¼ ð0 2Þ2 ð0 þ 2Þ ¼ þ8. For x ¼ 3, y ¼ ð3 2Þ2 ð3 þ 2Þ ¼ þ5.

Fig. 5-23.

4.

The solution is ð2ó 2Þ [ ð2ó 1Þ. The solution is not ð2ó 1Þ because that would imply x ¼ 2 is part of the solution (23 2ð2Þ2 4ð2Þ þ 8 ¼ 0, not ‘‘>0’’). Because the inequality is strict (not allowing equality), x ¼ 2 is not part of the solution. If the inequality had been ‘‘0’’, then x ¼ 2 would be part of the solution and the solution would be ½2ó1Þ. x4 13x2 þ 36 ¼ ðx2 4Þðx2 9Þ ¼ ðx 2Þðx þ 2Þðx 3Þðx þ 3Þ x2¼0 x¼2

xþ2¼0 x ¼ 2

x3¼0 x¼3

xþ3¼0 x ¼ 3

For x ¼ 4, y ¼ ð4 2Þð4 þ 2Þð4 3Þð4 þ 3Þ ¼ þ84. For x ¼ 2:5, y ¼ ð2:5 2Þð2:5 þ 2Þð2:5 3Þð2:5 þ 3Þ ¼ 6:1875.

CHAPTER 5

138

Nonlinear Inequalities

For x ¼ 0, y ¼ ð0 2Þð0 þ 2Þð0 3Þð0 þ 3Þ ¼ þ36. For x ¼ 2:5, y ¼ ð2:5 2Þð2:5 þ 2Þð2:5 3Þð2:5 þ 3Þ ¼ 6:1875. For x ¼ 4, y ¼ ð4 2Þð4 þ 2Þð4 3Þð4 þ 3Þ ¼ þ84.

Fig. 5-24.

5.

The solution is ð1ó 3 [ ½2ó 2 [ ½3ó 1Þ. The equation x2 þ 9 ¼ 0 has no solution. This means that the graph of y ¼ x2 þ 9 has no x-intercepts, so either all y-values are positive or they are all negative. We need to check only one y-value. Let x ¼ 0. 02 þ 9 ¼ 9 This y-value is positive, so all y-values are positive. Because the inequality is ‘‘ 0’’, we want negative y-values. There is no solution.

Graphs of equations that have variables in denominators usually have separate parts.

Fig. 5-25.

The graph of y ¼ 1=x comes in two parts, one to the left of the y-axis and one to the right of the y-axis.

CHAPTER 5 Nonlinear Inequalities For every x-value that makes the denominator zero, the graph will have a break. In y ¼ 1=x, if we let x ¼ 0, there is a zero in the denominator. To the right of the break at x ¼ 0, the y-values are positive and to the left, they are negative. A break in the graph acts like an x-intercept—the y-values can change from positive to negative (or from negative to positive). EXAMPLE The graph shown in Fig. 5-26 is the graph of the equation y¼

xþ2 : x1

Fig. 5-26.

This graph has both an x-intercept (at x ¼ 2) and a break (at x ¼ 1). The y-values are positive to the left of the x-intercept and to the right of the break. The y-values are negative between the x-intercept and the break. Solving inequalities with variables in a denominator is much like solving earlier inequalities. 1. 2. 3.

Get zero on one side of the inequality. (Sometimes this step is not necessary.) Rewrite the nonzero side of the inequality as one fraction. (Sometimes this step is not necessary.) Find the x-intercept(s) by setting the numerator equal to zero and solving for x. If the numerator does not have a variable, there will be no x-intercept. Put any x-intercepts on the sign graph.

139

CHAPTER 5

140 4.

5.

6.

Nonlinear Inequalities

Find the break(s) in the graph by setting the denominator equal to zero and solving for x. Put this x-value or values on the sign graph. If there is no x-value that makes the denominator equal to zero, then there is no break in the graph. Test an x-value in each interval on the sign graph. If the y-value is positive, put a plus sign over the interval. If the y-value is negative, put a minus sign over the interval. Look at the inequality to decide if you want the ‘‘plus’’ interval(s) or the ‘‘minus’’ interval(s). Be careful to exclude from the solution any x-value that causes a zero in a denominator.

EXAMPLES * ð2x 6Þ=ðx þ 4Þ > 0 Step 1 and Step 2 are not necessary. For Step 3, set the numerator equal to zero to ﬁnd the x-intercept(s). 2x 6 ¼ 0 2x ¼ 6 x¼3 We need to put x ¼ 3 on the sign graph. For Step 4, we will set the denominator equal to zero to ﬁnd any break in the graph. xþ4¼0 x ¼ 4 We will put x ¼ 4 on the sign graph. For Step 5, test an x-value smaller than 4 (we will use x ¼ 5), between 4 and 3 (we will use x ¼ 0), and larger than 3 (we will use x ¼ 4).

x ¼ 5

y¼

2ð5Þ 6 ¼ 16 5 þ 4

x¼0

y¼

2ð0Þ 6 3 ¼ 0þ4 2

x¼4

y¼

2ð4Þ 6 1 ¼ 4þ4 4

CHAPTER 5 Nonlinear Inequalities

Fig. 5-27.

*

The solution is ð1ó 4Þ [ ð3ó 1Þ. ð5x þ 8Þ=ðx2 þ 1Þ < 0 We will set the numerator equal to zero to ﬁnd the x-intercepts. 5x þ 8 ¼ 0 5x ¼ 8 8 x¼ 5 We need to put x ¼ 85 on the sign graph. We will set the denominator equal to zero to ﬁnd the breaks in the graph. x2 þ 1 ¼ 0 This equation has no solution, so there are no breaks in the graph. We will test x ¼ 2 for the point to the left of x ¼ 85 and x ¼ 0 for the point to the right of x ¼ 85. x ¼ 2

y¼

5ð2Þ þ 8 2 ¼ 2 5 ð2Þ þ 1

x¼0

y¼

5ð0Þ þ 8 ¼8 02 þ 1

Fig. 5-28.

*

The solution is ð1ó 85Þ. ð3 2xÞ=ðx þ 4Þ > 2 One side of the inequality needs to be zero. We need to subtract 2 from each side. 3 2x 2>0 xþ4

141

CHAPTER 5

142

Nonlinear Inequalities

Now we can write the left side as one fraction. 3 2x 3 2x xþ4 2¼ 2 xþ4 xþ4 xþ4 ¼

3 2x 2ðx þ 4Þ xþ4 xþ4

¼

3 2x 2ðx þ 4Þ xþ4

¼

3 2x 2x 8 xþ4

¼

4x 5 xþ4

The inequality can be rewritten. 4x 5 >0 xþ4 xþ4¼0

4x 5 ¼ 0 4x ¼ 5 x¼

x ¼ 4 5 4

Put x ¼ 54 and x ¼ 4 on the sign graph. We will test x ¼ 5 for the point to the left of x ¼ 4, x ¼ 2 for the point between x ¼ 4 and x ¼ 54, and x ¼ 0 for the point to the right of 54. x ¼ 5

y¼

4ð5Þ 5 ¼ 15 5 þ 4

x ¼ 2

y¼

4ð2Þ 5 3 ¼ 2 þ 4 2

x¼0

y¼

4ð0Þ 5 5 ¼ 0þ4 4

Fig. 5-29.

CHAPTER 5 Nonlinear Inequalities

*

The solution is ð4ó 1 14Þ. ðx2 þ 6x þ 8Þ=ðx 3Þ 0 x2 þ 6x þ 8 ¼ 0 ðx þ 2Þðx þ 4Þ ¼ 0 xþ2¼0

xþ4¼0

x ¼ 2

x ¼ 4

x3¼0 x¼3 Put x ¼ 2, x ¼ 4, and x ¼ 3 on the sign graph. Test an x-value smaller than 4 (we will use x ¼ 5), between 2 and 4 (we will use x ¼ 3), between 2 and 3 (we will use x ¼ 0), and larger than 3 (we will use x ¼ 4). x ¼ 5

y¼

ð5Þ2 þ 6ð5Þ þ 8 3 ¼ 5 3 8

x ¼ 3

y¼

ð3Þ2 þ 6ð3Þ þ 8 1 ¼ 3 3 6

x¼0

y¼

02 þ 6ð0Þ þ 8 8 ¼ 03 3

x¼4

y¼

42 þ 6ð4Þ þ 8 ¼ 48 43

Fig. 5-30.

The solution is not ð1ó 4 [ ½2ó 3. By using a square bracket around 3, we are implying that x ¼ 3 is a solution, but x ¼ 3 leads to a zero in the denominator. Use a parenthesis around 3 to indicate that x ¼ 3 is not part of the solution. The solution is ð1ó 4 [ ½2ó 3Þ.

143

CHAPTER 5

144

Nonlinear Inequalities

PRACTICE Solve the inequalities, giving the solutions in interval notation. 1. 2. 3.

xþ5 >0 x2 2x 8 0 a) (6, 3) c) (6, 1) [ (3, 1) x2 þ 1 > 0 a) (1, 1) [ (1, 1)

b) (1, 6) [ (3, 1) d) (1, 6) [ (1, 3) b) (1, 1)

c) (1,1)

d) No solution

c) (3, 2)

d) No solution

2

ðx þ 4Þ ðx 1Þ < 0 a) (1, 4) [ (1, 1) c) (1, 4) [ (4, 1)

b) (1, 1) d) (1, 4)

ðx 3Þ=ðx þ 2Þ < 0 a) (2, 3) b) (1, 2) [ (1, 3)

CHAPTER 5 Nonlinear Inequalities 6.

ðx 6Þ=ðx2 þ 6x þ 8Þ 0 a) [4, 2] [ [6, 1) b) (4, 2) [ (6,1) c) (4, 2) [ [6, 1) d) [4,1) [ [6, 1)

7.

ð2x 6Þ=ðx þ 1Þ < 2 a) (1, 3) b) (1, 1)

SOLUTIONS 1. b) 2. a)

3. b)

4. c)

c) (1, 1) 5. a)

147

d) (1, 1) [ (1, 3) 6. c)

7. c)

6

CHAPTER

Functions

A function is a special type of relationship where the value of one variable depends on the value of one or more other variables. Functions occur all around us. For example, a person’s weight depends on many variables— age, sex, height, food intake, activity level, and so on. An hourly worker’s pay depends on the number of hours worked. College algebra students are mostly concerned with one variable depending on another. Normally, y depends on x. An example of an equation where y depends on x is the linear equation y ¼ mx þ b. For quadratic equations of the form y ¼ ax2 þ bx þ c, y is also a function of x. We call x the independent variable and y the dependent variable. Technically, a function is a relation between two sets, A and B, where every element in A is assigned exactly one element in B. What this means for x and y is that for every x-value, there is exactly one y-value. In the function y ¼ x2 þ 2x þ 3, once an x-value is chosen, exactly one y-value follows. If x ¼ 2, then y ¼ 22 þ 2ð2Þ þ 3 ¼ 11. No matter what we put in for x, there is exactly one y-value for that particular value of x. What kind of equations are not functions? Equations that have at least one x-value that has more than one y-value. For example, in the equation

148 Copyright © 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click here for terms of use.

CHAPTER 6 Functions

149

x2 þ y2 ¼ 9, y is not a function of x. If we let x ¼ 0, then we get y2 ¼ 9, so y ¼ 3 or y ¼ 3. So x ¼ 0 has two y-values, 3 and 3. When asked to determine whether or not an equation ‘‘gives y as a function of x,’’ solve the equation for y. Then decide if there can be any x-value that has more than one y-value. EXAMPLES Determine if y is a function of x. *

y3 þ x2 3x ¼ 7 Solve for y. y3 ¼ x2 þ 3x þ 7 ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ p 3 y ¼ x2 þ 3x þ 7

*

(We only need for even roots.)

Each x-value has only one y-value, so y is a function of x. ðx þ 1Þ2 þ ðy 8Þ2 ¼ 9 We solve this equation for y. ðx þ 1Þ2 þ ðy 8Þ2 ¼ 9 ðy 8Þ2 ¼ 9 ðx þ 1Þ2 qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ y 8 ¼ 9 ðx þ 1Þ2 qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ y ¼ 8 9 ðx þ 1Þ2 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ Most x-values have two y-values, y ¼ 8 þ 9 ðx þ 1Þ2 and y ¼ ﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 8 9 ðx þ 1Þ2 . This means that y is not a function of x.

PRACTICE Determine if y is a function of x. 1. 2. 3.

x2 þ ðy 3Þ2 ¼ 16 x2 2y ¼ 4 jyj ¼ x

SOLUTIONS 1. x2 þ ðy 3Þ2 ¼ 16 ðy 3Þ2 ¼ 16 x2 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ y 3 ¼ 16 x2 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ y ¼ 3 16 x2

CHAPTER 6 Functions

150

Therefore y is not paﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃfunction of x. To see this, let x ¼ 0: y ¼ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 3 16 02 ¼ 3 16 or y ¼ 3 þ 4 ¼ 7, and y ¼ 3 4 ¼ 1. 2. x2 2y ¼ 4 2y ¼ 4 x2 4 x2 y¼ 2 3.

Therefore y is a function of x. In the equation jyj ¼ x, y is not a function of x because every positive x-value has two y-values. For example, if x ¼ 3, jyj ¼ 3 has the solutions y ¼ 3 and y ¼ 3.

Domain and Range When y is a function of x, the domain of a function is the collection of all possible values for x. The range is the collection of all y-values. When asked to ﬁnd the domain of a function, think in terms of what can and cannot be done. For now, keep in mind that we cannot divide by 0 and we cannot take an even root of a negative number. For example, in the function y ¼ 1=x we cannot let x ¼ 0, so 0 is not in the domain of this function. The domain is the set of all nonzero real numbers. We might also say that the domain is x 6¼ 0. When asked to ﬁnd the domain of a function that has x in one or more denominators, we need to set each denominator (that has x in it) equal to zero and solve for x. The domain will not include these numbers. EXAMPLES Find the domain for the following functions. Give the domain in interval notation. *

y ¼ 2x=ðx 4Þ Because the denominator has an x in it, we will set it equal to zero and solve for x. The solution to x 4 ¼ 0 is x ¼ 4. The domain is all real numbers except 4. The interval notation is ð1ó 4Þ [ ð4ó 1Þ.

CHAPTER 6 Functions *

151

y ¼ ð2x þ 5Þ=ðx2 x 6Þ ¼ ð2x þ 5Þ=ðx 3Þðx þ 2Þ x3¼0

xþ2¼0

x¼3

x ¼ 2

The domain is all real numbers except 2 and 3. The interval notation for x 6¼ 2ó 3 is ð1ó 2Þ [ ð2ó 3Þ [ ð3ó 1Þ. *

*

y ¼ ðx2 þ x 8Þ=ðx2 þ 1Þ Because x2 þ 1 ¼ 0 has no real solution, we can let x be any real number. This means that the domain is all real numbers. The interval notation for all real numbers is ð1ó 1Þ. y ¼ ð3=ðx2 4ÞÞ þ 5 x2 4 ¼ 0 x2 ¼ 4 x ¼ 2 The domain is all real numbers except 2 and 2: ð1ó 2Þ [ ð2ó 2Þ [ ð2ó 1Þ.

PRACTICE Find the domain for the following functions. Give your solutions in interval notation. 1. 2. 3. 4.

x2 3x þ 5 xþ6 4 y¼ 2 þ 12x x þ 2x 8 6x y¼ 2 4x þ 1 1 x y ¼ 3x 6 þ þ x xþ5 y¼

SOLUTIONS 1. The solution to x þ 6 ¼ 0 is x ¼ 6. The domain is all real numbers except 6: ð1ó 6Þ [ ð6ó 1Þ.

CHAPTER 6 Functions

152 2.

Solve x2 þ 2x 8 ¼ 0 x2 þ 2x 8 ¼ ðx þ 4Þðx 2Þ xþ4¼0

x2¼0 x¼2

x ¼ 4

3

The domain is all real numbers except 4 and 2: ð1ó 4Þ [ ð4ó 2Þ [ ð2ó 1Þ. Solve 4x2 þ 1 ¼ 0 4x2 þ 1 ¼ 0 1 4 rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 1 x¼ 4

x2 ¼

4

! rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 1 is not a real number 4

There are no real solutions to 4x2 þ 1 ¼ 0, so the domain is all real numbers: ð1ó 1Þ. Solve x ¼ 0 and x þ 5 ¼ 0 x¼0

xþ5¼0 x ¼ 5

The domain is all real numbers except 0 and 5: ð1ó 5Þ [ ð5ó 0Þ [ ð0ó 1Þ. Functions that have a variable under an even root also might have limited domains. We can ﬁnd the domain of these functions by setting the expression under the root sign greater than or equal to zero and solving the inequality. EXAMPLES Find the domain. Give your answers in interval notation. pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ * y¼ x6 x60 x6 *

The domain is x 6: ½6ó 1Þ. pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ y ¼ 16 4x 16 4x 0 4x 16 x4 The domain is x 4: ð1ó 4.

CHAPTER 6 Functions *

y¼

153

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ p 4 x2 3x 4

x2 3x 4 0

becomes ðx 4Þðx þ 1Þ 0

x4¼0 x¼4

xþ1¼0 x ¼ 1

Fig. 6-1.

*

Because the inequality is ‘‘,’’ we want the þ intervals. The domain is ‘‘x p1 or x 4’’: ð1ó 1 [ ½4ó 1Þ. ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 4 2 y¼ x þ3 x2 þ 3 0

*

The inequality x2 þ 3 0 is true for all real numbers (since x2 0 for all x), making the domain all real numbers: ð1ó 1Þ. pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ y ¼ 3 5x 4 Because we can take odd roots of negative numbers, the domain for this function is all real numbers: ð1ó 1Þ.

PRACTICE Find the domain, expressing the answer in interval notation. pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 1. y ¼ 6x 8 ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ p 5 2. y ¼ p 4x þ 9 ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2 þ 5x þ 6 3. y ¼ px ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 6 2 4. y ¼ x þ 1 SOLUTIONS 1. 6x 8 0 8 4 x ¼ 6 3 2. 3.

The domain is x 43: ½43 ó 1Þ. Because the ﬁfth root is odd, the domain is all real numbers: ð1ó 1Þ. x2 þ 5x þ 6 0 becomes ðx þ 2Þðx þ 3Þ 0

CHAPTER 6 Functions

154 xþ2¼0 x ¼ 2

xþ3¼0 x ¼ 3

The sign graph is shown in Fig. 6-2.

Fig. 6-2.

4.

The domain is ð1ó 3 [ ½2ó 1Þ. Because x2 þ 1 0 is true for all real numbers, the domain is all real numbers: ð1ó 1Þ.

Some functions are combinations of diﬀerent kinds of functions. The domain of a combination of two or more kinds of functions is the set of all x-values that are possible for each part. The function pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ xþ4 y¼ xþ3 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ is made up of the parts x þ 4 and 1=ðx þ 3Þ. For x þ 4, we need x 4. For 1=ðx þ 3Þ, we need x 6¼ 3.

Fig. 6-3.

As we can see from the shaded region in Fig. 6-3, the domain for the function is ½4ó 3Þ [ ð3ó 1Þ. EXAMPLE Find the domain for the function. ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ p 4 * y ¼ x= x 7 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ Because 4 x 7 is in the denominator, 4 x 7 cannot be zero. Because x 7 is under an even root, it cannot be negative. Putting these two together means that x 7 > 0 (instead of x 7 0). The domain of this function is x > 7: ð7ó 1Þ. PRACTICE Find the domain for the functions. Give your solutions in interval notation. pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2x þ 5 1. y ¼ x6

CHAPTER 6 Functions 2. 3. 4.

1 y ¼ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 3 2x p ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 4 x2 y¼ 2 x x 12 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ y ¼ x2 þ 3x 18 þ

155

1 x5

SOLUTIONS 1. 2x þ 5 0

and

x

x 6 6¼ 0

5 2

x 6¼ 6

Fig. 6-4.

2.

The domain is ½ 52 ó 6Þ [ ð6ó 1Þ. 3 2x > 0 3 x< 2

3.

The domain is ð1ó 32Þ. x20

x2 x 12 6¼ 0

and

x2

ðx 4Þðx þ 3Þ 6¼ 0 x 4 6¼ 0 x 6¼ 4

x þ 3 6¼ 0 and x 6¼ 3

Fig. 6-5.

The domain is ½2ó 4Þ [ ð4ó 1Þ. (Because x 2, x ¼ 3 is not in the domain, anyway.) 4. x2 þ 3x 18 0 ðx þ 6Þðx 3Þ 0

and x 5 6¼ 0 x 6¼ 5

CHAPTER 6 Functions

156

Fig. 6-6.

The domain is ð1ó 6 [ ½3ó 5Þ [ ð5ó 1Þ.

Evaluating Functions Functions are often given letter names. The most common name is ‘‘f ðxÞ.’’ Instead of writing y ¼ 2x þ 1, we write f ðxÞ ¼ 2x þ 1. Usually y and f ðxÞ are the same. The notation ‘‘f ðxÞ’’ means ‘‘the function f evaluated at x.’’ Evaluating a function at a quantity means to substitute the quantity for x. If the function is f ðxÞ ¼ 2x þ 1, then to evaluate the function at 3 means to ﬁnd the y-value for x ¼ 3. Sometimes you might be asked to ‘‘ﬁnd f at 3,’’ ‘‘evaluate f ð3Þ,’’or ‘‘let x ¼ 3 in the equation.’’ EXAMPLES Evaluate the functions at the given values. *

Find f ð1Þ, f ð2Þ, and f ð0Þ for f ðxÞ ¼ 3x2 þ 4. We need to substitute the number in the parentheses for x. f ð1Þ ¼ 3ð1Þ2 þ 4 ¼ 3ð1Þ þ 4 ¼ 7 f ð2Þ ¼ 3ð2Þ2 þ 4 ¼ 3ð4Þ þ 4 ¼ 16 f ð0Þ ¼ 3ð0Þ2 þ 4 ¼ 3ð0Þ þ 4 ¼ 4

*

Find f ð4Þ, f ð10Þ, and f ð1Þ for f ðxÞ ¼ ð6x þ 5Þ=ðx2 þ 2Þ. f ð4Þ ¼

6ð4Þ þ 5 24 þ 5 19 ¼ ¼ 16 þ 2 18 ð4Þ2 þ 2

f ð10Þ ¼

6ð10Þ þ 5 60 þ 5 65 ¼ ¼ 2 100 þ 2 102 10 þ 2

f ð1Þ ¼

6ð1Þ þ 5 6 þ 5 11 ¼ ¼ 1þ2 3 12 þ 2

CHAPTER 6 Functions *

157

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ Find gð0Þ, gð1Þ, and gð6Þ for gðtÞ ¼ 3 t. (Treat the variable t like the variable x.) pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ gð0Þ ¼ 3 0 ¼ 3 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ gð1Þ ¼ 3 1 ¼ 2 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ gð6Þ ¼ 3 ð6Þ ¼ 9 ¼ 3

Functions that have no variable (other than y, f ðxÞ, or gðtÞ, etc.) are called constant functions. The y-values do not change. No matter what x is, the y-value (or functional value) stays the same. EXAMPLE * Evaluate f ðxÞ ¼ 10 at x ¼ 3, x ¼ 8, and x ¼ p. No matter what x is, f ðxÞ ¼ 10. f ð3Þ ¼ 10

f ð8Þ ¼ 10

f ðpÞ ¼ 10

PRACTICE 1. Find f ð4Þ, f ð6Þ, and f ð0Þ for f ðxÞ ¼ 3x 2. pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2. Find f ð10Þ, f ð6Þ, and f ðp23 Þ for f ðxÞ ¼ 17. 3. Find hð0Þ, hð5Þ, and hð2Þ for hðtÞ ¼ ð2t þ 4Þ=ðt2 7Þ. pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 4. Find f ð0Þ and f ð 12Þ for f ðxÞ ¼ 2x þ 1. SOLUTIONS 1. f ð4Þ ¼ 3ð4Þ 2 ¼ 10 f ð6Þ ¼ 3ð6Þ 2 ¼ 20 f ð0Þ ¼ 3ð0Þ 2 ¼ 2 2. pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 17 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ f ð6Þ ¼ 17 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ f ðp23 Þ ¼ 17

f ð10Þ ¼

CHAPTER 6 Functions

158 3.

2ð0Þ þ 4 4 ¼ 2 7 0 7 2ð5Þ þ 4 14 7 ¼ hð5Þ ¼ 2 ¼ 18 9 5 7 2ð2Þ þ 4 0 hð2Þ ¼ ¼0 ¼ 2 ð2Þ 7 3 hð0Þ ¼

4. pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ f ð0Þ ¼ 2ð0Þ þ 1 ¼ 1 ¼ 1 sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ 1 1 f ¼ 2 þ1¼ 0¼0 2 2

Piecewise Functions Piecewise-deﬁned functions come in two parts. One part is an interval for x, the other part is the formula for computing y. EXAMPLES x 4ó if x < 1; * f ðxÞ ¼ 2x þ 5 if x 1 This function is telling us that for x-values smaller than 1, the y-values are computed using x 4. For x-values greater than or equal to 1, the y-values are computed using 2x þ 5. When asked to evaluate f ðnumberÞ, we ﬁrst need to decide what interval of x the number is in, then compute the y-value using the formula to the left of the interval. We will evaluate this function at x ¼ 6, x ¼ 0, x ¼ 2, and x ¼ 10. f ð6Þ: Does x ¼ 6 belong to the interval x < 1 or to x 1? Since 6 1, we will use 2x þ 5 to compute y. f ð6Þ ¼ 2ð6Þ þ 5 ¼ 17 f ð0Þ: Does x ¼ 0 belong to the interval x < 1 or to x 1? Since 0 < 1, we will use x 4 to compute y. f ð0Þ ¼ 0 4 ¼ 4

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159

f ð2Þ: Does x ¼ 2 belong to the interval x < 1 or to x 1? Since 2 < 1, we will use x 4 to compute y. f ð2Þ ¼ 2 4 ¼ 6 f ð10Þ: Does x ¼ 10 belong to the interval x < 1 or to x 1? Since 10 1, we will use 2x þ 5 to compute y. f ð10Þ ¼ 2ð10Þ þ 5 ¼ 25 *

Evaluate f ð4Þ, f ð0Þ, f ð6Þ, and f ð2Þ. 8 2 if x < 2; > <x f ðxÞ ¼ 4x þ 8 if 2 x < 3; > : 16 if x 3 f ð4Þ: Since x ¼ 4 belongs to the interval x < 2, we will use x2 to compute y. f ð4Þ ¼ ð4Þ2 ¼ 16 f ð0Þ: Since x ¼ 0 belongs to the interval 2 x < 3, we will use 4x þ 8 to compute y. f ð0Þ ¼ 4ð0Þ þ 8 ¼ 8 f ð6Þ: Since x ¼ 6 belongs to the interval x 3, the y-value is 16. f ð6Þ ¼ 16 f ð2Þ: Since x ¼ 2 belongs to the interval 2 x < 3, we will use 4x þ 8 to compute y. f ð2Þ ¼ 4ð2Þ þ 8 ¼ 0

PRACTICE 1. Find f ð0Þó f ð1Þó f ð7Þ, and f ð6Þ. 2 x 2x if x < 4; f ðxÞ ¼ xþ5 if x 4 2.

Find f ð4Þó f ð3Þó f ð1Þ, and f ð1Þ. 8 2 > < 3x þ 2x if x 1; f ðxÞ ¼ x þ 4 if 1 < x 1; > : 6x if x > 1

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160 3.

Find f ð3Þó f ð2Þ, and f ð0Þ. f ðxÞ ¼

4.

0 if x < 0; 1 if x 0

Find f ð3Þó f ð0Þó f ð4Þó f ð2Þ, and f ð1Þ. 8 if x < 1; < 2 f ðxÞ ¼ 3x 4 if 1 x < 3; : 2 x 2x þ 2 if x 3

SOLUTIONS 1. f ð0Þ ¼ 0 þ 5 ¼ 5

f ð1Þ ¼ 1 þ 5 ¼ 4

f ð7Þ ¼ 7 þ 5 ¼ 12

f ð6Þ ¼ ð6Þ2 2ð2Þ ¼ 40

2. f ð4Þ ¼ 3ð4Þ2 þ 2ð4Þ ¼ 40

f ð3Þ ¼ 6ð3Þ ¼ 18

f ð1Þ ¼ 3ð1Þ2 þ 2ð1Þ ¼ 1

f ð1Þ ¼ 1 þ 4 ¼ 5

3. f ð3Þ ¼ 1

f ð2Þ ¼ 0

f ð0Þ ¼ 1

4. f ð3Þ ¼ 32 2ð3Þ þ 2 ¼ 5 f ð4Þ ¼ 2

f ð0Þ ¼ 2 f ð2Þ ¼ 3ð2Þ 4 ¼ 2

f ð1Þ ¼ 3ð1Þ 4 ¼ 1

More Evaluating Functions Functions can be evaluated at quantities other than numbers, even at other functions. Keep in mind that evaluating a function means to substitute whatever is in the parentheses for the variable, even if what is in the parentheses is another variable. The function f ðxÞ ¼ 2x þ 1 says, ‘‘Double the quantity in

CHAPTER 6 Functions the parentheses, then add 1.’’ Suppose we are asked to ﬁnd f ðbÞ. We need to substitute b for x in the equation, that is, double b then add 1. f ðbÞ ¼ 2b þ 1 Similarly f ðv2 Þ ¼ 2v2 þ 1 and f ða þ bÞ ¼ 2ða þ bÞ þ 1 ¼ 2a þ 2b þ 1. EXAMPLES * Find f ðaÞó f ð2aÞ, and f ða þ 1Þ for f ðxÞ ¼ x2 þ 3x þ 2. f ðaÞ ¼ a2 þ 3a þ 2 f ð2aÞ ¼ ð2aÞ2 þ 3ð2aÞ þ 2 ¼ 4a2 þ 6a þ 2 f ða þ 1Þ ¼ ða þ 1Þ2 þ 3ða þ 1Þ þ 2 ¼ ða þ 1Þða þ 1Þ þ 3ða þ 1Þ þ 2 ¼ a2 þ 2a þ 1 þ 3a þ 3 þ 2 ¼ a2 þ 5a þ 6 *

Find f ðuÞó f ð3uÞó f ðu vÞ, and f ðu2 Þ for f ðxÞ ¼ ð6x 1Þ=ðx2 þ 3Þ. 6u 1 u2 þ 3 6ð3uÞ 1 18u 1 f ð3uÞ ¼ ¼ ð3uÞ2 þ 3 9u2 þ 3 f ðuÞ ¼

f ðu vÞ ¼ f ðu2 Þ ¼ *

6ðu vÞ 1 6u 6v 1 6u 6v 1 ¼ ¼ 2 2 ðu vÞ þ 3 ðu vÞðu vÞ þ 3 u 2uv þ v2 þ 3 6u2 1 6u2 1 ¼ u4 þ 3 ðu2 Þ2 þ 3

Find f ðaÞó f ða þ hÞó f ð1=aÞ, and f ðxÞ for f ðxÞ ¼ 1=ðx 1Þ 1 a1 1 1 f ða þ hÞ ¼ ¼ ða þ hÞ 1 a þ h 1 1 1 1 1 ¼ ¼ ¼ f a ð1=aÞ 1 ð1=aÞ ða=aÞ ð1 aÞ=a f ðaÞ ¼

1a a a ¼1 ¼ a 1a 1a 1 1 1 f ðxÞ ¼ or ¼ x 1 ðx þ 1Þ xþ1 ¼1

161

CHAPTER 6 Functions

162 *

Find gðuÞó gðu2 þ vÞ, and gð3u 1Þ for gðtÞ ¼ 12. Because g is a constant function, gðtÞ ¼ 12 no matter what is in the parentheses. gðuÞ ¼ 12 2

gðu þ vÞ ¼ 12 gð3u 1Þ ¼ 12 PRACTICE 1. Find f ðaÞó f ð2aÞó f ða2 Þ, and f ða þ hÞ for f ðxÞ ¼ 3x 8. 2. Find gðaÞó gða þ 1Þó gðaÞ, and gða þ hÞ for gðtÞ ¼ 7. 3. Find f ðuÞó f ðuvÞó f ðaÞ, and f ða þ hÞ for f ðxÞ ¼ 2x2 x þ 1. 4. Find f ðtÞó f ðaÞó f ða þ hÞ, and f ð1=aÞ for f ðtÞ ¼ ð3 tÞ=t. 5. Find f ðxÞó f ð1=xÞó f ðaÞ, and f ða þ hÞ for f ðxÞ ¼ ð4 xÞ=ð1 2xÞ. SOLUTIONS 1. f ðaÞ ¼ 3a 8 f ð2aÞ ¼ 3ð2aÞ 8 ¼ 6a 8 f ða2 Þ ¼ 3a2 8 f ða þ hÞ ¼ 3ða þ hÞ 8 ¼ 3a þ 3h 8 2. gðaÞ ¼ 7 gða þ 1Þ ¼ 7 gðaÞ ¼ 7 gða þ hÞ ¼ 7 3. f ðuÞ ¼ 2u2 u þ 1 f ðuvÞ ¼ 2ðuvÞ2 uv þ 1 ¼ 2u2 v2 uv þ 1 f ðaÞ ¼ 2a2 a þ 1 f ða þ hÞ ¼ 2ða þ hÞ2 ða þ hÞ þ 1 ¼ 2ða þ hÞða þ hÞ ða þ hÞ þ 1 ¼ 2ða2 þ 2ah þ h2 Þ a h þ 1 ¼ 2a2 þ 4ah þ 2h2 a h þ 1

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163

4. 3 ðtÞ 3 þ t 3þt ¼ or t t t 3a f ðaÞ ¼ a 3 ða þ hÞ 3 a h ¼ f ða þ hÞ ¼ aþh aþh 1 3 1=a ð3a=aÞ ð1=aÞ ¼ f ¼ a 1=a 1=a f ðtÞ ¼

¼

ð3a 1Þ=a 3a 1 1 3a 1 a ¼ ¼ ¼ 3a 1 1=a a a a 1

5. f ðxÞ ¼ f

4 ðxÞ 4þx ¼ 1 2ðxÞ 1 þ 2x

1 4 ð1=xÞ ð4x=xÞ ð1=xÞ ð4x 1Þ=x ¼ ¼ ¼ x 1 2ð1=xÞ 1 ð2=xÞ ðx=xÞ ð2=xÞ ¼

ð4x 1Þ=x 4x 1 x 2 4x 1 x 4x 1 ¼ ¼ ¼ ðx 2Þ=x x x x x2 x2

4a 1 2a 4 ða þ hÞ 4ah f ða þ hÞ ¼ ¼ 1 2ða þ hÞ 1 2a 2h f ðaÞ ¼

Newton’s Quotient A very important expression in mathematics is Newton’s quotient, sometimes written as f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞ ó h where f is some function. In fact, Newton’s quotient is the basis for differential calculus. Algebra students work with Newton’s quotient so that

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164

when (and if ) they study calculus, they do not struggle with complicated algebra. Evaluating Newton’s quotient is really not much more than function evaluation. First, we need to ﬁnd f ðaÞ and f ða þ hÞ for the function given to us. Second, we need to perform the subtraction f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞ and simplify. Third, we need to divide this by h and simplify. The previous practice problems gave us experience in evaluating f ðaÞ and f ða þ hÞ. Now we will practice ﬁnding f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞ. EXAMPLES Find f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞ for the functions. *

f ðxÞ ¼ 3x þ 5. f ðaÞ ¼ 3a þ 5

and f ða þ hÞ ¼ 3ða þ hÞ þ 5 ¼ 3a þ 3h þ 5

f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞ ¼ 3a þ 3h þ 5 ð3a þ 5Þ ¼ 3a þ 3h þ 5 3a 5 ¼ 3h *

f ðtÞ ¼ t2 þ 1 f ðaÞ ¼ a2 þ 1

and f ða þ hÞ ¼ ða þ hÞ2 þ 1 ¼ a2 þ 2ah þ h2 þ 1

f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞ ¼ a2 þ 2ah þ h2 þ 1 ða2 þ 1Þ ¼ a2 þ 2ah þ h2 þ 1 a2 1 ¼ 2ah þ h2 *

f ðxÞ ¼ 6 f ðaÞ ¼ 6

and f ða þ hÞ ¼ 6

f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞ ¼ 6 6 ¼ 0 *

f ðtÞ ¼

1 tþ3 f ðaÞ ¼

1 aþ3

and f ða þ hÞ ¼

1 aþhþ3

CHAPTER 6 Functions f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞ ¼

165

1 1 aþhþ3 aþ3

¼

aþ3 1 aþhþ3 1 aþ3 aþhþ3 aþhþ3 aþ3

¼

a þ 3 ða þ h þ 3Þ ða þ h þ 3Þða þ 3Þ

¼

aþ3ah3 h ¼ ða þ h þ 3Þða þ 3Þ ða þ h þ 3Þða þ 3Þ

PRACTICE Find f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞ for the functions. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

f ðxÞ ¼ 3x 4 f ðxÞ ¼ x2 þ 5 f ðxÞ ¼ x2 3x 6 f ðtÞ ¼ 19 f ðtÞ ¼ 1=t

SOLUTIONS 1. f ða þ hÞ ¼ 3ða þ hÞ 4

and f ðaÞ ¼ 3a 4

f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞ ¼ 3ða þ hÞ 4 ð3a 4Þ ¼ 3a þ 3h 4 3a þ 4 ¼ 3h 2.

f ða þ hÞ ¼ ða þ hÞ2 þ 5 and f ðaÞ ¼ a2 þ 5 f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞ ¼ ða þ hÞ2 þ 5 ða2 þ 5Þ ¼ a2 þ 2ah þ h2 þ 5 a2 5 ¼ 2ah þ h2

3.

f ða þ hÞ ¼ ða þ hÞ2 3ða þ hÞ 6 and f ðaÞ ¼ a2 3a 6 f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞ ¼ ða þ hÞ2 3ða þ hÞ 6 ða2 3a 6Þ ¼ a2 þ 2ah þ h2 3a 3h 6 a2 þ 3a þ 6 ¼ 2ah þ h2 3h

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166 4.

f ða þ hÞ ¼ 19 and f ðaÞ ¼ 19 f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞ ¼ 19 ð19Þ ¼ 19 þ 19 ¼ 0

5.

1 a 1 1 f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞ ¼ aþh a

f ða þ hÞ ¼

1 aþh

and f ðaÞ ¼

a 1 aþh 1 ¼ a aþh aþh a ¼

a aþh a ða þ hÞ ¼ aða þ hÞ aða þ hÞ aða þ hÞ

¼

aah h ¼ aða þ hÞ aða þ hÞ

The only steps remaining in evaluating Newton’s quotient is to divide the diﬀerence f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞ by h. The following examples and practice problems are from the previous section. EXAMPLES Evaluate ð f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞÞ=h for the functions. *

f ðxÞ ¼ 3x þ 5. We found that f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞ ¼ 3h. f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞ 3h ¼ ¼3 h h

*

f ðtÞ ¼ t2 þ 1. We found that f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞ ¼ 2ah þ h2 . f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞ 2ah þ h2 ¼ ¼ 2a þ h h h

*

f ðxÞ ¼ 6. We found that f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞ ¼ 0. f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞ 0 ¼ ¼0 h h

CHAPTER 6 Functions *

f ðtÞ ¼ 1=ðt þ 3Þ We found that f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞ ¼ h=ðða þ h þ 3Þða þ 3ÞÞ. f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞ h=ðða þ h þ 3Þða þ 3ÞÞ ¼ h h h h 1 h¼ ¼ ða þ h þ 3Þða þ 3Þ ða þ h þ 3Þða þ 3Þ h ¼

1 ða þ h þ 3Þða þ 3Þ

PRACTICE Evaluate ð f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞÞ=h for the functions. The first five functions are the same as in the previous practice problems. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

f ðxÞ ¼ 3x 4 f ðxÞ ¼ x2 þ 5 f ðxÞ ¼ x2 3x 6 f ðtÞ ¼ 19 f ðtÞ ¼ 1=t f ðxÞ ¼ 3x2 5x þ 2

SOLUTIONS 1. We found that f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞ ¼ 3h. f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞ 3h ¼ ¼3 h h 2.

We found that f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞ ¼ 2ah þ h2 . f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞ 2ah þ h2 hð2a þ hÞ ¼ ¼ 2a þ h ¼ h h h

3.

We found that f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞ ¼ 2ah þ h2 3h. f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞ 2ah þ h2 3h hð2a þ h 3Þ ¼ ¼ ¼ 2a þ h 3 h h h

4.

We found that f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞ ¼ 0. f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞ 0 ¼ ¼0 h h

167

CHAPTER 6 Functions

168 5.

We found that f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞ ¼ h=ðaða þ hÞÞ f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞ h=ðaða þ hÞÞ h ¼ ¼ h h h aða þ hÞ h 1 1 ¼ ¼ aða þ hÞ h aða þ hÞ

6. f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞ 3ða þ hÞ2 5ða þ hÞ þ 2 ð3a2 5a þ 2Þ ¼ h h 3a2 þ 6ah þ 3h2 5a 5h þ 2 3a2 þ 5a 2 ¼ h ¼

6ah þ 3h2 5h hð6a þ 3h 5Þ ¼ h h

¼ 6a þ 3h 5 Newton’s quotient is really nothing more than the slope of the line containing the two points ðaó f ðaÞÞ and ða þ hó f ða þ hÞÞ. Remember the slope formula for the line containing the points ðx1 ó y1 Þ and ðx2 ó y2 Þ is m¼

y2 y1 : x2 x1

In Newton’s quotient, x1 ¼ aó y1 ¼ f ðaÞó x2 ¼ a þ hó y2 ¼ f ða þ hÞ. m¼

y2 y1 f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞ f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞ ¼ ¼ aþha h x2 x1

Functions and Their Graphs Reading graphs, sketching graphs by hand, and sketching graphs using graphing calculators are all important in today’s algebra courses. We will concentrate on reading graphs in this section. A graph can give us a great deal of information about its equation. First, it can tell us if the graph is the graph of a function. Remember, if y is a function of x, then each x-value has exactly one y-value. What if we have a graph where an x-value has two or more y-values? A vertical line through that particular x-value would touch the graph in more than one point.

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169

For example, a vertical line would touch the graph at both ð4ó 2Þ and ð4ó 2) in Fig. 6-7.

Fig. 6-7.

We can tell whether or not a graph is the graph of a function if any vertical line touches the graph in more than one point. If a vertical line touches the graph in more than one point, then the graph is not the graph of a function. If every vertical line touches the graph in one point or not at all, then the graph is the graph of a function. This is called the vertical line test. The graphs in Figs. 6-8 and 6-9 are graphs of functions.

Fig. 6-8.

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170

Fig. 6-9.

PRACTICE Use the vertical line test to determine which of the graphs below are graphs of functions. 1.

Fig. 6-10.

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171

2.

Fig. 6-11.

3.

Fig. 6-12.

4.

Fig. 6-13.

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172 5.

Fig. 6-14.

SOLUTIONS 1. Yes 2. No 3. Yes 4. No 5. Yes Graphs are also useful in evaluating functions. Remember that points on the graph are pairs of numbers, x (the distance left or right of the origin), and y (the distance above or below the origin). Normally, y and f ðxÞ are the same. The point ð1ó 1Þ on the graph in Fig. 6-15 means that f ð1Þ ¼ 1. The point ð2ó 4Þ on the graph means that f ð2Þ ¼ 4. What is f ð0Þ? In other words, when x ¼ 0, what is y? Because the point ð0ó 0Þ is on the graph, f ð0Þ ¼ 0.

Fig. 6-15.

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173

EXAMPLES Refer to Fig. 6-16 for the following.

Fig. 6-16. *

*

*

Find f ð3Þ. Another way of saying, ‘‘Find f ð3Þ’’ is saying, ‘‘What is the y-value for the point on the graph for x ¼ 3?’’ The point ð3ó 2Þ is on the graph, so f ð3Þ ¼ 2. Find f ð2Þ. We need to look for the point on the graph where x ¼ 2. The point ð2ó 0Þ is on the graph, so f ð2Þ ¼ 0. Find f ð0Þ. We need to look for the point on the graph where x ¼ 0. The point ð0ó 3Þ is on the graph, so f ð0Þ ¼ 3.

PRACTICE Refer to Fig. 6-17 for the following.

Fig. 6-17.

CHAPTER 6 Functions

174 1. 2. 3. 4.

Find Find Find Find

f ð0Þ f ð3Þ f ð2Þ f ð3Þ

SOLUTIONS 1. The point 2. The point 3. The point 4. The point

ð0ó 2Þ is on the graph, so f ð0Þ ¼ 2. ð3ó 4Þ is on the graph, so f ð3Þ ¼ 4. ð2ó 1Þ is on the graph, so f ð2Þ ¼ 1. ð3ó 0Þ is on the graph, so f ð3Þ ¼ 0.

FINDING THE DOMAIN AND RANGE The graph of a function can tell us what its domain and range are. Remember that the domain of a function is the set of x-values that can be used in the function. We can ﬁnd the domain by seeing how far left and right the graph goes. The range of a function is the set of y-values. We can ﬁnd the range by seeing how far up and down the graph goes. EXAMPLES Find the domain and range. Give your answers in interval notation. *

Fig. 6-18.

The domain is ð1ó 1Þ. The range is ½2ó 1Þ because the smallest y-value is 2 and there is no largest y-value.

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175

*

Fig. 6-19.

Because the entire graph is to the right of the y-axis (where x ¼ 0), the domain is ð0ó 1Þ. The range is ð1ó 1Þ. *

Fig. 6-20.

The domain is ð1ó 1Þ. The range consists of one number, y ¼ 1. The range is f1g. *

Fig. 6-21.

CHAPTER 6 Functions

176

The solid dot at ð5ó 3Þ means that this point is part of the function, so x ¼ 5 is in the domain and y ¼ 3 is in the range. The open dot at ð4ó 3Þ means that the domain goes up to x ¼ 4 but does not include it, and that the range goes down to y ¼ 3 but does not include it. The domain is ½5ó 4Þ, and the range is ð3ó 3. PRACTICE Find the domain and range. Give your answers in interval notation. 1.

Fig. 6-22.

2.

Fig. 6-23.

CHAPTER 6 Functions

177

3.

Fig. 6-24.

4.

Fig. 6-25.

CHAPTER 6 Functions

178 5.

Fig. 6-26.

SOLUTIONS 1. The domain 2. The domain 3. The domain 4. The domain 5. The domain

is is is is is

ð1ó 1Þ. The range is ð1ó 1. ½2ó 1Þ. The range is ½0ó 1Þ. ½4ó 5. The range is f5g. ð5ó 10. The range is ½10ó 15. ð1ó 0Þ [ ð0ó 1Þ. The range is ð0ó 1Þ.

INCREASING INTERVALS AND DECREASING INTERVALS Graphs can tell us where functions are going up (if anywhere) and where they are going down (if anywhere). Many functions go up in some places and down in others. A few functions do not go up or down. A function is said to be increasing on an interval if, as we move from left to right in the interval, the y-values are going up. A function is said to be decreasing on an interval if, as we move from left to right in the interval, the y-values are going down. A function is constant on an interval if, as we move from left to right in the interval, the y-values do not change. As an example, consider the graph in Fig. 6-27. If we are anywhere to the left of x ¼ 1 and move to the right, the graph is going down. We say the function is decreasing on the interval ð1ó 1Þ. If we are anywhere between x ¼ 1 and x ¼ 0 and move to the right, the graph is going up. We say the function is increasing on

CHAPTER 6 Functions

179

Fig. 6-27.

the interval ð1ó 0Þ. If we are anywhere between x ¼ 0 and x ¼ 1 and move to the right, the graph is going back down. We say the function is decreasing on the interval ð0ó 1Þ. Finally, if we are anywhere to the right of x ¼ 1 and move to the right, the function is going back up. We say the function is increasing on the interval ð1ó 1Þ. EXAMPLES Determine where the functions are increasing, decreasing, or constant. *

Fig. 6-28.

CHAPTER 6 Functions

180

This function is increasing to the left of x ¼ 1, ð1ó 1Þ. It is decreasing to the right of x ¼ 1, ð1ó 1Þ. *

Fig. 6-29.

No matter where we are on this graph, as we move to the right, the graph is going up, so this function is increasing everywhere, ð1ó 1Þ. *

Fig. 6-30.

This function is decreasing on all of its domain, ð1ó 0Þ.

CHAPTER 6 Functions

181

*

Fig. 6-31.

This function is decreasing on ð4ó 2Þ (between x ¼ 4 and x ¼ 2), increasing on ð2ó 1Þ (between x ¼ 2 and x ¼ 1), constant on ð1ó 2Þ (between x ¼ 1 and x ¼ 2), and decreasing on ð2ó 4Þ (between x ¼ 2 and x ¼ 4). PRACTICE Determine where the functions are increasing, decreasing, or constant. 1.

Fig. 6-32.

CHAPTER 6 Functions

182 2.

Fig. 6-33.

3.

Fig. 6-34.

4.

Fig. 6-35.

CHAPTER 6 Functions

183

SOLUTIONS 1. The increasing intervals are ð1ó 1Þ and ð1ó 1Þ. The decreasing interval is ð1ó 1Þ. 2. The function is increasing everywhere, ð1ó 1Þ. 3. The constant interval is ð6ó 1Þ. The increasing intervals are ð1ó 0Þ and ð2ó 4Þ. The decreasing interval is ð0ó 2Þ. 4. The increasing interval is ð1ó 1Þ. The decreasing interval is ð1ó 1Þ.

PIECEWISE FUNCTIONS The graph of a piecewise-deﬁned function comes in pieces. A piece might be part of a line, parabola, or some other shape. The important point is in determining which piece of which function is needed. For example, the following function comes in two pieces. The ﬁrst piece is part of the line y ¼ x þ 1, and the second piece is part of the line y ¼ 2x. ( f ðxÞ ¼

xþ1

if x < 0

2x

if x 0

Because ‘‘x < 0’’ is written to the right of ‘‘x þ 1’’, the part of the line y ¼ x þ 1 we need is to the left of x ¼ 0.

Fig. 6-36.

Because ‘‘x 0’’ is written to the right of ‘‘2x,’’ the part of the line y ¼ 2x we need is to the right of x ¼ 0.

CHAPTER 6 Functions

184

Fig. 6-37.

The graph of the function is shown in Fig. 6-38.

Fig. 6-38.

When sketching the graph of a piecewise function, the endpoint of each interval must be graphed. When plotting the endpoints, we will use an open dot ‘‘ ’’ for the inequalities ‘‘x < number’’ and ‘‘x > number.’’ We will use a closed dot ‘‘ ’’ for the inequalities ‘‘x number’’ and ‘‘x number.’’ In the above example, there are two pieces, each with one endpoint. For the piece y ¼ x þ 1, the endpoint is x ¼ 0. Let x ¼ 0 to get y ¼ 0 þ 1 ¼ 1. Even though the point ð0ó 1Þ is not part of the graph (because x < 0), we need to represent this point on the graph with an open dot to show that the graph goes all the way up to that point. For the piece y ¼ 2x, the endpoint is also x ¼ 0. We need to represent this point, ð0ó 0Þ, with a closed dot to show that this point does belong to the graph (because x 0).

CHAPTER 6 Functions

185

EXAMPLES Sketch the graph of the piecewise functions. n 2x 3 if x 1 * f ðxÞ ¼ 2 if x > 1 This graph comes in two pieces. One piece is part of the line y ¼ 2x 3, and the other piece is part of the horizontal line y ¼ 2. We will start by making a table of values (Table 6-1), part of the table for y ¼ 2x 3 and the other part for y ¼ 2. Because each piece is a line, we only need to plot two points for each piece. One of these points must be x ¼ 1, the endpoint for each piece. The other x-value for the piece y ¼ 2x 3 can be anything to the left of x ¼ 1. We will use x ¼ 1. The other x-value for the piece y ¼ 2 can be anything to the right of x ¼ 1. We will use x ¼ 3. Table 6-1 x

f ðxÞ

1

1

y ¼ 2ð1Þ 3 ¼ 1

1

5

y ¼ 2ð1Þ 3 ¼ 5

1

2

y ¼ 2

3

2

y ¼ 2

Fig. 6-39.

CHAPTER 6 Functions

186

We will use a solid dot when plotting the point ð1ó 1Þ because the inequality for y ¼ 2x 3 is ‘‘x 1.’’ We will use an open dot for the point ð1ó 2Þ because the inequality for y ¼ 2 is ‘‘x > 1.’’ Now we will draw a line starting at ð1ó 1Þ through ð1ó 5Þ and another line starting at ð1ó 2Þ through ð3ó 2Þ.

Fig. 6-40.

*

f ðxÞ ¼

1x 2x

if x < 2 if x 2

Each piece of this function is part of a line, so we need to plot two points for each piece. For the piece y ¼ 1 x, we need to plot the point for x ¼ 2 (because it is an endpoint) and any point to the left of x ¼ 2. We will plot a point for x ¼ 2. For the piece y ¼ 2x, we need to plot the point for x ¼ 2 (because it is an endpoint) and any point to the right of x ¼ 2. We will plot a point for x ¼ 3 (Table 6-2). Table 6-2

x

f ðxÞ

2

1

2

3

y ¼ 1 ð2Þ ¼ 3

2

4

y ¼ 2ð2Þ ¼ 4

3

6

y ¼ 2ð3Þ ¼ 6

y ¼ 1 2 ¼ 1

CHAPTER 6 Functions

187

Fig. 6-41.

PRACTICE Sketch the graphs. 1.

f ðxÞ ¼

2.

1 2x

þ1 x2

if x 0 if x > 0

n

3 if x 2 2x 5 if x > 2 x if x < 0 f ðxÞ ¼ x if x 0

f ðxÞ ¼ 3.

This is another way of writing the function f ðxÞ ¼ jxj. SOLUTIONS 1.

Fig. 6-42.

CHAPTER 6 Functions

188 2.

Fig. 6-43.

3.

Fig. 6-44.

One or both pieces of the functions in the following will be parts of quadratic functions. Our knowledge of the graphs of quadratic functions will help to graph these piecewise functions. At ﬁrst, it might be easier to sketch the graph of the entire quadratic function then erase the part that we do not need.

CHAPTER 6 Functions EXAMPLES ( *

f ðxÞ ¼

189

x2 2x þ 1

if x 1

2x

if x < 1

We only need the part of the graph of y ¼ x2 2x þ 1 to the right of x ¼ 1.

Fig. 6-45.

We need the part of the line y ¼ 2 x to the left of x ¼ 1.

Fig. 6-46.

( *

f ðxÞ ¼

12 x2 þ x þ 1

if x 2

x2

if x > 2

We need the part of the graph of y ¼ 12 x2 þ x þ 1 to the left of x ¼ 2.

CHAPTER 6 Functions

190

Fig. 6-47.

We need the part of the graph of y ¼ x2 to the right of x ¼ 2.

Fig. 6-48.

Fig. 6-49.

CHAPTER 6 Functions

191

PRACTICE Sketch the graphs. 1. ( f ðxÞ ¼

x2 þ 1

if x 0

3

if x < 0

2. ( gðxÞ ¼

x2 þ 4x 2

if x < 1

4x 5

if x 1

3. f ðxÞ ¼

xþ1 2

x þ1

SOLUTIONS 1.

Fig. 6-50.

if x 2 if x > 2

CHAPTER 6 Functions

192 2.

Fig. 6-51.

3.

Fig. 6-52.

Piecewise functions can come in any number of pieces. The same rules apply. The endpoints of each piece must be plotted. If the function comes in three pieces, both endpoints of the middle piece must be plotted. The next example comes in three pieces. The two outside pieces are parts of lines, and the middle piece is part of a parabola.

CHAPTER 6 Functions EXAMPLE *

193

(

x þ 2 if x 2 x2 þ 2 if 2 < x < 2 xþ2 if x 2 For the piece y ¼ x þ 2, we only need to plot two points, the endpoint x ¼ 2 and a point to the left of x ¼ 2. The piece y ¼ x2 þ 2 is a parabola between x ¼ 2 and x ¼ 2.

f ðxÞ ¼

Fig. 6-53.

The last piece, y ¼ x þ 2, is another line. We need to plot two points, the endpoint x ¼ 2 and a point to the right of x ¼ 2.

Fig. 6-54.

CHAPTER 6 Functions

194 PRACTICE Sketch the graphs. 1.

2.

8 <x f ðxÞ ¼ 4 : x

if x < 2 if 2 x < 1 if x 1

8 1 0

d) 7 and 10

3.

What is the domain for f ðxÞ ¼ ðx 5Þ=ðx þ 6Þ ? a) ð1ó 6Þ [ ð6ó 1Þ b) ½6ó 1Þ c) ð6ó 1Þ d) ð1ó 6Þ [ ð6ó 5Þ [ ð5ó 1Þ

4.

In the equation y2 þ ðx 8Þ2 ¼ 4, is y a function of x? a) Yes b) No c) Cannot be determined pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ What is the domain for f ðxÞ ¼ x 3? a) ð1ó 3Þ [ ð3ó 1Þ b) ð3ó 1Þ c) ½3ó 1Þ d) ð1ó 3Þ

5. 6.

Is the graph shown in Fig. 6-57 the graph of a function? a) Yes b) No c) Cannot be determined

Fig. 6-57.

7.

Evaluate f ðv2 Þ for f ðxÞ ¼ x=ðx þ 1Þ. a) v2 x=ðx þ 1Þ

b) v2 =ðx þ 1Þ

c) v2 =ðv2 þ 1Þ

d) 1=2

CHAPTER 6 Functions

196 8.

What is f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞ for f ðxÞ ¼ x2 þ 2x þ 3? b) 2ah þ h2 þ 2a þ 6 c) h2 þ 2h a) h2 þ 2h þ 6 d) 2ah þ h2 þ 2h

9.

For what interval(s) of x is the function f ðxÞ increasing, the graph of which is shown in Fig. 6-58? a) ð1ó 3Þ b) ð3ó 0Þ c) ð3ó 3Þ d) ð1ó 0Þ

Fig. 6-58.

10.

Refer to Fig. 6-58. What is f ð4Þ? a) 5 b) 2 c) 2 d) Cannot be determined

11.

Refer to Fig. 6-58. What is the domain? a) ½5ó 4 b) ½5ó 2 c) ½2ó 4 d) Cannot be determined

12.

In the equation y3 6x2 þ 2x ¼ 5 is y a function of x? a) Yes b) No c) Cannot be determined pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ What is the domain for f ðxÞ ¼ ðx 10Þ=ð x 1Þ?

13.

a) ð1ó 1Þ [ ð1ó 10Þ [ ð10ó 1Þ c) ð1ó 1Þ

b) ð1ó 1Þ [ ð1ó 1Þ d) ½1ó 1Þ

CHAPTER 6 Functions

197

14.

Find ð f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞÞ=h for f ðxÞ ¼ x2 3x þ 5. b) h2 3h c) 2ah þ h2 þ h d) 2a þ h 3 a) h2 þ h

15.

The graph of which function is shown in Fig. 6-59?

Fig. 6-59.

(a) ( f ðxÞ ¼

x2 2

if x < 1

xþ2

if x 1

x2 2

if x > 1

xþ2

if x 1

(b) ( f ðxÞ ¼

(c) ( f ðxÞ ¼

ðx 2Þ2

if x < 1

xþ2

if x 1

CHAPTER 6 Functions

198 (d) ( f ðxÞ ¼

SOLUTIONS 1. d) 2. b) 9. b) 10. b)

3. a) 11. a)

ðx 2Þ2

if x > 1

xþ2

if x 1

4. b) 5. c) 6. b) 7. c) 8. d) 12. a) 13. c) 14. d) 15. b)

CHAPTER

7

Quadratic Functions

The quadratic equations in Chapter 6 are actually quadratic functions. In Chapter 6 the functions are written in the form y ¼ ax2 þ bx þ c, and here they will be written as f ðxÞ ¼ ax2 þ bx þ c. Remember that the graph of a quadratic function is a parabola that either opens up or opens down.

Fig. 7-1.

199 Copyright © 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click here for terms of use.

CHAPTER 7 Quadratic Functions

200

For a parabola that opens up, the quadratic function is decreasing to the left of the vertex and is increasing to the right of the vertex. For a parabola that opens down, the quadratic function is increasing to the left of the vertex and is decreasing to the right of the vertex. The vertex of a parabola can be found by writing the function in standard form, f ðxÞ ¼ aðx hÞ2 þ k (by using completing the square), where ðhó kÞ are the coordinates of the vertex, or by computing h ¼ b=2a, and k ¼ c aðb=2aÞ2 . This formula for k is not easy to remember (or even to use!). It is easier to ﬁnd the y-value for x ¼ b=2a. EXAMPLES Find the vertex using the fact that h ¼ b=2a. *

f ðxÞ ¼ 3x2 6x þ 1 a ¼ 3ó b ¼ 6, and h ¼ b=2a ¼ ð6Þ=2ð3Þ ¼ 1. Find k by evaluating f ð1Þ ¼ 3ð1Þ2 6ð1Þ þ 1 ¼ 2. The vertex is ð1ó 2Þ.

*

f ðxÞ ¼ x2 þ 4 a ¼ 1ó b ¼ 0ó h ¼ b=2a ¼ 0=2ð1Þ ¼ 0. Find k by evaluating f ð0Þ ¼ 02 þ 4 ¼ 4. The vertex is ð0ó 4Þ.

*

f ðxÞ ¼ 23 x2 2x 6 a ¼ 23 ó b ¼ 2, h¼

b ð2Þ 1 3 ¼ ¼ ¼ 2a 2ð2=3Þ 2=3 2

Find k by evaluating f ð32Þ 3 2 3 2 3 15 ¼ 6¼ 2 f 2 3 2 2 2 The vertex is ð32 ó 15 2 Þ. PRACTICE Find the vertex using the fact that h ¼ b=2a. 1. 2. 3. 4.

f ðxÞ ¼ x2 þ 8x þ 3 f ðxÞ ¼ 5x2 4x 2 hðtÞ ¼ 12 t2 þ 3t þ 5 rðxÞ ¼ 0:001x2 þ 2x 100

CHAPTER 7 Quadratic Functions SOLUTIONS 1. h¼

b 8 ¼ ¼ 4 2a 2ð1Þ

k ¼ f ð4Þ ¼ ð4Þ2 þ 8ð4Þ þ 3 ¼ 13 The vertex is ð4ó 13Þ. 2. b ð4Þ 4 2 ¼ ¼ ¼ 2a 2ð5Þ 10 5 2 2 2 2 k¼f ¼ 5 2 4 5 5 5 4 8 6 þ 2¼ ¼ 5 25 5 5 h¼

3.

The vertex is ð 25 ó 65Þ. b 3 3 ¼ ¼ ¼3 2a 2ð1=2Þ 1 1 9 19 k ¼ hð3Þ ¼ ð3Þ2 þ 3ð3Þ þ 5 ¼ þ 9 þ 5 ¼ 2 2 2 h¼

The vertex is ð3ó 4. h¼

19 2 Þ.

b 2 2 ¼ ¼ ¼ 1000 2a 2ð0:001Þ 0:002

k ¼ rð1000Þ ¼ 0:001ð1000Þ2 þ 2ð1000Þ 100 ¼ 900 The vertex is ð1000ó 900Þ. Finding the range for many functions is not easy—we would probably need to look at their graphs. But ﬁnding the range for quadratic functions is not hard. We only need to use the fact that for parabolas that open up, the vertex is the lowest point, and for parabolas that open down, the vertex is the highest point. The range of a quadratic function that opens up is ½kó 1Þ. The range of a quadratic function that opens down is ð1ó k. We can tell whether a parabola opens up or down by looking at a in f ðxÞ ¼ ax2 þ bx þ c or in f ðxÞ ¼ aðx hÞ2 þ k. If a is positive, the parabola opens up. If a is negative, the parabola opens down.

201

CHAPTER 7 Quadratic Functions

202

EXAMPLES Determine the range for the quadratic functions. *

f ðxÞ ¼ 3x2 6x þ 1 Earlier, we found that the vertex is ð1ó 2Þ. Because the parabola opens up (a ¼ 3), the range is ½2ó 1Þ.

*

f ðxÞ ¼ x2 þ 4 We found that the vertex is ð0ó 4Þ. Because the parabola opens down (a ¼ 1), the range is ð1ó 4.

*

f ðxÞ ¼ 23 x2 2x 6 We found that the vertex is ð32 ó 15 2 Þ. Because the parabola opens up 2 15 (a ¼ 3), the range is ½ 2 ó 1Þ.

PRACTICE Determine the range for the quadratic functions. 1. 2. 3. 4.

f ðxÞ ¼ x2 þ 8x þ 3 f ðxÞ ¼ 5x2 4x 2 hðtÞ ¼ 12 t2 þ 3t þ 5 rðxÞ ¼ 0:001x2 þ 2x 100

SOLUTIONS 1. The vertex is ð4ó 13Þ. Because a is positive, the parabola opens up, so the range is ½13ó 1Þ. 2. The vertex is ð 25 ó 65Þ. Because a is negative, the parabola opens down, so the range is ð1ó 65. 3. The vertex is ð3ó 19 2 Þ. Because a is negative, the parabola opens down, so the range is ð1ó 19 2 . 4. The vertex is ð1000ó 900Þ. Because a is negative, the parabola opens down, so the range is ð1ó 900.

The Maximum/Minimum of a Quadratic Function An important area of mathematics is concerned with optimizing situations. For example, what sales level for a product will give the most proﬁt?

CHAPTER 7 Quadratic Functions

203

What production level will give the lowest cost per unit? What shape will be the strongest? While calculus is used to solve many of these problems, algebra students can optimize problems involving quadratic functions. Quadratic functions can be maximized (if the parabola opens down) or minimized (if the parabola opens up). The maximum or minimum value of a quadratic function is k, the y-coordinate of the vertex. EXAMPLES Find the maximum or minimum value of the quadratic functions. *

f ðxÞ ¼ 2x2 6x þ 7 Because a ¼ 2 is negative, the parabola opens down, and the function has a maximum value (but no minimum value). We need to ﬁnd k. b ð6Þ 3 ¼ ¼ 2a 2ð2Þ 2 2 3 3 3 6 k¼f ¼ 2 þ7 2 2 2 h¼

¼

23 2

The maximum value of the functin is x ¼ 32. *

23 2.

This maximum occurs when

CðqÞ ¼ 0:02q2 5q þ 600 Because a ¼ 0:02 is positive, the parabola opens up, and the function has a minimum value. h¼

b ð5Þ ¼ ¼ 125 2a 2ð0:02Þ

k ¼ Cð125Þ ¼ 0:02ð125Þ2 5ð125Þ þ 600 ¼ 287:50 The minimum value of the function is 287:50. This minimum occurs when q ¼ 125. PRACTICE Find the maximum or minimum value of the quadratic functions. 1. 2.

f ðxÞ ¼ x2 8x þ 2 f ðtÞ ¼ 16t2 þ 48t þ 25

CHAPTER 7 Quadratic Functions

204 3. 4.

f ðxÞ ¼ 100x2 þ 150x þ 25 PðxÞ ¼ 0:015x2 þ 0:45x þ 12

SOLUTIONS 1. Because a ¼ 1 is positive, the parabola opens up, and this function has a minimum value. h¼

ð8Þ ¼4 2ð1Þ

k ¼ f ð4Þ ¼ 42 8ð4Þ þ 2 ¼ 14

2.

The minimum value of the function is 14. The minimum occurs at x ¼ 4. Because a ¼ 16 is negative, the parabola opens down, and this function has a maximum value. 48 3 ¼ 2ð16Þ 2 2 3 3 3 ¼ 16 þ 25 k¼f þ48 2 2 2 h¼

¼ 61

3.

The maximum value of this function is 61. The maximum occurs at t ¼ 32. Because a ¼ 100 is positive, the parabola opens up, and this function has a minimum value. 150 3 ¼ 2ð100Þ 4 2 3 3 125 þ 25 ¼ k ¼ 100 þ150 4 4 4 h¼

4.

The minimum value of the value of the function is 125 4 . The mini3 mum value occurs at x ¼ 4. Because a ¼ 0:015 is negative, the parabola opens down, and this function has a maximum value. h¼

0:45 ¼ 15 2ð0:015Þ

k ¼ Pð15Þ ¼ 0:015ð15Þ2 þ 0:45ð15Þ þ 12 ¼ 15:375 The maximum value of the function is 15:375. The maximum value occurs at x ¼ 15.

CHAPTER 7 Quadratic Functions

205

Applied Maximum/Minimum Problems In the problems for this section, we will be asked to ﬁnd the maximum or minimum of a situation. The functions that will model these problems will be quadratic functions. Think about what the vertex means in each problem. If the problem is to determine the level of production to maximize proﬁt, h will tell us the production level needed to maximize proﬁt, and k will tell us what the maximum proﬁt is. The function to be optimized will be given in the ﬁrst problems. Later, we will need to ﬁnd the function based on information given in the problem. EXAMPLES * The proﬁt function for a product is given by PðxÞ ¼ 2x2 þ 28x þ 150, where x is the number of units sold, and P is in dollars. What level of production will maximize proﬁt? What is the maximum proﬁt? The answer to the ﬁrst question will be h, and the answer to the second question will be k. h¼

28 ¼7 2ð2Þ

k ¼ Pð7Þ ¼ 2ð7Þ2 þ 28ð7Þ þ 150 ¼ 248

*

The level of production which maximizes proﬁt is 7 units, and the maximum proﬁt is $248. The cost per unit of a product is given by the function CðxÞ ¼ 1 2 4 x 6x þ 40, where x is the production level (in hundreds of units), and C is the cost in dollars. What level of production will yield the minimum production cost per unit? Which will answer the question—h or k? The production level is x, so we need to ﬁnd h. h¼

ð6Þ 6 1 ¼ ¼ 6 ¼ 6 2 ¼ 12 2ð1=4Þ 1=2 2

Minimize the cost per unit by producing 12 hundred units. PRACTICE 1. The daily proﬁt for a vendor of bottled water is given by the function PðxÞ ¼ 0:001x2 þ 0:36x 5, where x is the number of bottles sold, and P is the proﬁt in dollars. How many bottles should be sold to maximize daily proﬁt? What is the maximum daily proﬁt?

CHAPTER 7 Quadratic Functions

206 2.

3.

The average cost per unit of a product per week is given by the function CðxÞ ¼ 13 x2 60x þ 5900, where x is the number of units produced and C is in dollars. What is the minimum cost per unit and how many units should be produced per week to minimize the cost per unit? The weekly revenue of a particular service oﬀered by a company depends on the price—the higher the price, the fewer sales; and the lower the price, the higher the sales. The function describing the 1 2 p þ 3p þ 125, where p is the price per hour revenue is RðpÞ ¼ 10 and R is sales revenue in dollars. What is the revenue-maximizing price? What is the maximum weekly revenue?

SOLUTIONS 1. h¼

0:36 ¼ 180 2ð0:001Þ

k ¼ Pð180Þ ¼ 0:001ð180Þ2 þ 0:36ð180Þ 5 ¼ 27:4 The vendor should sell 180 bottles per day to maximize proﬁt. The maximum daily proﬁt is $27.40. 2. h¼

ð60Þ 60 2 3 ¼ ¼ 60 ¼ 60 ¼ 90 2ð1=3Þ 2=3 3 2

1 k ¼ Cð90Þ ¼ ð90Þ2 60ð90Þ þ 5900 ¼ 3200 3 The minimum average cost is $3200, and 90 units should be produced to minimize the average cost. 3. h¼

3 3 1 ¼ ¼ 3 ¼ 3 5 ¼ 15 2ð1=10Þ 1=5 5

k ¼ Rð15Þ ¼

1 ð15Þ2 þ 3ð15Þ þ 125 ¼ 147:50 10

The revenue-maximizing price is $15 per hour. The maximum weekly revenue is $147.50.

CHAPTER 7 Quadratic Functions When an object is thrust upward and is free-falling after the initial thrust, its path is in the shape of a parabola. In the following problems, we will be given the height function of these kinds of falling objects. The functions will be in the form hðxÞ ¼ ax2 þ bx þ c, where x is the horizontal distance and h is the height. Several types of questions are asked for these problems. We will answer the questions, ‘‘What is the object’s maximum height?’’ and ‘‘How far has it traveled horizontally to reach its maximum height?’’ EXAMPLE * Suppose the path of a grasshopper’s jump is given by the function 5 2 x þ 53 x, where both x and h are in inches. What is the hðxÞ ¼ 216 maximum height reached by the grasshopper? How far has it traveled horizontally to reach its maximum height? h¼

5=3 5=3 5 5 5 108 ¼ ¼ ¼ ¼ 36 2ð5=216Þ 5=108 3 108 3 5

k ¼ hð36Þ ¼

5 5 ð36Þ2 þ ð36Þ ¼ 30 216 3

The maximum height reached by the grasshopper is 30 inches and it had traveled 36 inches horizontally when it reached it maximum height. PRACTICE 1. A child throws a ball, its path being given by the function hðxÞ ¼ 0:04x2 þ 1:5x þ 3, where x and h are in feet. What is the maximum height of the ball? How far has it traveled horizontally when it reaches its maximum height? 2. A kitten jumped to pounce on a toy mouse. The path of the kitten is 5 2 given by the function hðxÞ ¼ 72 x þ 53 x, where x and h are in inches. How far had the kitten traveled horizontally when it reached its maximum height? What was the kitten’s maximum height? SOLUTIONS 1. h¼

1:5 ¼ 18:75 2ð0:04Þ

k ¼ hð18:75Þ ¼ 0:04ð18:75Þ2 þ 1:5ð18:75Þ þ 3 ¼ 17:0625

207

CHAPTER 7 Quadratic Functions

208

The ball’s maximum height is 17.0625 feet and it had traveled 18.75 feet horizontally when it reached its maximum height. 2. h¼

5=3 5=3 5 5 5 36 ¼ ¼ ¼ ¼ 12 2ð5=72Þ 5=36 3 36 3 5

k ¼ hð12Þ ¼

5 5 ð12Þ2 þ ð12Þ ¼ 10 72 3

The kitten’s maximum height is 10 inches and it had traveled 12 inches horizontally when it reached its maximum height. Quadratic functions can be used to optimize many types of geometric problems. In the following problems, a number will be ﬁxed (usually the perimeter) and we will be asked to ﬁnd the maximum enclosed area. The area will be a quadratic function, but getting to this function will require a few steps. The ﬁrst few problems will involve a ﬁxed amount of fencing to be used to enclose a rectangular area. EXAMPLES * A farmer has 600 feet of fencing available to enclose a rectangular pasture and then subdivide the pasture into two equal rectangular yards. What dimensions will yield the maximum area? What is the maximum area?

Fig. 7-2.

The formula for the area of a rectangle is A ¼ LW. This formula has two variables (other than A), and we must reduce it to one. There are 600 feet of fencing available, so L þ W þ W þ W þ L ¼ 2L þ 3W must equal 600. This gives us the equation 2L þ 3W ¼ 600. Solve for either L or W.

CHAPTER 7 Quadratic Functions

Fig. 7-3.

2L þ 3W ¼ 600 600 3W L¼ ¼ 300 1:5W 2 Now substitute L ¼ 300 1:5W in the formula A ¼ LW. A ¼ LW ¼ ð300 1:5WÞW ¼ 300W 1:5W 2 ¼ 1:5W 2 þ 300W This quadratic function has a maximum value, the maximum area. h¼

300 ¼ 100 2ð1:5Þ

k ¼ 1:5ð100Þ2 þ 300ð100Þ ¼ 15ó 000

*

The maximum area is 15,000 square feet. This occurs when the width is 100 feet, and the length is 300 1:5ð100Þ ¼ 150 feet. A zoo has 1100 meters of fencing available to create four rectangular pens. What dimensions will enclose the maximum area? What is the maximum area?

Fig. 7-4.

We will label the ﬁgure with L and W.

209

CHAPTER 7 Quadratic Functions

210

Fig. 7-5.

We want to maximize the area, A ¼ LW. The 1100 meters of fencing must be divided among 2 Ls and 5 Ws, so we have the equation 2L þ 5W ¼ 1100. Solve for either L or W and use the new equation to reduce the number of variables in A ¼ LW. 2L þ 5W ¼ 1100 1100 5W L¼ ¼ 550 2:5W 2 A ¼ LW becomes A ¼ ð550 2:5WÞW ¼ 550W 2:5W 2 ¼ 2:5W 2 þ 550W. h¼

550 ¼ 110 2ð2:5Þ

k ¼ 2:5ð110Þ2 þ 550ð110Þ ¼ 30ó 250 To maximize the area, let W ¼ 110 meters, L ¼ 550 2:5ð110Þ ¼ 275 meters. The maximum area is 30,250 square meters. PRACTICE 1. A parks department wants to enclose three adjacent rectangular playing ﬁelds. It has 1600 feet of fencing available. What dimensions will yield the maximum area? What is the maximum area?

Fig. 7-6.

CHAPTER 7 Quadratic Functions 2.

A farmer has 450 meters of fencing available. The farmer decides to fence two rectangular pastures. What dimensions will maximize the area? What is the maximum area?

Fig. 7-7.

SOLUTIONS 1. We can see from Fig. 7-6 that 2L þ 4W ¼ 1600. 2L þ 4W ¼ 1600 1600 4W L¼ ¼ 800 2W 2 A ¼ LW ¼ ð800 2WÞW ¼ 800W 2W 2 ¼ 2W 2 þ 800W 800 h¼ ¼ 200 2ð2Þ k ¼ 2ð200Þ2 þ 800ð200Þ ¼ 80ó 000

2.

Maximize the area by letting W ¼ 200 feet and L ¼ 800 2ð200Þ ¼ 400 feet. The maximum area is 80,000 square feet. We can see from Fig. 7-7 that 2L þ 3W ¼ 450. 2L þ 3W ¼ 450 450 3W ¼ 225 1:5W L¼ 2 A ¼ LW ¼ ð225 1:5WÞW ¼ 225W 1:5W 2 ¼ 1:5W 2 þ 225W 225 ¼ 75 h¼ 2ð1:5Þ k ¼ 1:5ð75Þ2 þ 225ð75Þ ¼ 8437:5 Maximize the area by letting W ¼ 75 meters and L ¼ 225 1:5ð75Þ ¼ 112:5 meters. The maximum area is 8437.5 square meters.

211

CHAPTER 7 Quadratic Functions

212

There is another common problem where we are asked to ﬁnd the dimensions which will maximize a rectangular area. The area needs to be fenced but only on three sides. We can see from Fig. 7-8 that 2W þ L ¼ amount of fencing. Solve this for L to get L ¼ amount of fencing 2W. As before, substitute this quantity for L in A ¼ LW. Then ﬁnd h, which will be the width that will maximize the area, and k will be the maximum area.

Fig. 7-8.

EXAMPLE * A business needs to enclose an area behind its oﬃces for storage. It has 240 feet of fencing available. If the side of the building is not fenced, what dimensions will maximize the enclosed area? We can see from Fig. 7-8 that 2W þ L ¼ 240. L þ 2W ¼ 240 L ¼ 240 2W A ¼ LW ¼ ð240 2WÞW ¼ 240W 2W 2 h¼

240 ¼ 60 2ð2Þ

k ¼ 240ð60Þ 2ð60Þ2 ¼ 7200 Maximize the area by letting W ¼ 60 feet and L ¼ 240 2ð60Þ ¼ 120 feet. The maximum area is 7200 square feet. PRACTICE 1. A rancher wants to enclose a rectangular pasture that borders a stream. The rancher has 500 feet of fencing available and will not fence the side along the stream. What dimensions will maximize the area? What is the maximum area?

CHAPTER 7 Quadratic Functions 2.

The manager of an oﬃce complex wants to provide extra parking behind the oﬃce building. The contractor has 150 meters of fencing available. If the side along the building will not be fenced, what dimensions will maximize the enclosed area? What is the maximum enclosed area?

SOLUTIONS 1. 2W þ L ¼ 500 L ¼ 500 2W A ¼ LW ¼ ð500 2WÞW ¼ 500W 2W 2 500 ¼ 125 h¼ 2ð2Þ k ¼ 500ð125Þ 2ð125Þ2 ¼ 31ó 250 Maximize the area by letting W ¼ 125 feet and L ¼ 500 2ð125Þ ¼ 250 feet. The maximum area is 31,250 square feet. 2. 2W þ L ¼ 150 L ¼ 150 2W A ¼ LW ¼ ð150 2WÞW ¼ 150W 2W 2 150 h¼ ¼ 37:5 2ð2Þ k ¼ 150ð37:5Þ 2ð37:5Þ2 ¼ 2812:5 Maximize the area by letting W ¼ 37:5 meters and L ¼ 150 2ð37:50Þ ¼ 75 meters. The maximum area is 2812.5 square meters. Often in business, revenue depends on the price in two ways. Obviously, if the price is raised, more money will be collected for each unit sold, but the number of units sold might drop. In general, the lower the price, the higher the demand (number of units sold); and the higher the price, the lower the demand. In the following problems, the demand for a certain price will be given. Then we will be told how many sales are lost from a price increase or how many sales are gained from a price decrease. With this information, we can ﬁnd the price to charge to maximize revenue. Let n represent the number of increases or decreases in the price, so if the price is raised in $10 increments, then the increase in price would be 10n and the price would be ‘‘old price þ10n.’’ If 5 sales are lost for each $10 increase in price, then the

213

CHAPTER 7 Quadratic Functions

214

number sold would be ‘‘old sales level 5n.’’ The total revenue would be ‘‘R ¼ ðold price þ 10nÞðold sales level 5nÞ.’’ The revenue function is a quadratic function. Revenue is maximized when n ¼ h, and the maximum revenue is k. EXAMPLES * A store sells an average of 345 pounds of apples per day when the price is $0.85 per pound. The manager thinks that for every increase of $0.10 in the price, 30 fewer pounds of apples will be sold each day. What price will maximize revenue from the sale of apples? What is the maximum revenue? Let n represent the number of $0.10 increases in the price per pound. The price is then represented by 0:85 þ 0:10n. The number of pounds of apples sold per day would be 345 30n. This makes the revenue R ¼ ð0:85 þ 0:10nÞð345 30nÞ. The revenue equation is a quadratic function. The vertex of this function tells us two things. First, h will tell us how many times we need to raise the price by $0.10 in order to maximize revenue, and k will tell us what the maximum revenue is. R ¼ ð0:85 þ 0:10nÞð345 30nÞ ¼ 293:25 þ 9n 3n2 9 h¼ ¼ 1:5 2ð3Þ k ¼ 293:25 þ 9ð1:5Þ 3ð1:5Þ2 ¼ 300

*

Maximize revenue by charging 0:85 þ 0:10ð1:5Þ ¼ $1 per pound. The maximum revenue is $300 per day. An apartment manager is leasing 60 of 75 apartments in her apartment complex with the monthly rent at $1950. For each $25 decrease in the monthly rent, she believes that one more apartment can be rented. What monthly rent will maximize revenue? What is the maximum monthly revenue? Let n represent the number of $25 decreases in the rent. Then monthly rent is represented by 1950 25n, and the number of apartments rented is 60 þ n. The revenue function is R ¼ ð1950 25nÞð60 þ nÞ. The coordinates of the vertex will help us to answer the questions. R ¼ ð1950 25nÞð60 þ nÞ ¼ 117ó 000 þ 450n 25n2 450 h¼ ¼9 2ð25Þ k ¼ 117ó 000 þ 450ð9Þ 25ð9Þ2 ¼ 119ó 025

CHAPTER 7 Quadratic Functions Maximize revenue by charging 1950 25ð9Þ ¼ $1725 for the monthly rent. The maximum revenue is $119,025. PRACTICE 1. At a small college, 1200 tickets can be sold during a football game when the ticket price is $9. The athletic director learns that for each $0.75 decrease in the ticket price, 200 more people will attend the game. What should the ticket price be in order to maximize ticket revenue? 2. The owner of a concession stand sells 10,000 soft drinks for $3.70 per drink during baseball games. A survey reveals that for each $0.20 decrease in the price of the drinks, 800 more will be sold. What should the price be in order to maximize revenue? What is the maximum revenue? 3. The manager of an apartment complex can rent all 60 apartments in a building if the monthly rent is $2800, and that for each $50 increase in the monthly rent one tenant will be lost and will not likely be replaced. What should the monthly rent be to maximize revenue? What is the maximum revenue? SOLUTIONS 1. Let n represent the number of $0.75 decreases in the ticket price. This makes the new ticket price 9 0:75n and the number of tickets sold 1200 þ 200n. Ticket revenue is R ¼ ð9 0:75nÞð1200 þ 200nÞ. R ¼ ð9 0:75nÞð1200 þ 200nÞ ¼ 10ó 800 þ 900n 150n2 900 ¼3 h¼ 2ð150Þ k ¼ 10ó 800 þ 900ð3Þ 150ð3Þ2 ¼ 12ó 150

2.

Maximize ticket revenue by charging $9:00 0:75ð3Þ ¼ $6:75 per ticket. The maximum ticket revenue is $12,150. Let n represent the number of $0.20 decreases in the drink price. This makes the new drink price 3:70 0:20n and the number of drinks sold 10ó 000 þ 800n. Revenue is R ¼ ð3:70 0:20nÞð10ó 000 þ 800nÞ. R ¼ ð3:70 0:20nÞð10ó 000 þ 800nÞ ¼ 37ó 000 þ 960n 160n2 960 h¼ ¼3 2ð160Þ k ¼ 37ó 000 þ 960ð3Þ 160ð3Þ2 ¼ 38ó 440

215

CHAPTER 7 Quadratic Functions

216

3.

Maximize revenue by charging $3:70 0:20ð3Þ ¼ $3:10 per drink. The maximum revenue is $38,440. Let n represent the number of $50 increases in the monthly rent. This makes the monthly rent 2800 þ 50n and the number of tenants 60 1n ¼ 60 n. Monthly revenue is R ¼ ð2800 þ 50nÞð60 nÞ. R ¼ ð2800 50nÞð60 nÞ ¼ 168ó 000 þ 200n 50n2 200 h¼ ¼2 2ð50Þ k ¼ 168ó 000 þ 200ð2Þ 50ð2Þ2 ¼ 168ó 200 Maximize revenue by charging $2800 þ 50ð2Þ ¼ $2900 monthly rent. The maximum revenue is $168,200.

Maximizing/Minimizing Other Functions Algebra students can use graphing calculators to approximate the maximum and/or minimum values of other kinds of functions. For example, the volume of a certain box is given by the function V ¼ 4x3 40x2 þ 100x, where x is the height (in inches) of the box and V is the volume (in cubic inches) of the box, and conditions make it necessary for 0 < x < 5. The graph of this function is shown in Fig. 7-9.

Fig. 7-9.

CHAPTER 7 Quadratic Functions

217

Because the domain of this applied function is ð0ó 5Þ, we need consider only this part of the graph.

Fig. 7-10.

We can use a graphing calculator to approximate the highest point, ð1:67ó 74:07Þ. The maximum volume is approximately 74.07 cubic inches and the height at which the box’s volume is maximum is about 1.67 inches. Calculus is necessary to ﬁnd the exact values.

Chapter 7 Review 1.

What is the range for the function f ðxÞ ¼ 2x2 6x þ 1? b) ð1ó 32Þ c) ½ 72 ó 1Þ d) ð1ó 72 a) ½32 ó 1Þ

2.

What is the maximum value for the function f ðxÞ ¼ x2 þ 3x þ 10? c) 49 d) There is no maximum value a) 5ó 2 b) 32 4

3.

The proﬁt function for a product is PðxÞ ¼ 0:01x2 þ 3x þ 500, where x is the number produced and P is in dollars. How many units must be produced to maximize proﬁt? a) 150 b) 725 c) 419 d) 119

4.

A parks department wants to enclose a rectangular playing ﬁeld and subdivide it into two ﬁelds (see Fig. 7-2). There are 1800 feet of fencing available. What is the maximum area? a) 405,000 square feet b) 150,000 square feet c) 450 square feet d) 135,000 square feet

CHAPTER 7 Quadratic Functions

218 5.

The revenue of a certain product depends on the amount spent on advertising. The function is RðxÞ ¼ 0:001x2 þ 240x 13ó 500ó 000, where R is the revenue (in dollars) and x is the amount spent on advertising (in dollars). How much should be spent on advertising in order to maximize revenue? a) $120,000 b) $900,000 c) $90,000 d) $150,000

6.

What is the range for the function f ðxÞ ¼ x2 10x þ 8? a) ½33ó 1Þ b) ð1ó 33 c) ½5ó 1Þ d) ð1ó 5

7.

For a) b) c) d)

8.

A cotton candy vendor at a small fair sells 270 cones on average when the price is $1 each. The vendor believes that for each $0.10 increase in the price, sales will drop by 15. What is the maximum revenue? a) $294 b) $356 c) $400 d) Cannot be determined

1 2 the quadratic function gðtÞ ¼ 16 t þ t þ 10 the maximum functional value is 14. the minimum functional value is 14. the maximum functional value is 8. the minimum functional value is 8.

SOLUTIONS 1. c) 2. c)

3. a)

4. d)

5. a)

6. b)

7. a)

8. a)

CHAPTER

8

Transformations and Combinations

Many important graphs come in families. We have already studied three families: graphs of circles, lines, and parabolas. There is a lot we can tell about the graph of an equation by the equation itself. From the equation of a circle in the form ðx hÞ2 þ ðx kÞ2 ¼ r2 , we know that its center is at (h, k) and its radius is r. From the equation of a line in the form y ¼ mx þ b, we know its slope is m and its y-intercept is b. From the equation of a quadratic function in the form y ¼ aðx hÞ2 þ k, we know that its vertex is (h, k) and that it opens up if a is positive or opens down if a is negative. Let us begin with a closer look at quadratic functions. The graph of every quadratic function is more or less the graph of y ¼ x2 . For example, the vertex for the function y ¼ ðx 2Þ2 is (2, 0). Another way of looking at this is to say that the vertex moved from (0, 0) to (2, 0). That is, the vertex moved to the right two units.

219 Copyright © 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click here for terms of use.

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

220

Fig. 8-1.

The function y ¼ ðx 2Þ2 is really the function f ðxÞ ¼ x2 evaluated at x 2 : f ðx 2Þ ¼ ðx 2Þ2 . Evaluating any function at x 2 shifts the entire function two units to the right. For any function f ðxÞ, the graph of f ðx 2Þ is the graph of f ðxÞ shifted to the right two units. For any positive number k, the graph y ¼ f ðx kÞ is the graph of f (x) shifted to the right k units, no matter what function f ðxÞ is. EXAMPLES * The graph of f ðx 5Þ is the graph of f ðxÞ shifted to the right 5 units. * The graph of f ðx 20Þ is the graph of f ðxÞ shifted to the right 20 units. * The graph of f ðx 12Þ is the graph of f ðxÞ shifted to the right 1 2 units. What would be the eﬀect on the graph of f ðxÞ by adding positive k to x? The vertex for y ¼ ðx þ 3Þ2 is ð3ó 0Þ. This is the graph of f ðxÞ ¼ x2 shifted to the left 3 units. The graph of any function f ðx þ kÞ is the graph of f ðxÞ shifted to the left k units. EXAMPLES * The graph of f ðx þ 12Þ is the graph of f ðxÞ shifted to the left 12 units. * The graph of gðx þ 3Þ is the graph of gðxÞ shifted to the left 3 units. PRACTICE Compare the graph of the functions with the graph of f ðxÞ. 1. 2. 3.

f ðx þ 5Þ f ðx 0:10Þ f ðx 35Þ

CHAPTER 8 Transformations SOLUTIONS 1. The graph of f ðx þ 5Þ is the graph of f (x) shifted to the left 5 units. 2. The graph of f ðx 0:10Þ is the graph of f ðxÞ shifted to the right 0.10 units. 3. The graph of f ðx 35Þ is the graph of f ðxÞ shifted to the right 35 units. The vertex for the quadratic function y ¼ x2 þ 2 is ð0ó 2Þ, which is shifted two units up from the vertex of f ðxÞ ¼ x2 . Adding a positive number to a function has the eﬀect of shifting its graph upward. Subracting a positive number from a function has the eﬀect of shifting its graph downward. If k is a positive number, the graph of f ðxÞ þ k is the graph of f ðxÞ shifted up k units, and the graph of f ðxÞ k is the graph of f ðxÞ shifted down k units. EXAMPLES * The graph of f ðxÞ 4 is the graph if f ðxÞ shifted down 4 units. * The graph of hðxÞ þ 9 is the graph of hðxÞ shifted up 9 units. PRACTICE Compare the graph of the functions with the graph of f ðxÞ. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

f ðxÞ þ 1 f ðxÞ þ 15 f ðxÞ 8 f ðxÞ 1 f ðx þ 1Þ f ðx 6Þ

SOLUTIONS 1. The graph 2. The graph 3. The graph 4. The graph 5. The graph 6. The graph

of of of of of of

f ðxÞ þ 1 is the graph of f ðxÞ shifted up 1 unit. f ðxÞ þ 15 is the graph of f ðxÞ shifted up 15 units. f ðxÞ 8 is the graph of f ðxÞ shifted down 8 units. f ðxÞ 1 is the graph of f ðxÞ shifted down 1 unit. f ðx þ 1Þ is the graph of f ðxÞ shifted left 1 unit. f ðx 6Þ is the graph of f ðxÞ shifted right 6 units.

Functions can have a combination of vertical and horizontal shifts. If h and k are positive numbers, the graph of f ðx hÞ þ k is the graph of f ðxÞ shifted to the right h units and up k units. The graph of f ðx þ kÞ h is the graph of f ðxÞ shifted to the left k units and down h units. EXAMPLES * The graph of y ¼ ðx 2Þ2 þ 1 is the graph of f ðxÞ ¼ x2 shifted to the right 2 units and up 1 unit.

221

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

222 *

The graph of f ðx þ 2Þ þ 3 is the graph of f ðxÞ shifted to the left 2 units and up 3 units.

PRACTICE Compare the graph of the functions with the graph of f ðxÞ. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

f ðx þ 12Þ þ 3 f ðx 4Þ 5 f ðx þ 6Þ 8 f ðx þ 10Þ þ 15 f ðx 1Þ þ 9

SOLUTIONS 1. The graph of f ðx þ 12Þ þ 3 is the graph of f ðxÞ shifted to the left 12 units and up 3 units. 2. The graph of f ðx 4Þ 5 is the graph of f ðxÞ shifted to the right 4 units and down 5 units. 3. The graph of f ðx þ 6Þ 8 is the graph of f ðxÞ shifted to the left 6 units and down 8 units. 4. The graph of f ðx þ 10Þ þ 15 is the graph of f ðxÞ shifted to the left 10 units and up 15 units. 5. The graph of f ðx 1Þ þ 9 is the graph of f ðxÞ shifted to the right 1 unit and up 9 units. In the following we compare the graph of a function with its transformation. The solid graphs are the graphs of f ðxÞ, and the dashed graphs are the transformations of f ðxÞ. EXAMPLES Compare the graph of the functions with the graph of f ðxÞ. Then write the transformed function.

Fig. 8-2.

CHAPTER 8 Transformations The dashed graph is the graph of f ðxÞ shifted to the right 1 unit, so this is the graph of f ðx 1Þ.

Fig. 8-3.

The dashed graph is the graph of f ðxÞ shifted to the right 2 units and down 1 unit, so this is the graph of f ðx 2Þ 1. PRACTICE Compare the graph of the transformations with the graph of f ðxÞ. Then write the transformed function. 1.

Fig. 8-4.

2.

Fig. 8-5.

223

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

224 3.

Fig. 8-6.

4.

Fig. 8-7.

SOLUTIONS 1. The dashed graph is the graph of f ðxÞ shifted down 1 unit. It is the graph of f ðxÞ 1. 2. The dashed graph is the graph of f ðxÞ shifted to the right 2 units and up 1 unit. It is the graph of f ðx 2Þ þ 1. 3. The dashed graph is the graph of f ðxÞ shifted to the left 2 units. It is the graph of f ðx þ 2Þ. 4. The dashed graph is the graph of f ðxÞ shifted to the left 1 unit and down 2 units. It is the graph of f ðx þ 1Þ 2. For any function f ðxÞ, the graph of f ðxÞ is the graph of f ðxÞ ﬂipped upside down, or in more technical terms, ‘‘reﬂected about the x-axis.’’ For example, the graph of y ¼ x2 is a reﬂection of the graph of f ðxÞ ¼ x2 .

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

Fig. 8-8.

EXAMPLES The dashed graphs are the reﬂections about the x-axis of the solid graphs.

Fig. 8-9.

Fig. 8-10.

225

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

226

Fig. 8-11.

With these reﬂections, the x-values do not change but the y-values of f ðxÞ are the opposite of the y-values for f ðxÞ. The x-intercepts (where y ¼ 0) do not change. If multiplying the y-values of a function by 1 has the eﬀect of turning the graph upside down, what eﬀect does multiplying the y-values by some other number have? In other words, how does the graph of a f ðxÞ compare with the graph of f ðxÞ? It depends on a. If a is larger than 1, the graph of a f ðxÞ is vertically stretched. The graph of 50 f ðxÞ is stretched more than the graph of 3 f ðxÞ. If a is between 0 and 1, then the graph of a f ðxÞ is vertically 1 f ðxÞ is ﬂattened more than the compressed, or ﬂattened. The graph of 10 2 graph of 3 f ðxÞ. EXAMPLES *

Fig. 8-12.

CHAPTER 8 Transformations The dashed graph in Fig. 8-12 is the graph of 12 f ðxÞ. The y-value for each point on the dashed graph is half of the corresponding y-value in the solid graph. For example, the point ð3ó 2Þ on the graph of f ðxÞ is moved to ð3ó 1Þ on the graph of 12 f ðxÞ. The point ð2ó 4Þ on the solid graph is moved to (2, 2) on the dashed graph. *

Fig. 8-13.

The dashed graph in Fig. 8-13 is the graph of 3 f ðxÞ. The y-values for each point on the dashed graph are three times the y-values on the solid graph. For example, the point ð2ó 4Þ on the solid graph is moved to ð2ó 12Þ on the dashed graph. The point ð1ó 0Þ on the solid graph did not move because 3 0 ¼ 0. When a is a negative number, other than 1, the eﬀect of a f ðxÞ is a combination of the changes above. First, the graph will be turned upside down (reﬂected about the x-axis). Then it will either be vertically compressed or stretched. In the following examples, the solid graphs are the graphs of f ðxÞ and the dashed graphs are the graphs of a f ðxÞ. EXAMPLES *

Fig. 8-14.

227

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

228

The dashed graph is the graph of 12 f ðxÞ. The point ð2ó 4Þ on the solid graph moved to ð2ó 2Þ because 4 ð 12Þ ¼ 2. The point ð3ó 2Þ on the solid graph moved to ð3ó 1Þ because 2 ð 12Þ ¼ 1. The point ð1ó 0Þ on the solid graph did not move because 0 ð 12Þ ¼ 0: *

Fig. 8-15.

The dashed graph is the graph of 3 f ðxÞ. To summarize, if a > 1, the graph of a f ðxÞ is vertically stretched. If 0 < a < 1, the graph of a f ðxÞ is vertically ﬂattened. If a < 1, the graph is reﬂected about the x-axis and vertically stretched. If 1 < a < 0, the graph is reﬂected about the x-axis and vertically ﬂattened. PRACTICE For problems 1–4, determine whether the dashed graph is a vertically stretched or ﬂattened version of the solid graph and whether or not it is reﬂected about the x-axis. 1.

Fig. 8-16.

CHAPTER 8 Transformations 2.

Fig. 8-17.

3.

Fig. 8-18.

4.

Fig. 8-19.

229

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

230 5.

Below are two pairs of graphs. The solid graphs are the graph of f ðxÞ. One of the dashed graphs is the graph of 32 f ðxÞ and the other is the graph of 4 f ðxÞ. Which graph is the graph of 32 f ðxÞ? Which is the graph of 4 f ðxÞ?

Fig. 8-20.

Fig. 8-21.

SOLUTIONS 1. The dashed graph is vertically ﬂattened. 2. The dashed graph is reﬂected about the x-axis. 3. The dashed graph is vertically ﬂattened and is reﬂected about the x-axis. 4. The dashed graph is vertically stretched and is reﬂected about the x-axis. 5. The dashed graph in Fig. 8-20 is the graph of 32 f ðxÞ. The dashed graph in Fig. 8-21 is the graph of 4 f ðxÞ. We will look at one more transformation, f ðxÞ. The transformation f ðxÞ turned the graph upside down. The transformation f ðxÞ will turn the graph sideways, or ‘‘reﬂected about the y-axis.’’ The solid graph shown in Fig. 8-22 is the graph of f ðxÞ, and the dashed graph is the graph of f ðxÞ. We can get the graph of f ðxÞ by replacing the x-values with their opposites. For example, the point ð4ó 2Þ on f ðxÞ is replaced by ð4ó 2Þ.

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

Fig. 8-22.

We are ready to sketch transformations of a given graph. The graph of f ðxÞ will be given and we will be asked to sketch a given transformation. Some of the transformations can be done with no extra work, but we will need to be careful with others. To help with the more complicated transformations, we will use tables of values. EXAMPLES Sketch the transformations f ðx þ 1Þ 3, f ðxÞ þ 1ó f ðx þ 2Þ 3ó 2 f ðxÞó f ðxÞ, f ðxÞ 1, and f ð2 xÞ.

Fig. 8-23.

Table 8-1 gives the values for this function. Table 8-1 x

f (x)

4

3

2

0

0

1

2

2

4

4

231

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

232 *

To graph f ðx þ 1Þ 3, shift the graph of f ðxÞ to the left 1 unit and down 3 units. Because every point is moving left 1 unit, the new x-values are the old x-values minus 1. Because every point is also moving down 3 units, the new y-values are the old y-values minus 3 (Table 8-2).

Table 8-2 x1

y3

Plot this point

4 1 ¼ 5

3 3 ¼ 6

( 5, 6)

2 1 ¼ 3

0 3 ¼ 3

(3, 3)

0 1 ¼ 1

1 3 ¼ 4

(1, 4)

21¼1

2 3 ¼ 5

(1, 5)

41¼3

43¼1

(3, 1)

Fig. 8-24.

*

For the graph of f ðxÞ þ 1, we will not change the x-values. The y-values have two changes. First, we will take the negative of the old y-values; second, we will add 1 to them (Table 8-3).

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

233

Table 8-3 x

y þ 1

Plot this point

4

(3) þ 1 ¼ 4

(4, 4)

2

0 þ 1=1

(2, 1)

0

(1) þ 1=2

(0, 2)

2

(2) þ 1=3

(2, 3)

4

4 þ 1=0

(4, 3)

Fig. 8-25.

*

To ﬁnd the points for f ðx þ 2Þ 3, subtract 2 from each x-value, and subtract 3 from the opposite of the y-values (Table 8-4). Table 8-4 x2 42 ¼ 6

y3 (3)3 ¼ 0

Plot this point (6, 0)

22 ¼ 4

03 ¼ 3

(4, 3)

02 ¼ 2

(1) 3 ¼ 2

(2, 2)

22 ¼ 0

(2)3 ¼ 1

(0, 1)

42 ¼ 2

43 ¼ 7

(2, 7)

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

234

Fig. 8-26. *

Sketch the graph of 2 f ðxÞ by multiplying each y-value by 2. The x-values do not change (Table 8-5). Table 8-5 x

2y

Plot this point

4

2(3) ¼ 6

(4, 6)

2

2(0) ¼ 0

(2, 0)

0

2(1) ¼ 2

(0, 2)

2

2(2) ¼ 4

(2, 4)

4

2(4) ¼ 8

(4, 8)

Fig. 8-27.

CHAPTER 8 Transformations *

235

Sketch the graph of f ðxÞ by replacing each x-value with its opposite. The y-values do not change (Table 8-6). Table 8-6 x

y

Plot this point

(4) ¼ 4

3

(4, 3)

(2) ¼ 2

0

0 ¼ 0

1

(0, 1)

2

2

(2, 2)

4

4

(2, 0)

(4, 4)

Fig. 8-28.

*

Sketch the graph of f ðxÞ 1 by taking the the opposite of each x-value and by subtracting 1 from each y-value (Table 8-7). Table 8-7 x

y1

Plot this point

(4) ¼ 4

3 1 ¼ 4

(4, 4)

(2) ¼ 2

0 1 ¼ 1

(2, 1)

0 ¼ 0

1 1 ¼ 2

(0, 2)

2

2 1 ¼ 3

(2, 3)

4

41¼3

(4, 3)

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

236

Fig. 8-29. *

The graph of f ð2 xÞ is a little more diﬃcult. This transformation is ﬁrst a reﬂection about the y-axis, then a shift to the right 2 units. The y-values do not change (Table 8-8). Table 8-8 2x

y

Plot this point

2(4) ¼ 6

3

2(2) ¼ 4

0

20¼2

1

(2, 1)

22¼0

2

(0, 2)

4

(2, 4)

2 4 ¼ 2

Fig. 8-30.

(6, 3) (4, 0)

CHAPTER 8 Transformations PRACTICE Sketch the transformations of the function f ðxÞ whose graph is given in Fig. 8-31.

Fig. 8-31.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

f ðx þ 2Þ f ðx 1Þ 2 3 f ðxÞ f ðxÞ f ðx 1Þ þ 2 f ðxÞ þ 1 2 f ðx 2Þ

SOLUTIONS 1.

Fig. 8-32.

2.

Fig. 8-33.

237

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

238 3.

Fig. 8-34.

4.

Fig. 8-35.

5.

Fig. 8-36.

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

239

6.

Fig. 8-37.

7.

Fig. 8-38.

It might seem odd that in the transformation f ðx þ 1Þ þ 2, ‘‘x þ 1’’ has the eﬀect of moving x in the negative direction while ‘‘þ2’’ has the eﬀect of moving y in the positive direction. The reason we subtract 1 from each x is so that when we evaluate f ðx þ 1Þ at x 1, we end up with f ðxÞ: f ððx 1Þ þ 1Þ ¼ f ðxÞ. It is for this reason that to sketch the graph of the transformation f ðdxÞ, we would compute the x-values by dividing them by d. For example, if we need to sketch the graph of f ð2xÞ, we would need to divide each x-value by 2. This is so that f ð2ð12 xÞÞ ¼ f ðxÞ:

Special Functions There are several families of functions whose graphs college algebra students should know. 1.

f (x) ¼ c

This is the constant function. Its graph is a horizontal line.

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

240 2.

f (x) ¼ mx þ b

3.

f (x) ¼ x2

4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

3 f (x) ¼ x pﬃﬃﬃ f (x) ¼ x f (x) ¼ |x| f (x) ¼ ax f (x) ¼ loga x

This is the linear function. Its graph is a nonvertical line. This is the quadratic function. Its graph is a parabola. This is the cubic function. This is the square root function. This is the absolute value function. This is the exponential function. This is the logarithmic function.

The graphs of the ﬁrst three are covered in Chapter 4, the second three are covered in this chapter, and the exponential function is covered in Chapter 11. Once you know the basic shape of the graphs of these functions, you can use what you learned earlier in this chapter to sketch the graphs of many functions with only a little work. This information can also help you use a graphing calculator more eﬀectively. Figure 8-39 shows the graph of y ¼ x3 .

Fig. 8-39.

The solid graphs in Figs. 8-39–8-46 are the graphs of y ¼ x3 and the dashed graphs are transformations of y ¼ x3 . The transformation in Fig. 8-40 is f ðxÞ ¼ x3 , a reﬂection of y ¼ x3 about the x-axis. Coincidentally, both reﬂections about the x-axis and y-axis are the same. In other words, y ¼ x3 and y ¼ ðxÞ3 are the same function.

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

Fig. 8-40.

The graph f ðxÞ ¼ 2x3 is the graph y ¼ x3 stretched vertically.

Fig. 8-41.

The graph of f ðxÞ ¼ ðx 2Þ3 1 is the graph of y ¼ x3 shifted to the right 2 units and down 1 unit.

Fig. 8-42.

241

242

CHAPTER 8 Transformations PRACTICE Match the graph with the function.

Fig. 8-43.

Fig. 8-44.

Fig. 8-45.

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

Fig. 8-46.

1. 2. 3. 4.

f ðxÞ ¼ 12 x3 f ðxÞ ¼ ðx 1Þ3 f ðxÞ ¼ 3x3 f ðxÞ ¼ ðx 2Þ3 þ 3

SOLUTIONS 1. Figure 8-45 2. Figure 8-46 3. Figure 8-43 4. Figure 8-44 pﬃﬃﬃ The graph of y ¼ x is part of a parabola. Imagine turning a parabola on its side pand ﬃﬃﬃ cutting oﬀ the bottom pﬃﬃﬃ half. What would be left is the graph of y ¼ x. The graph of y ¼ x is shown in pﬃﬃﬃFig. 8-47. The solid graphs in Figs. 8-48–8-56 are the graph of y ¼ x. The dashed graphs are transformations.

Fig. 8-47.

243

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

244 The graph of f ðxÞ ¼

pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ x þ 2 is the graph of y ¼ x shifted up 2 units.

Fig. 8-48.

The graph of f ðxÞ ¼

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ x is the graph of y ¼ x reﬂected about the y-axis.

Fig. 8-49.

pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ The graph of f ðxÞ ¼ x is the graph of y ¼ x reﬂected about the x-axis.

Fig. 8-50.

CHAPTER 8 Transformations pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ The graph of f ðxÞ ¼ 2 x is the graph of y ¼ x ﬁrst reﬂected across the y-axis then shifted to the right 2 units.

Fig. 8-51.

PRACTICE Match the graph with the function.

Fig. 8-52.

Fig. 8-53.

245

246

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

Fig. 8-54.

Fig. 8-55.

Fig. 8-56.

CHAPTER 8 Transformations 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ f ðxÞ ¼ 1 p x ﬃﬃﬃ f ðxÞ ¼ 3 pﬃﬃﬃþ x f ðxÞ ¼ 4 xpﬃﬃﬃ f ðxÞ ¼ 1p ﬃﬃﬃ x f ðxÞ ¼ 12 x

SOLUTIONS 1. Figure 8-52 2. Figure 8-54 3. Figure 8-55 4. Figure 8-53 5. Figure 8-56 The last new function in this section is the absolute value function, y ¼ jxj. Its graph is in the shape of a ‘‘V.’’ The graph of y ¼ jxj is shown in Fig. 8-57. As before, the solid graphs in Figs. 8-58–8-65 are the graphs of y ¼ jxj and the dashed graphs are transformations.

Fig. 8-57.

The graph of f ðxÞ ¼ 3jxj is the graph of y ¼ jxj stretched vertically.

Fig. 8-58.

247

248

CHAPTER 8 Transformations The graph of f ðxÞ 14 jxj is the graph of y ¼ jxj reﬂected across the x-axis and vertically ﬂattened.

Fig. 8-59.

The graph of f ðxÞ ¼ 4jxj 6 is the graph of y ¼ jxj ﬁrst stretched vertically then shifted down 6 units.

Fig. 8-60.

PRACTICE Match the graph with the function.

Fig. 8-61.

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

Fig. 8-62.

Fig. 8-63.

Fig. 8-64.

249

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

250

Fig. 8-65.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

f ðxÞ ¼ jx 3j f ðxÞ ¼ jx þ 2j 1 f ðxÞ ¼ 12 jxj f ðxÞ ¼ 2jxj f ðxÞ ¼ 3jx 2j þ 1

SOLUTIONS 1. Figure 8-63 2. Figure 8-65 3. Figure 8-62 4. Figure 8-61 5. Figure 8-64 The next set of practice problems is another set of matching problems but the reference graphs pﬃﬃﬃ will not be given. These will be transformations of y ¼ x2 , y ¼ x3 , y ¼ x, y ¼ jxj. PRACTICE Match the graph to its function. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

3 f ðxÞ ¼ ðxp ﬃﬃﬃ 1Þ f ðxÞ ¼ 4 x f ðxÞ ¼ x2 f ðxÞ ¼ jx þ 2j þ 2 f ðxÞ ¼ ðx þp1Þﬃﬃﬃ3 4 f ðxÞ ¼ p 2þ x ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ f ðxÞ ¼ x 3 f ðxÞ ¼ 12 x2 4 f ðxÞ ¼ jxj 4

CHAPTER 8 Transformations SOLUTIONS

Fig. 8-66.

Fig. 8-67.

Fig. 8-68.

251

252

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

Fig. 8-69.

Fig. 8-70.

Fig. 8-71.

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

Fig. 8-72.

Fig. 8-73.

Fig. 8-74.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure

8-70 8-73 8-67 8-69 8-66 8-71

253

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

254 7. 8. 9.

Figure 8-68 Figure 8-72 Figure 8-74

Sometimes the transformations f ðxÞ do not change the graph at all. For example, for f ðxÞ ¼ x2 , f ðxÞ is the same as f ðxÞ: f ðxÞ ¼ ðxÞ2 ¼ x2 , and gðxÞ ¼ jxj is the same as gðxÞ ¼ j xj ¼ jxj. This is because these graphs are symmetric with respect to the y-axis. That is, the left half of the graph is a reﬂection (or mirror image) of the right half. The dashed part of the graph in Fig. 8-75 is a reﬂection of the solid part of the graph.

Fig. 8-75.

A function whose vertical reﬂection (f ðxÞ) is the same as its horizontal reﬂection ( f ðxÞ) is symmetric with respect to the origin. Origin symmetry is a little harder to see than y-axis symmetry. Imagine folding the graph in Fig. 8-76 along the x-axis then again along the y-axis; the upper right-hand part of the graph will be the same as the lower left-hand part of the graph.

Fig. 8-76.

CHAPTER 8 Transformations The graph of y2 ¼ x in Fig. 8-77 has x-axis symmetry. This symmetry is not as important as y-axis symmetry and origin symmetry because only one function has this kind of symmetry (y ¼ 0).

Fig. 8-77.

PRACTICE Determine whether the graphs are symmetric with respect to the y-axis, x-axis, or origin. 1.

Fig. 8-78.

2.

Fig. 8-79.

255

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

256 3.

Fig. 8-80.

4.

Fig. 8-81.

5.

Fig. 8-82.

CHAPTER 8 Transformations 6.

Fig. 8-83.

SOLUTIONS 1. y-axis symmetry 2. No symmetry 3. Origin symmetry 4. y-axis symmetry 5. No symmetry 6. Origin symmetry We can tell if the graph of a function has y-axis symmetry or origin symmetry by looking at its equation. If we evaluate the function at x (replace x with x) and the y-values do not change, then the function has y-axis symmetry. Knowing that the graph of a function has y-axis symmetry is very useful when sketching the graph by hand. This is because if ðxó yÞ is on the graph, then ðxó yÞ is also on the graph. For example, if a function is symmetric with respect to the y-axis and the point ð2ó 3Þ is on the graph, then we automatically know that ð2ó 3Þ is also on the graph. The graph of a function has origin symmetry when evaluating the function at x also changes the sign on the y-values. If a function is symmetric with respect to the origin and the point ð2ó 3Þ is on the graph, then the point ð2ó 3Þ is also on the graph. Functions whose graphs have y-axis symmetry are called even functions. Functions whose graphs have origin symmetry are called odd functions. A function is even if f ðxÞ ¼ f ðxÞ. This is the mathematical notation for the idea that replacing an x-value with its opposite will not change the y-value. A function is odd if f ðxÞ ¼ f ðxÞ. This is the mathematical notation for

257

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

258

the idea that replacing an x-value with its opposite replaces the y-value with its opposite. Because so many important functions involve x to powers, the following facts will be useful. ðxÞeven power ¼ xeven power

and ðxÞodd power ¼ xodd power

The product of an even number of negative numbers is positive, and the product of an odd number of negative numbers is negative. EXAMPLES * 2ðxÞ3 ¼ 2ð1Þx3 ¼ 2x3 * 3ðxÞ7 ¼ 3ð1Þx7 ¼ 3x7 * 1 ðxÞ ¼ 1 þ x * 1 ðxÞ3 ¼ 1 þ x3

* * * *

5ðxÞ6 ¼ 5x6 4ðxÞ8 ¼ 4x8 1 ðxÞ2 ¼ 1 x2 ðxÞ2 ðxÞ3 ¼ x2 þ x3

PRACTICE Simplify. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

ðxÞ3 ðxÞ2 4ðxÞ100 7ðxÞ15 2ðxÞ5 8ðxÞ4 ðxÞ3 þ 2ðxÞ2 þ 4ðxÞ þ 1 5ðxÞ4 3ðxÞ3 6ðxÞ2 þ 9ðxÞ þ 16

SOLUTIONS 1. ðxÞ3 ¼ x3 2. ðxÞ2 ¼ x2 3. 4ðxÞ100 ¼ 4x100 4. 7ðxÞ15 ¼ 7x15 5. 2ðxÞ5 ¼ 2x5 6. 8ðxÞ4 ¼ 8x4 7. ðxÞ3 þ 2ðxÞ2 þ 4ðxÞ þ 1 ¼ x3 þ 2x2 4x þ 1 8. 5ðxÞ4 3ðxÞ3 6ðxÞ2 þ 9ðxÞ þ 16 ¼ 5x4 þ 3x3 6x2 9x þ 16 Evaluating a function at x is often the most diﬃcult part of determining if a function is even, odd, or neither. Once we have evaluated a function at x and simpliﬁed it, we will compare this both to f ðxÞ and to f ðxÞ. If the simpliﬁed equation is the same as f ðxÞ, then the function is even. If it is the same as f ðxÞ, then the function is odd.

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

259

EXAMPLES Determine whether the functions are even, odd, or neither. *

f ðxÞ ¼ x3 þ x First we will multiply both sides of f ðxÞ by 1 so that we can compare f ðxÞ with f ðxÞ and with f ðxÞ. f ðxÞ ¼ ðx3 þ xÞ ¼ x3 x Now we will ﬁnd and simplify f ðxÞ and compare it to f ðxÞ ¼ x3 þ x and to f ðxÞ ¼ x3 x. f ðxÞ ¼ ðxÞ3 þ ðxÞ ¼ x3 x Because f ðxÞ and f ðxÞ are the same, f ðxÞ is an odd function.

*

f ðxÞ ¼ 5x3 4 We will multiply both sides of the equation by 1 to ﬁnd f ðxÞ. f ðxÞ ¼ ð5x3 4Þ ¼ 5x3 þ 4 Now we will ﬁnd and simplify f ðxÞ. f ðxÞ ¼ 5ðxÞ3 4 ¼ 5x3 4 f ðxÞ is not the same as f ðxÞ and not the same as f ðxÞ, so f ðxÞ is neither even nor odd.

*

f ðxÞ ¼ 6x2 þ 1 f ðxÞ ¼ ð6x2 þ 1Þ ¼ 6x2 1 f ðxÞ ¼ 6ðxÞ2 þ 1 ¼ 6x2 þ 1 f ðxÞ and f ðxÞ are the same, so f ðxÞ is an even function.

*

f ðxÞ ¼ 9 Because the y-value is 9 no matter what x is, f ðxÞ ¼ 9, so f ðxÞ is an even function.

*

f ðxÞ ¼ j2xj þ 3 f ðxÞ ¼ ðj2xj þ 3Þ ¼ j2xj 3 f ðxÞ ¼ j2ðxÞj þ 3 ¼ j 2xj þ 3 ¼ j2xj þ 3

ðj xj ¼ jxjÞ

f ðxÞ and f ðxÞ are the same, so f ðxÞ is an even function.

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

260 *

gðxÞ ¼

3 x4 x2 þ 2

3 x2 þ 2 3 3 gðxÞ ¼ ¼ 4 4 2 ðxÞ ðxÞ þ 2 x x2 þ 2

gðxÞ ¼

x4

gðxÞ and gðxÞ are the same, so gðxÞ is an even function. PRACTICE Determine whether the functions are even, odd, or neither. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

f ðxÞ ¼ 2x5 6x3 þ x f ðxÞ ¼ 8 x2 gðxÞ ¼ x3 x2 þ x 1 f ðxÞ ¼ 2x þ 1 8 hðxÞ ¼ ðx þ 1Þ 2x f ðxÞ ¼ ð5x3 þ xÞ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ gðxÞ ¼ x2 þ 4 hðxÞ ¼ j3xj 8 f ðxÞ ¼ 25

SOLUTIONS 1. f ðxÞ ¼ 2x5 6x3 þ x f ðxÞ ¼ ð2x5 6x3 þ xÞ ¼ 2x5 þ 6x3 x f ðxÞ ¼ 2ðxÞ5 6ðxÞ3 þ ðxÞ ¼ 2x5 þ 6x3 x 2.

f ðxÞ and f ðxÞ are the same, so f ðxÞ is an odd function. f ðxÞ ¼ 8 x2 f ðxÞ ¼ ð8 x2 Þ ¼ 8 þ x2 f ðxÞ ¼ 8 ðxÞ2 ¼ 8 x2

3.

f ðxÞ and f ðxÞ are the same, so f ðxÞ is an even function. gðxÞ ¼ x3 x2 þ x 1 gðxÞ ¼ ðx3 x2 þ x 1Þ ¼ x3 þ x2 x þ 1 gðxÞ ¼ ðxÞ3 ðxÞ2 þ ðxÞ 1 ¼ x3 x2 x 1 gðxÞ is not the same as gðxÞ or gðxÞ, so gðxÞ is neither even nor odd.

CHAPTER 8 Transformations 4.

f ðxÞ ¼ 2x þ 1 f ðxÞ ¼ ð2x þ 1Þ ¼ 2x 1 f ðxÞ ¼ 2ðxÞ þ 1 ¼ 2x þ 1

5.

6.

f ðxÞ is not the same as f ðxÞ or f ðxÞ, so f ðxÞ is neither even nor odd. 8 hðxÞ ¼ ðx þ 1Þ 8 8 ¼ hðxÞ ¼ xþ1 xþ1 8 hðxÞ ¼ x þ 1 hðxÞ is not the same as hðxÞ or hðxÞ, so hðxÞ is neither even nor odd. 2x f ðxÞ ¼ ð5x3 þ xÞ 2x 2x ¼ 3 3 5x þ x 5x þ x 2ðxÞ 2x f ðxÞ ¼ ¼ 3 5ðxÞ þ ðxÞ 5x3 x 2x 2x ¼ 3 ¼ 3 ð5x þ xÞ 5x þ x f ðxÞ ¼

7.

8.

f ðxÞ ispthe same as f ðxÞ, so f ðxÞ is an even function. ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2 gðxÞ ¼ x þ 4 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ gðxÞ ¼ x2 þ 4 qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ gðxÞ ¼ ðxÞ2 þ 4 ¼ x2 þ 4 gðxÞ and gðxÞ are the same, so gðxÞ is an even function. hðxÞ ¼ j3xj 8 hðxÞ ¼ ðj3xj 8Þ ¼ j3xj þ 8 hðxÞ ¼ j3ðxÞj 8 ¼ j 3xj 8 ¼ j3xj 8

9.

hðxÞ and hðxÞ are the same, so hðxÞ is an even function. f ðxÞ ¼ 25. Because f ðxÞ ¼ 25 for every x, f ðxÞ ¼ 25 also, so f ðxÞ is an even function.

261

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

262

Combining Functions The vast majority of functions studied in algebra and calculus are some combination of only a handful of basic functions, most of them introduced in this book. The most obvious combination of two or more functions are arithmetic combinations: adding, subtracting, multiplying, and dividing. Suppose two functions f ðxÞ and gðxÞ are given. * *

ð f þ gÞðxÞ means f ðxÞ þ gðxÞ: ð fgÞðxÞ means f ðxÞgðxÞ:

* *

ð f gÞðxÞ means f ðxÞ gðxÞ: ð f =gÞðxÞ means f ðxÞ=gðxÞ:

EXAMPLE * f ðxÞ ¼ 3x 4 and gðxÞ ¼ x2 þ x ð f þ gÞðxÞ ¼ ð3x 4Þ þ ðx2 þ xÞ ¼ x2 þ 4x 4 ð f gÞðxÞ ¼ ð3x 4Þ ðx2 þ xÞ ¼ 3x 4 x2 x ¼ x2 þ 2x 4 ð fgÞðxÞ ¼ ð3x 4Þðx2 þ xÞ ¼ 3x3 þ 3x2 4x2 4x ¼ 3x3 x2 4x f 3x 4 ðxÞ ¼ 2 g x þx

PRACTICE Find ð f þ gÞðxÞó ð f gÞðxÞó ð fgÞðxÞ, and ð f =gÞðxÞ. 1. 2. 3.

f ðxÞ ¼ p xþ 6 and gðxÞ ¼ 2x þ 4 ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ f ðxÞ ¼ x þ 6 and gðxÞ ¼ x 2 xþ2 3x þ 1 and gðxÞ ¼ f ðxÞ ¼ 3x 1 x2

SOLUTIONS 1. ð f þ gÞðxÞ ¼ ðx þ 6Þ þ ð2x þ 4Þ ¼ x þ 10 ð f gÞðxÞ ¼ ðx þ 6Þ ð2x þ 4Þ ¼ x þ 6 þ 2x 4 ¼ 3x þ 2

CHAPTER 8 Transformations ð fgÞðxÞ ¼ ðx þ 6Þð2x þ 4Þ ¼ 2x2 þ 4x 12x þ 24 ¼ 2x2 8x þ 24 f xþ6 ðxÞ ¼ g 2x þ 4 2.

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ xþ6þx2 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ð f gÞðxÞ ¼ x þ 6 ðx 2Þ ¼ x þ 6 x þ 2 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ð fgÞðxÞ ¼ x þ 6ðx 2Þ ¼ ðx 2Þ x þ 6 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ xþ6 f ðxÞ ¼ x2 g ð f þ gÞðxÞ ¼

3. ð f þ gÞðxÞ ¼ ¼ ð f gÞðxÞ ¼

x þ 2 3x þ 1 x þ 2 x 2 3x þ 1 3x 1 þ ¼ þ 3x 1 x 2 3x 1 x 2 x 2 3x 1 x2 4 9x2 1 10x2 5 þ ¼ 2 ð3x 1Þðx 2Þ ð3x 1Þðx 2Þ 3x 7x þ 2 x þ 2 3x þ 1 3x 1 x 2

x2 4 9x2 1 ¼ ð3x 1Þðx 2Þ ð3x 1Þðx 2Þ x2 4 ð9x2 1Þ 8x2 3 ¼ 3x2 7x þ 2 3x2 7x þ 2 x þ 2 3x þ 1 ðx þ 2Þð3x þ 1Þ ð fgÞðxÞ ¼ ¼ 3x 1 x 2 ð3x 1Þðx 2Þ ¼

3x2 þ 7x þ 2 3x2 7x þ 2 f ðx þ 2Þ=ð3x 1Þ ðxÞ ¼ g ð3x þ 1Þ=ðx 2Þ ¼

¼

x þ 2 3x þ 1 xþ2 x2 ¼ 3x 1 x 2 3x 1 3x þ 1

¼

x2 4 9x2 1

263

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

264

Function Composition Two (or more) functions can be combined by composing one function with another. We have performed function composition without calling it by its name. The basic idea behind function composition is that one function is evaluated at another. For example, if f ðxÞ ¼ 4x þ 7 and gðxÞ ¼ 2x 3, then ‘‘to evaluate f at g’’ means to compute f ð2x 3Þ. Remember that to ‘‘evaluate a function’’ means to substitute the quantity in the parentheses for x. f ð2x 3Þ ¼ 4ð2x 3Þ þ 7 ¼ 8x 12 þ 7 ¼ 8x 5 The notation for this operation is f gðxÞ. By deﬁnition, f gðxÞ means f ðgðxÞÞ. This operation is not commutative. That is, f gðxÞ is usually not the same as g f ðxÞ. EXAMPLES Find f gðxÞ and g f ðxÞ. *

f ðxÞ ¼ x2 þ 4x 3 and gðxÞ ¼ 2x 5 f gðxÞ ¼ f ðgðxÞÞ

This is the definition of f gðxÞ

¼ f ð2x 5Þ

Replace gðxÞ with 2x 5

¼ ð2x 5Þ2 þ 4ð2x 5Þ 3

Replace x with 2x 5 in f ðxÞ

¼ ð2x 5Þð2x 5Þ þ 4ð2x 5Þ 3 ¼ 4x2 20x þ 25 þ 8x 20 3 ¼ 4x2 12x þ 2 g f ðxÞ ¼ gð f ðxÞÞ

This is the definition of g f ðxÞ

¼ gðx2 þ 4x 3Þ

Replace f ðxÞ with x2 þ 4x 3

¼ 2ðx2 þ 4x 3Þ 5

Replace x with x2 þ 4x 3 in gðxÞ

¼ 2x2 þ 8x 6 5 ¼ 2x2 þ 8x 11

CHAPTER 8 Transformations *

265

f ðxÞ ¼ 8 5x and gðxÞ ¼ x þ 4 f gðxÞ ¼ f ðgðxÞÞ ¼ f ðx þ 4Þ ¼ 8 5ðx þ 4Þ ¼ 8 5x 20 ¼ 5x 12 g f ðxÞ ¼ gð f ðxÞÞ ¼ gð8 5xÞ ¼ 8 5x þ 4 ¼ 5x þ 12

*

f ðxÞ ¼

pﬃﬃﬃ x and gðxÞ ¼ x2 þ 2x þ 2 f gðxÞ ¼ f ðgðxÞÞ ¼ f ðx2 þ 2x þ 2Þ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ¼ x2 þ 2x þ 2 pﬃﬃﬃ g f ðxÞ ¼ gð f ðxÞÞ ¼ gð xÞ pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ ¼ ð xÞ2 þ 2 x þ 2 ¼ x þ 2 x þ 2

*

f ðxÞ ¼ 16x 1 and gðxÞ ¼ 1=ðx þ 2Þ

1 f gðxÞ ¼ f ðgðxÞÞ ¼ f xþ2 1 ¼ 16 1 xþ2 ¼

16 14 x 1 or xþ2 xþ2

g f ðxÞ ¼ gð f ðxÞÞ ¼ gð16x 1Þ ¼

1 1 ¼ ð16x 1Þ þ 2 16x þ 1

PRACTICE Find f gðxÞ and g f ðxÞ. 1. 2. 3. 4.

f ðxÞ ¼ x þ 2 and gðxÞp ¼ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ x2 ﬃ4 2 f ðxÞ ¼ x and gðxÞ ¼ 2x 4 f ðxÞ ¼ 3x2 þ x and gðxÞ ¼ 1=x f ðxÞ ¼ 1=x and gðxÞ ¼ 2=ðx 1Þ

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

266 SOLUTIONS 1.

f gðxÞ ¼ f ðgðxÞÞ ¼ f ðx2 4Þ ¼ ðx2 4Þ þ 2 ¼ x2 2 g f ðxÞ ¼ gð f ðxÞÞ ¼ gðx þ 2Þ ¼ ðx þ 2Þ2 4 ¼ ðx þ 2Þðx þ 2Þ 4 ¼ x2 þ 4x þ 4 4 ¼ x2 þ 4x 2. pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ f gðxÞ ¼ f ðgðxÞÞ ¼ f ð 2x 4Þ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ¼ ð 2x 4Þ2 ¼ 2x 4 g f ðxÞ ¼ gð f ðxÞÞ ¼ gðx2 Þ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ¼ 2x2 4 3. f gðxÞ ¼ f ðgðxÞÞ ¼ f

1 x

2 1 1 3 1 ¼3 þ ¼ 2þ x x x x g f ðxÞ ¼ gð f ðxÞÞ ¼ gð3x2 þ xÞ ¼

1 3x þ x 2

4. f gðxÞ ¼ f ðgðxÞÞ ¼ f ¼

2 x1

1 2 ¼1 2=ðx 1Þ x1

¼1

x1 x1 ¼ 2 2

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

267

1 g f ðxÞ ¼ gð f ðxÞÞ ¼ g x 2 2 ¼ ¼ 1=x 1 1=x x=x 2 1x ¼ ¼2 ð1 xÞ=x x x 2x ¼ ¼2 1x 1x There is no reason a function cannot be evaluated at itself. In other words, sometimes we are asked to compute f f ðxÞ for some function f ðxÞ. For example, suppose f ðxÞ ¼ 3x2 þ 5. f f ðxÞ ¼ f ð f ðxÞÞ ¼ f ð3x2 þ 5Þ ¼ 3ð3x2 þ 5Þ2 þ 5 ¼ 3ð3x2 þ 5Þð3x2 þ 5Þ þ 5 ¼ 3ð9x2 þ 30x þ 25Þ þ 5 ¼ 27x2 þ 90x þ 80 Sometimes we need only to compose functions at a single x-value. For example, if f ðxÞ ¼ 8 5x and gðxÞ ¼ x þ 4, we might only need to ﬁnd f gðxÞ for x ¼ 2. To do this, let x ¼ 2 in gðxÞ: gð2Þ ¼ 2 þ 4 ¼ 6. Now let x ¼ 6 in f ðxÞ: f ð6Þ ¼ 8 5ð6Þ ¼ 22. We have just found that f gð2Þ ¼ 22. Of course, if we know that f gðxÞ ¼ 5x 10 (as we computed earlier), we could evaluate f gð2Þ by letting x ¼ 2 in 5x 12. For the following examples and practice problems, both f gðxÞ and g f ðxÞ were computed as above. EXAMPLES * Find f gð1Þ and g f ð2Þ for f ðxÞ ¼ x2 þ 4x 3 and gðxÞ ¼ 2x 5. First ﬁnd gð1Þ: gð1Þ ¼ 2ð1Þ 5 ¼ 3. Now let x ¼ 3 in f ðxÞ: f ð3Þ ¼ ð3Þ2 þ 4ð3Þ 3 ¼ 6, so f gð1Þ ¼ f ðgð1ÞÞ ¼ f ð3Þ ¼ 6. g f ð2Þ ¼ gð f ð2ÞÞ ¼ gð7Þ

ð f ð2Þ ¼ ð2Þ2 þ 4ð2Þ 3 ¼ 7Þ

ðgð7Þ ¼ 2ð7Þ 5 ¼ 19Þ pﬃﬃﬃ Find f gð0Þ and g f ð9Þ for f ðxÞ ¼ x and gðxÞ ¼ x2 þ 2x þ 2. f gð0Þ ¼ f ðgð0ÞÞ ¼ 19

*

¼ f ð2Þ pﬃﬃﬃ ¼ 2

ðgð0Þ ¼ 02 þ 2ð0Þ þ 2 ¼ 2Þ

g f ð9Þ ¼ gð f ð9ÞÞ ¼ gð3Þ

ð f ð9Þ ¼

¼ 32 þ 2ð3Þ þ 2 ¼ 17

pﬃﬃﬃ 9 ¼ 3Þ

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

268

PRACTICE 1. Find f gð3Þ and g f ð5Þ for f ðxÞ ¼ x þ 2 and gðxÞ ¼ x2 p ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ﬃ 4. 2. Find f gð5Þ and g f ð2Þ for f ðxÞ ¼ x2 and gðxÞ ¼ 2x 4. 3. Find f gð2Þ and g f ð2Þ for f ðxÞ ¼ 1=x and gðxÞ ¼ 2=ðx 1Þ. SOLUTIONS 1. f gð3Þ ¼ f ðgð3ÞÞ ¼ f ð5Þ ðgð3Þ ¼ ð3Þ2 4 ¼ 5Þ ¼5þ2¼7 g f ð5Þ ¼ gð f ð5ÞÞ ¼ gð7Þ

ðf ð5Þ ¼ 5 þ 2 ¼ 7Þ

2

¼ 7 4 ¼ 45 2. f gð5Þ ¼ f ðgð5ÞÞ pﬃﬃﬃ ¼ f ð 6Þ pﬃﬃﬃ ¼ ð 6Þ2 ¼ 6

ðgð5Þ ¼

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ 2ð5Þ 4 ¼ 6Þ

g f ð2Þ ¼ gð4Þ ð f ð2Þ ¼ 22 ¼ 4Þ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ ¼ 2ð4Þ 4 ¼ 4 ¼ 2 3. f gð2Þ ¼ f ðgð2ÞÞ 2 2 2 gð2Þ ¼ ¼f ¼ 3 2 1 3 1 2 3 3 ¼ ¼1 ¼1 ¼ 2=3 3 2 2 g f ð2Þ ¼ gð f ð2ÞÞ 1 1 ¼g f ð2Þ ¼ 2 2 2 2 ¼ ¼ 1=2 1 1=2 1 ¼2 ¼ 2 ð2Þ ¼ 4 2 Graphs can be used to evaluate the composition of functions at a particular x-value. For f gðxÞ, the y-value of gðxÞ becomes the x-value for f ðxÞ. In other

CHAPTER 8 Transformations words, f gðxÞ is the y-value for f ðxÞ whose x-value is gðxÞ. For example, if we are asked to ﬁnd f gð1Þ, we need to look on the graph of gðxÞ for the point whose x-coordinate is 1, and put this y-coordinate in for x in f ðxÞ. EXAMPLE

Fig. 8-84.

The solid graph is the graph of f ðxÞ and the dashed graph is the graph of gðxÞ. *

Find f gð1Þó f gð1Þó g f ð0Þ For f gð1Þ ¼ f ðgð1ÞÞ, we need to look on the graph of gðxÞ for the point whose x-coordinate is 1. This point is ð1ó 2Þ. Now we will use y ¼ 2 as x ¼ 2 in f ðxÞ. We need to look on the graph of f ðxÞ for the point whose x-coordinate is 2. That point is ð2ó 5Þ. This means that f gð1Þ ¼ 5. For f gð1Þ ¼ f ðgð1ÞÞ, we will look on the graph of gðxÞ for the point whose x-coordinate is 1. This point is ð1ó 2Þ. Now we will use y ¼ 2 as x ¼ 2 in f ðxÞ. We need to look on the graph of f ðxÞ for the point whose x-coordinate is 2. That point is ð2ó 3Þ. This means that f gð1Þ ¼ 3. For g f ð0Þ ¼ gð f ð0ÞÞ, we need to look on the graph of f ðxÞ for the point whose x-coordinate is 0. This point is ð0ó 3Þ. Now we will look on the graph of gðxÞ for the point whose x-coordinate is 3. That point is ð3ó 6Þ. This means that g f ð0Þ ¼ 6.

PRACTICE The graph of f ðxÞ is the solid graph, and the graph of gðxÞ is the dashed graph.

269

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

270

Fig. 8-85.

1. 2. 3. 4.

Find Find Find Find

f gð3Þ g f ð1Þ f gð1Þ f f ð2Þ

SOLUTIONS 1. The point ð3ó 1Þ is on the graph of gðxÞ. The point on the graph of f ðxÞ whose x-coordinate is 1 is ð1ó 5Þ. This makes f gð3Þ ¼ 5. 2. The point ð1ó 5Þ is on the graph of f ðxÞ. The point on the graph of gðxÞ whose x-coordinate is 5 is ð5ó 4Þ. This makes g f ð1Þ ¼ 4. 3. The point ð1ó 2Þ is on the graph of gðxÞ. The point on the graph of f ðxÞ whose x-coordinate is 2 is ð2ó 0Þ. This makes f gð1Þ ¼ 0. 4. The point ð2ó 0Þ is on the graph of f ðxÞ. The point on the graph of f ðxÞ whose x-coordinate is 0 is ð0ó 8Þ. This makes f f ð2Þ ¼ 8.

THE DOMAIN OF THE COMPOSITION OF FUNCTIONS Finding the domain of the composition of functions is a little more complicated than ﬁnding the domain for the other combinations. For example, x ¼ 1 is in the domain of both f ðxÞ ¼ 1=x and gðxÞ ¼ x þ 1 but not in the domain of f gðxÞ. Why not? We cannot let f ðxÞ be evaluated at x ¼ 0, and gð1Þ ¼ 1 þ 1 ¼ 0, so f gð1ÞÞ ¼ f ðgð1ÞÞ ¼ f ð0Þ ¼ 10 is not deﬁned. For any functions f ðxÞ and gðxÞ, the domain of f gðxÞ is the domain of gðxÞ after deleting any x-values whose y-values are not allowed for f ðxÞ.

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

271

In the above example, x ¼ 1 is in the domain of gðxÞ but x ¼ gð1Þ is not in the domain of f ðxÞ. To ﬁnd the domain of f gðxÞ, we ﬁrst need to ﬁnd the domain of gðxÞ. Next, we will evaluate f ðxÞ at gðxÞ. Before simplifying, see which, if any, x-values need to be removed from the domain of gðxÞ. EXAMPLES Find the domain of f gðxÞ. *

f ðxÞ ¼ 1=ðx 1Þ and gðxÞ ¼ x2 The domain for gðxÞ is all x. Are there any x-values that need to be removed? This means, are there any y-values for gðxÞ that cause a zero in the denominator for f ðxÞ? Evaluate f ðgðxÞÞ. f ðgðxÞÞ ¼ f ðx2 Þ ¼

*

*

1 x 1 2

Because x ¼ 1 and x ¼ 1 cause the denominator to be 0, we must remove them from the domain of gðxÞ. The domain of f gðxÞ is all x except 1 and 1. In interval notation, this set is ð1ó 1Þ [ ð1ó 1Þ [ ð1ó 1Þ. pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ f ðxÞ ¼ x2 and gðxÞ ¼ x þ 1 The domain for gðxÞ is all x 1. Are there any x-values that need topbe removed from ½1ó 1Þ? We need for f gðxÞ ¼ f ðgðxÞÞ ¼ ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2 f ð x þ 1Þ ¼ ð x þ 1Þ to be deﬁned. Since x þ 1 is deﬁned for all x 1, we do not need to remove any numbers from ½1ó 1Þ, so the domain for f gðxÞ is ½1ó 1Þ. f ðxÞ ¼ 1=ðx þ 1Þ and gðxÞ ¼ 1=ðx 1Þ The domain for gðxÞ is all x except 1. f gðxÞ ¼ f ðgðxÞÞ ¼

1 1=ðx 1Þ þ 1

We cannot allow the denominator, 1=ðx 1Þ þ 1, to be 0, so we need to remove any x-value from the domain of gðxÞ that makes 1=ðx 1Þ þ 1 ¼ 0. 1 þ1¼0 x1 1 x1 þ1 ¼0 x1 x1 1 þ ðx 1Þ x ¼ ¼0 x x1

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

272

The fraction x=ðx 1Þ is 0 when the numerator, x, is 0. This makes the domain for f gðxÞ all x except 1 and 0. In interval notation, this is ð1ó 0Þ [ ð0ó 1Þ [ ð1ó 1Þ. This is a good example of why we need to look at f gðxÞ before it is simpliﬁed because f gðxÞ simpliﬁes to ðx 1Þ=x. This simpliﬁcation hides the fact that we cannot allow x to equal 1. PRACTICE Find the domain for f gðxÞ. Give solutions in interval notation. pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 1. f ðxÞ ¼ 4x 5 and gðxÞp¼ x ﬃþ 3 ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2 2. f ðxÞ ¼ x and gðxÞ ¼ 3x þ 5 3. f ðxÞ ¼ 1=ðx þ 1Þ and gðxÞ ¼ x 1 pﬃﬃﬃ 4. f ðxÞ ¼ 1=x and gðxÞ ¼ x SOLUTIONS pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 1. The domain for gðxÞ is x 3. Evaluate f gðxÞ: f ð x þ 3Þ ¼ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 4 x þ 3 5. We do not need to remove any x-values, so the domain is ½3ó 1Þ. pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 5 2. The domain pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ﬃ 2 for gðxÞ is x 3. Evaluate f gðxÞ: f ð 3x þ 5Þ ¼ ð 3x þ 5Þ ¼ 3x þ 5. We do not need to remove any x-values. The domain is ½ 53 ó 1Þ. 3. The domain for gðxÞ is all x. Evaluate f gðxÞ f gðxÞ ¼ f ðgðxÞÞ ¼ f ðx 1Þ ¼

4.

1 1 ¼ ðx 1Þ þ 1 x

We cannot allow x to be 0, so we need to remove x ¼ 0 from the domain of gðxÞ. The domain is ð1ó 0Þ [ ð0ó 1Þ. The domain for gðxÞ is x 0. Evaluate f gðxÞ. pﬃﬃﬃ 1 f gðxÞ ¼ f ð xÞ ¼ pﬃﬃﬃ x pﬃﬃﬃ We cannot allow x ¼ 0, so we need to remove x ¼ 0 from the domain of gðxÞ. The domain is ð0ó 1Þ.

A chain of three or more functions can be composed together. The steps in evaluating these chains are the same as in evaluating the composition of two functions. By deﬁnition, f g hðxÞ ¼ f gðhðxÞÞ ¼ f ðgðhðxÞÞÞ. In this expression, we call f the outside function, g the middle function, and

CHAPTER 8 Transformations h the inside function. In f g hðxÞ, we begin by ﬁnding gðhðxÞÞ, then evaluating f ðxÞ at gðhðxÞÞ. EXAMPLES Find f g hðxÞ. pﬃﬃﬃ * f ðxÞ ¼ x, gðxÞ ¼ 5x þ 6, and hðxÞ ¼ 8x2 þ x þ 4 First we will ﬁnd g hðxÞ ¼ gðhðxÞÞ. gðhðxÞÞ ¼ gð8x2 þ x þ 4Þ ¼ 5ð8x2 þ x þ 4Þ þ 6 ¼ 40x2 þ 5x þ 26 Now we can evaluate f ðxÞ at 40x2 þ 5x þ 26. pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ f g hðxÞ ¼ f ð40x2 þ 5x þ 26Þ ¼ 40x2 þ 5x þ 26 *

f ðxÞ ¼ x10 ó gðxÞ ¼ 2x2 9, and hðxÞ ¼ 3x þ 8 g hðxÞ ¼ gðhðxÞÞ ¼ gð3x þ 8Þ ¼ 2ð3x þ 8Þ2 9 ¼ 2ð3x þ 8Þð3x þ 8Þ 9 ¼ 18x2 þ 96x þ 119 Evaluate f ðxÞ at 18x2 þ 96x þ 119 f g hðxÞ ¼ f ð18x2 þ 96x þ 119Þ ¼ ð18x2 þ 96x þ 119Þ10

PRACTICE Find f g hðxÞ. 1. 2. 3. 4.

f ðxÞ ¼ 5x 8ó ﬃgðxÞ ¼ 2x þ 9, and hðxÞ ¼ 6x2 þ 3x þ 1 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ f ðxÞ ¼ 3x þ 4ó gðxÞ ¼ x2 x 3, and hðxÞ ¼ x þ 1 f ðxÞ ¼ x12 ó gðxÞ ¼ 3x2 þ x 4, and hðxÞ ¼ 9x þ 2 f ðxÞ ¼ 1=xó gðxÞ ¼ x2 , and hðxÞ ¼ x2 4

SOLUTIONS 1. g hðxÞ ¼ gðhðxÞÞ ¼ gð6x2 þ 3x þ 1Þ ¼ 2ð6x2 þ 3x þ 1Þ þ 9 ¼ 12x2 þ 6x þ 11 f ð12x2 þ 6x þ 11Þ ¼ 5ð12x2 þ 6x þ 11Þ 8 ¼ 60x2 þ 30x þ 47 f g hðxÞ ¼ 60x2 þ 30x þ 47

273

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

274 2.

g hðxÞ ¼ gðhðxÞÞ ¼ gðx þ 1Þ ¼ ðx þ 1Þ2 ðx þ 1Þ 3 ¼ ðx þ 1Þðx þ 1Þ x 1 3 ¼ x2 þ x 3 f ðx2 þ x 3Þ ¼ f g hðxÞ ¼

qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 3ðx2 þ x 3Þ þ 4 ¼ 3x2 þ 3x 5 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 3x2 þ 3x 5

3. g hðxÞ ¼ gðhðxÞÞ ¼ gð9x þ 2Þ ¼ 3ð9x þ 2Þ2 þ ð9x þ 2Þ 4 ¼ 3ð9x þ 2Þð9x þ 2Þ þ 9x þ 2 4 ¼ 243x2 þ 117x þ 10 f ð243x2 þ 117x þ 10Þ ¼ ð243x2 þ 117x þ 10Þ12 f g hðxÞ ¼ ð243x2 þ 117x þ 10Þ12 4. g hðxÞ ¼ gðhðxÞÞ ¼ gðx2 4Þ ¼ ðx2 4Þ2 ¼ ðx2 4Þðx2 4Þ ¼ x4 8x2 þ 16 1 8x2 þ 16 1 f g hðxÞ ¼ 4 x 8x2 þ 16

f ðx4 8x2 þ 16Þ ¼

x4

Chapter 8 Review 1.

The graph of f ðx þ 3Þ 6 is the graph of f ðxÞ a) shifted to the left 3 units and down 6 units. b) shifted to the right 3 units and up 6 units. c) shifted to the left 3 units and up 6 units. d) shifted to the right 3 units and down 6 units.

CHAPTER 8 Transformations 2.

The solid graph in Fig. 8-86 is the graph of f ðxÞ ¼ jxj. The dashed graph is the graph of which function? a) y ¼ jx þ 2j 1 b) y ¼ jx 2j 1 c) y ¼ jx þ 2j þ 1 d) y ¼ jx 2j þ 1

Fig. 8-86.

3.

Is f ðxÞ ¼ 3x2 þ 5 an even function, odd function, or neither? a) Even b) Odd c) Neither d) Cannot be determined

4.

For f ðxÞ ¼ x 7 and gðxÞ ¼ x2 þ 3x, ﬁnd f gðxÞ. b) x2 11x þ 28 c) x3 4x2 21x a) x2 þ 4x 7 d) x2 þ 3x 7

5.

The solid graph in Fig. 8-87 is the graph of f ðxÞ. The dashed graph is the graph of a f ðxÞ. What is a? b) 12 c) 2 d) 2 a) 12

Fig. 8-87.

275

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

276 6.

The graph of 3f ðxÞ is the graph of f ðxÞ a) reﬂected about the x-axis and vertically stretched. b) reﬂected about the x-axis and vertically ﬂattened. c) reﬂected about the y-axis and vertically stretched. d) reﬂected about the y-axis and vertically ﬂattened.

7.

Is gðxÞ ¼ 2x3 x an even function, odd function, or neither? a) Even b) Odd c) Neither d) Cannot be determined pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ Evaluate f gðxÞ for f ðxÞ ¼ 3x þ 5 and gðxÞ ¼ x2 . pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ c) x2 þ 5 b) x2 3x þ 5 d) 3x þ 5 a) 3x2 þ 5

8.

9.

10.

What is the domain for f gðxÞ when f ðxÞ ¼ 1=x and gðxÞ ¼ x 6? a) ð1; 0Þ [ ð0; 1Þ b) ð0; 6Þ [ ð6; 1Þ c) ð1; 6Þ [ ð6; 1Þ d) ð1; 0Þ [ ð0; 6Þ [ ð6; 1Þ pﬃﬃﬃ The solid graph in Fig. 8-88 is the graph of y ¼ x. The dashed graph is p the pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ﬃﬃﬃ graph of what function? pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ a) y ¼ px þ1 b) y ¼ x þ 1 c) y ¼ 1 x ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ d) y ¼ x 1

Fig. 8-88.

11.

Find f gð2Þ when f ðxÞ ¼ x2 x and gðxÞ ¼ 4x. a) 16 b) 8 c) 56 d) 10

CHAPTER 8 Transformations 12.

277

pﬃﬃﬃ Find f g hðxÞ for f ðxÞ ¼ 3 x, gðxÞ ¼ x2 þ 1, and hðxÞ ¼ 2x þ 5. p p ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 3 3 2 þ 20x þ 26 b) ð2x þ 5Þ x2 þ 1 c) 2x2=3 þ 7 a) p4x ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ﬃ 3 d) 2x2 þ 7

SOLUTIONS 1. a) 2. b) 7. b) 8. a)

3. a) 9. c)

4. d) 10. d)

5. b) 11. c)

6. a) 12. a)

9

CHAPTER

Polynomial Functions

A polynomial function is a function in the form f ðxÞ ¼ an xn þ an1 xn1 þ þ a1 x þ a0 , where each ai is a real number and the powers on x are whole numbers. There is no x under a root sign and no x in any denominator. The number ai is called a coeﬃcient. For example, in the polynomial function f ðxÞ ¼ 2x3 þ 5x2 4x þ 8, the coeﬃcients are 2ó 5ó 4, and 8. The constant term (the term with no variable) is 8. The powers on x are 3ó 2, and 1. The degree of the polynomial (and polynomial function) is the highest power on x. In this example, the degree is 3. Quadratic functions are of degree 2. Linear functions of the form f ðxÞ ¼ mx þ b (if m 6¼ 0) are of degree 1. Constant functions of the form f ðxÞ ¼ b are of degree 0 (this is because x0 ¼ 1, making f ðxÞ ¼ bx0 ). The leading term of a polynomial (and polynomial function) is the term having x to the highest power. Usually, but not always, the leading term is written ﬁrst. The leading coeﬃcient is the coeﬃcient on the leading term. In our example, the leading term is 2x3 , and the leading coeﬃcient is 2. By looking at the leading term only, we can tell roughly what the graph looks like. The graph of any polynomial will go up on both ends, go down on both ends, or go up on one end and down on the other. This is called the end behavior of the

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CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions graph. The ﬁgures below illustrate the end behavior. The shape of the dashed part of each graph depends on the individual function.

Fig. 9-1.

This graph goes up on both ends.

Fig. 9-2.

This graph goes down on both ends.

Fig. 9-3.

This graph goes down on the left and up on the right.

279

280

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

Fig. 9-4.

This graph goes up on the left and down on the right. If the degree of the polynomial is an even number, the graph will look like the graph in Figs. 9-1 or 9-2. If the leading coeﬃcient is a positive number, the graph will look like the graph in Fig. 9-1. If the leading coeﬃcient is a negative number, the graph will look like the graph in Fig. 9-2. If the degree of the polynomial is an odd number, the graph will look like the one in Figs. 9-3 or 9-4. If the leading coeﬃcient is a positive number, the graph will look like the graph in Fig. 9-3. If the leading coeﬃcient is a negative number, the graph will look like the graph in Fig. 9-4. How can one term in a polynomial function give us this information? For polynomial functions, the leading term dominates all of the other terms. For x-values large enough (both large positive numbers and large negative numbers), the other terms do not contribute much to the size of the y-values. ‘‘Large enough’’ x-values depend on the polynomial. For example, x ¼ 100 is ‘‘large’’ for the function f ðxÞ ¼ x2 x þ 1 but not ‘‘large’’ for the function f ðxÞ ¼ 9718x10 þ 30ó162x8 10ó956x7 . We can avoid memorizing the eﬀect of the leading coeﬃcient on the graph of the function by reasoning our way to remembering. Suppose the leading term is 5x4 . What kind of y-value will we get for a ‘‘large’’ positive x-value? 5ðlarge positiveÞ4 A ‘‘large’’ positive number raised to the fourth power then multiplied by 5 will be another ‘‘large’’ positive number. The same is true for a ‘‘large’’ negative number. 5ðlarge negativeÞ4

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions This is another ‘‘large’’ positive number. This means that the graph will look like the graph in Fig. 9-1. If we change the leading coeﬃcient from 5 to 5, then 5(large positive)4 and 5(large negative)4 are large negative numbers. The graph of the function will look like the graph in Fig. 9-2. Now suppose the leading term is 5x3 . What kind of y-value will we get by letting x be a ‘‘large’’ positive number? 5ðlarge positiveÞ3 A large positive number raised to the third power is also a large positive number. When multiplied by 5, it becomes a larger positive number. 5ðlarge negativeÞ3 A large negative number raised to the third power is a large negative number. When multiplied by 5, it becomes a larger negative number. The graph of the function will look like the graph in Fig. 9-3. Finally, if the leading coeﬃcient is 5 instead of 5, 5ðlarge positiveÞ3 is a large negative number, and 5ðlarge negativeÞ3 is a large positive number. The graph of the function will look like the graph in Fig. 9-4. EXAMPLES Match the graph of the given function with one of the graphs in Figs. 9-1–9-4. *

*

*

f ðxÞ ¼ 4x5 þ 6x3 2x2 þ 8x þ 11 We only need to look at the leading term, 4x5 . The degree, 5, is odd, and the leading coeﬃcient, 4. The graph of this function looks like the one in Fig. 9-3. PðxÞ ¼ 5 þ 2x 6x2 The leading term is 6x2 . The degree, 2, is even, and the leading coeﬃcient, 6, is negative. The graph of this function looks like the one in Fig. 9-2. hðxÞ ¼ 2x3 þ 4x2 7x þ 9 The leading term is 2x3 . The degree, 3, is odd, and the leading coeﬃcient, 2, is negative. The graph of this function looks like the one in Fig. 9-4.

281

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

282 *

gðxÞ ¼ x4 þ 4x3 8x2 þ 3x 5 The leading term is x4 . The degree, 4, is even, and the leading coeﬃcient, 1, is positive. The graph of this function looks like the one in Fig. 9-1.

PRACTICE Match the graph of the given function with one of the graphs in Figs. 9-1–9-4. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

f ðxÞ ¼ 8x3 þ 4x2 9x þ 3 f ðxÞ ¼ 4x5 þ 10x4 3x3 þ x2 PðxÞ ¼ x2 þ x 6 gðxÞ ¼ 1 þ x þ x2 þ x3 PðxÞ ¼ x3

SOLUTIONS 1. Figure 9-4 2. Figure 9-3 3. Figure 9-2 4. Figure 9-3 5. Figure 9-4 Finding the x-intercepts (if any) for the graph of a polynomial function is very important. The x-intercept of any graph is where the graph touches the x-axis. This happens when the y-coordinate of the point is 0. We found the x-intercepts for many quadratic functions—by factoring and setting each factor equal to zero. This is how we will ﬁnd the x-intercepts for any polynomial function. This is not always easy to do. In fact, some polynomials are so hard to factor that the best we can do is approximate the x-intercepts (using graphing calculators or calculus manipulations). This will not be the case for the polynomials in this book, however. Every polynomial here will be factorable using the techniques covered later in the book. Because an x-intercept for f ðxÞ ¼ an xn þ an1 xn1 þ þ a1 x þ a0 is a solution to the equation 0 ¼ an xn þ an1 xn1 þ þ a1 x þ a0 , x-intercepts are also called zeros of the polynomial. All of the following statements have the same meaning for a polynomial. Let c be a real number, and let PðxÞ be a polynomial function. 1. 2. 3.

c is an x-intercept of the graph of PðxÞ. c is a zero for PðxÞ. x c is a factor of PðxÞ.

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions EXAMPLES * x 1 is a factor means that 1 is an x-intercept and a zero. * x þ 5 is a factor means that 5 is an x-intercept and a zero. * x is a factor means that 0 is an x-intercept and a zero. * 3 is a zero means that x 3 is a factor and 3 is an x-intercept. We can ﬁnd the zeros of a function (or at least the approximate zeros) by looking at its graph.

Fig. 9-5.

The x-intercepts of the graph in Fig. 9-5 are 2 and 2. Now we know that x 2 and x þ 2 (which is x ð2Þ) are factors of the polynomial.

Fig. 9-6.

283

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

284

The graph of the polynomial function in Fig. 9-6 has x-intercepts of 1ó 1, and 2. This means that x 1ó x 2, and x þ 1 (as x ð1Þ) are factors of the polynomial.

Fig. 9-7.

The x-intercepts for the graph in Fig. 9-7 are 3ó 0, and 2, making x þ 3, x (as x 0), and x 2 factors of the polynomial. PRACTICE Identify the x-intercepts and factors for the polynomial functions whose graphs are given. 1.

Fig. 9-8.

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions 2.

Fig. 9-9.

3.

Fig. 9-10.

4.

Fig. 9-11.

285

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

286 5.

Fig. 9-12.

SOLUTIONS 1. The x-intercepts are 2ó 0, and 1, so x þ 2ó x, and x 1 are factors of the polynomial. 2. The x-intercepts are 3ó 2, and 4, so x þ 3ó x 2, and x 4 are factors of the polynomial. 3. The x-intercepts are 0 and 4, so x and x 4 are factors of the polynomial. 4. The x-intercepts are 4ó 2ó 2 and 4, so x þ 4ó x þ 2ó x 2, and x 4 are factors of the polynomial. 5. The x-intercepts are 3 and 0, so x þ 3 and x are factors of the polynomial. Now that we know about the end behavior of the graphs of polynomial functions and the relationship between x-intercepts and factors, we can look at a polynomial and have a pretty good idea of what its graph looks like. In the next set of examples and practice problems, we will match the graphs from the above discussion with their polynomial functions. EXAMPLES Match the functions with the graphs in Figs. 9-5–9-7. *

f ðxÞ ¼

1 2 1 1 3 x ðx þ 3Þðx 2Þ ¼ x4 þ x3 x2 10 10 10 5

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions Because f ðxÞ is a polynomial whose degree is even and whose leading coeﬃcient is positive, we will look for a graph that goes up on the left and up on the right. Because the factors are x2 ó x þ 3, and x 2, we will also look for a graph with x-intercepts of 0ó 3, and 2. The graph in Fig. 9-7 satisﬁes these conditions. *

*

1 1 1 gðxÞ ¼ ðx 1Þðx 2Þðx þ 1Þ ¼ x3 x2 x þ 1 2 2 2 Because gðxÞ is a polynomial whose degree is odd and whose leading coeﬃcient is positive, we will look for a graph that goes down on the left and up on the right. The factors are x 1ó x 2, and x þ 1, so we will also look for a graph with 1ó 2, and 1 as x-intercepts. The graph in Fig. 9-6 is the only one that satisﬁes all of these conditions. PðxÞ ¼ ðx2 þ 2Þðx 2Þðx þ 2Þ ¼ x4 2x2 8 Because PðxÞ is a polynomial whose degree is even and whose leading term is positive, we will look for a graph that goes up on both ends. Although x2 þ 2 is a factor, there is no x-intercept from this factor (this is because x2 þ 2 ¼ 0 has no real number solution). The xintercepts are 2 and 2. The graph in Fig. 9-5 satisﬁes these conditions.

PRACTICE Match the polynomial function with one of the graphs in Figs. 9-8–9-12. 1. 1 1 5 f ðxÞ ¼ ðx þ 4Þðx þ 2Þðx 2Þðx 4Þ ¼ x4 þ x2 8 8 8 2 2. gðxÞ ¼ x2 ðx 4Þ2 ¼ x4 8x3 þ 16x2 3. 1 1 1 PðxÞ ¼ x2 ðx þ 2Þðx 1Þ ¼ x4 x3 þ x2 2 2 2 4. QðxÞ ¼ x2 ðx þ 3Þ ¼ x3 þ 3x2 5. 1 1 3 RðxÞ ¼ ðx þ 3Þðx 2Þðx 4Þ ¼ x3 x2 5x þ 12 2 2 2 SOLUTIONS 1. Figure 9-11 2. Figure 9-10

287

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

288 3. 4. 5.

Figure 9-8 Figure 9-12 Figure 9-9

Sketching Graphs of Polynomials To sketch the graph of most polynomial functions accurately, we need to use calculus (do not let that scare you—the calculus part is easier than the algebra part!). We can still get a pretty good graph using algebra alone. The general method is to plot x-intercepts (if there are any), a point to the left of the smallest x-intercept, a point between any two x-intercepts, and a point to the right of the largest x-intercept. Because y-intercepts are easy to ﬁnd, these can also be plotted. EXAMPLES 1 * f ðxÞ ¼ xðx þ 1Þðx 3Þ 2 The x-intercepts are 0ó 1, and 3. We will use x ¼ 2 for the point to the left of the smallest x-intercept, x ¼ 0:5 for the point between the x-intercepts 1 and 0, x ¼ 1:5 for the point between the x-intercepts 0 and 3, and x ¼ 4 for the point to the right of the x-intercept 3 (Table 9-1). Table 9-1 x

f (x)

2

5

1

0

0.5

0.4375

0 1.5

0 2.8125

3

0

4

10

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

Fig. 9-13.

*

f ðxÞ ¼ ð2x 1Þðx þ 2Þðx 3Þ The x-intercept from the factor 2x 1 is 12. 2x 1 ¼ 0 2x ¼ 1 x¼

1 2

The other x-intercepts are 2 and 3. In addition to the x-intercepts, we will plot the points for x ¼ 2:5 (to the left of x ¼ 2), x ¼ 1 (between x ¼ 2 and x ¼ 12), x ¼ 2 (between x ¼ 12 and x ¼ 3), and x ¼ 3:5 (to the right of x ¼ 3) (Table 9-2). The reason we used x ¼ 2:5 instead of x ¼ 3 and x ¼ 3:5 instead of x ¼ 4 is that their y-values were too large for our graph.

289

290

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions Table 9-2 x

f (x)

2.5

16.5

2

0

1

12

0

6

1 2

0

2

12

3

0

3.5

16.5

Fig. 9-14.

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions PRACTICE Sketch the graph of the function. 1. 2. 3.

f ðxÞ ¼ 12 xðx 2Þðx þ 2Þ gðxÞ ¼ 12 ðx þ 3Þðx 1Þðx 3Þ 1 ðx þ 4Þðx þ 1Þðx 2Þðx 3Þ hðxÞ ¼ 10

SOLUTIONS 1.

Fig. 9-15.

2.

Fig. 9-16.

291

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

292 3.

Fig. 9-17.

Polynomials can be divided in much the same way as whole numbers. When we take the quotient of two whole numbers (where the divisor is not zero), we get a quotient and a remainder. The same happens when we take the quotient of two polynomials. Polynomial division is useful in factoring polynomials. Polynomial division problems usually come in one of two forms. dividend polynomial or dividend polynomial divisor polynomial divisor polynomial According to the division algorithm for polynomials, for any polynomials f ðxÞ and gðxÞ (with gðxÞ not the zero function) f ðxÞ rðxÞ ¼ qðxÞ þ ó gðxÞ gðxÞ where qðxÞ is the quotient (which might be 0) and rðxÞ is the remainder, which has degree strictly less than the degree of gðxÞ. Multiplying by gðxÞ to clear the fraction, we also get f ðxÞ ¼ gðxÞqðxÞ þ rðxÞ. First we will perform polynomial division using long division. qðxÞ gðxÞj f ðxÞ rðxÞ

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions EXAMPLES Find the quotient and remainder using long division. *

4x2 þ 3x 5 xþ2 x þ 2j 4x2 þ 3x 5 We will begin by dividing the leading term of the dividend by the leading term of the divisor. For the ﬁrst step in this example, we will divide 4x2 by x. You might see right away that 4x2 x is 4x. If not, write 4x2 x as a fraction then reduce: 4x2 =x ¼ 4x. This will be the ﬁrst term of the quotient. 4x x þ 2j 4x2 þ 3x 5 Multiply 4x by the divisor: 4xðx þ 2Þ ¼ 4x2 þ 8x. Subtract this from the ﬁrst two terms of the dividend. Be careful to subtract all of 4x2 þ 8x, not just 4x2 . x þ 2j

4x 4x2 þ 3x 5 ð4x2 þ 8xÞ 5x

Bring down the next term. 4x 4x2 þ 3x 5 ð4x2 þ 8xÞ 5x 5

x þ 2j

Start the process again with 5x x ¼ 5. Multiply x þ 2 by 5: 5ðx þ 2Þ ¼ 5x 10. Subtract this from 5x 5. x þ 2j

4x 5 4x2 þ 3x 5 ð4x2 þ 8xÞ 5x 5 ð 5x 10Þ 5

293

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

294

We are ﬁnished because 5 x ¼ 5=x cannot be a term in a polynomial. The remainder is 5 and the quotient is 4x 5. *

3x4 þ 5x3 4x2 þ 7x 1 x2 þ 2x 3 x2 þ 2x 3j 3x4 þ 5x3 4x2 þ 7x 1 Divide 3x4 by x2 to get the ﬁrst term of the quotient: 3x4 =x2 ¼ 3x2 . Multiply x2 þ 2x 3 by 3x2 : 3x2 ðx2 þ 2x 3Þ ¼ 3x4 þ 6x3 9x2 . Subtract this from the ﬁrst three terms in the dividend. 3x2 x2 þ 2x 3j 3x4 þ 5x3 4x2 þ 7x 1 ð3x4 þ 6x3 9x2 Þ x3 þ 5x2 Divide x3 by x2 to get the second term in the quotient: x3 =x2 ¼ x. Multiply x2 þ 2x 3 by x: xðx2 þ 2x 3Þ ¼ x3 2x2 þ 3x. Subtract this from x3 þ 5x2 þ 7x. 3x2 x x2 þ 2x 3j 3x4 þ 5x3 4x2 þ 7x 1 ð3x4 þ 6x3 9x2 Þ x3 þ 5x2 þ 7x ðx3 2x2 þ 3xÞ 7x2 þ 4x Divide 7x2 by x2 to get the third term in the quotient: 7x2 =x2 ¼ 7. Multiply x2 þ 2x 3 by 7: 7ðx2 þ 2x 3Þ ¼ 7x2 þ 14x 21. Subtract this from 7x2 þ 4x 1. 3x2 x þ 7 x2 þ 2x 3j 3x4 þ 5x3 4x2 þ 7x 1 ð3x4 þ 6x3 9x2 Þ x3 þ 5x2 þ 7x ðx3 2x2 þ 3xÞ 7x2 þ 4x 1 ð7x2 þ 14x 21Þ 10x þ 20

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions Because 10x=x2 cannot be a term in a polynomial, we are ﬁnished. The quotient is 3x2 x þ 7, and the remainder is 10x þ 20. PRACTICE Use long division to find the quotient and remainder. 1. x3 6x2 þ 12x 4 xþ2 2. ð6x3 2x2 þ 5x 1Þ ðx2 þ 3x þ 2Þ 3. x5 þ 3x4 3x3 3x2 þ 19x 13 x2 þ 2x 3 SOLUTIONS 1. x2 8x þ 28 x þ 2j x3 6x2 þ 12x 4 ðx3 þ 2x2 Þ 8x2 þ 12x ð8x2 16xÞ 28x 4 ð28x þ 56Þ 60 The quotient is x2 8x þ 28, and the remainder is 60. 2. 6x 20 x2 þ 3x þ 2j 6x3 2x2 þ 5x 1 ð6x3 þ 18x2 þ 12xÞ 20x2 7x 1 ð20x2 60x 40Þ 53x þ 39 The quotient is 6x 20, and the remainder is 53x þ 39.

295

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

296 3.

x3 þ x2 2x þ 4 x þ 2x 3j x5 þ 3x4 3x3 3x2 þ 19x 13 ðx5 þ 2x4 3x3 Þ 2

x4 þ 0x3 3x2 ðx4 þ 2x3 3x2 Þ 2x3 þ 0x2 þ 19x ð2x3 4x2 þ 6xÞ 4x2 þ 13x 13 ð4x2 þ 8x 12Þ 5x 1 The quotient is x3 þ x2 2x þ 4, and the remainder is 5x 1. It is important that every power of x, from the highest power to the constant term, be represented in the polynomial. Although it is possible to perform long division without all powers represented, it is very easy to make an error. Also, it is not possible to perform synthetic division (discussed later in this chapter) without a coeﬃcient for every term. If a power of x is not written, we need to rewrite the polynomial (either the dividend, divisor, or both) using a coeﬃcient of 0 on the missing powers. For example, we would write x3 1 as x3 þ 0x2 þ 0x 1. EXAMPLE * ðx3 8Þ ðx þ 1Þ Rewrite as ðx3 þ 0x2 þ 0x 8Þ ðx þ 1Þ x2 x þ 1 x þ 1j

x3 þ 0x2 þ 0x 8 ðx3 þ x2 Þ x2 þ 0x ðx2 xÞ x8 ðx þ 1Þ 9

The quotient is x2 x þ 1, and the remainder is 9.

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions PRACTICE Find the quotient and remainder. 1. x3 1 x1 2. 3.

ð3x4 5x þ 2Þ ðx 4Þ 3x4 x2 þ 1 x2 2

SOLUTIONS 1. x2 þ x þ 1 x 1j x3 þ 0x2 þ 0x 1 ðx3 x2 Þ x2 þ 0x ðx2 xÞ x1 ðx 1Þ 0 The quotient is x2 þ x þ 1, and the remainder is 0. 2. 3x3 þ 12x2 þ 48x þ 187 x 4j 3x4 þ 0 x3 þ 0x2 5x þ 2 ð3x4 12x3 Þ 12x3 þ 0x2 ð12x3 48x2 Þ 48x2 5x ð48x2 192xÞ 187x þ 2 ð187x 748Þ 750 The quotient is 3x3 þ 12x2 þ 48x þ 187, and the remainder is 750.

297

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

298 3.

3x2 þ 5 x þ 0x 2j 3x4 þ 0x3 x2 þ 0x þ 1 ð3x4 þ 0x3 6x2 Þ 5x2 þ 0x þ 1 ð5x2 þ 0x 10Þ 11 2

The quotient is 3x2 þ 5, and the remainder is 11. Polynomial division is a little more diﬃcult when the leading coeﬃcient of the divisor is not 1. One reason is that the terms of the quotient are harder to ﬁnd and are likely to be fractions. EXAMPLES Find the quotient and remainder using long division. *

x2 x þ 2 2x 1 Find the ﬁrst term in the quotient by dividing the ﬁrst term of the dividend by the ﬁrst term of the divisor: x2 =2x ¼ x=2 ¼ ð1=2Þx. 1 2x

2x 1j

x2 x þ 2 ðx2 12 xÞ 12 x þ 2

The second term in the quotient is 12 x 12 1 1 1 1 ¼ ¼ 2¼ ¼ 2 2 2 4 2 2x Multiply 2x 1 by 14: 14 ð2x 1Þ ¼ 12 x þ 14. 2x 1j

1 1 2x 4 x2 x þ

2

2

ðx 12 xÞ 12 x þ 2 ð 12 x þ 14Þ 7 4 The quotient is 12 x 14, and the remainder is 74.

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions *

299

2 ð4x þ 5x 6Þ x1 3 2

Find the ﬁrst term in the quotient by dividing the leading term of the dividend by the ﬁrst term of the divisor. 4x2 4x 2 3 ¼ 4x ¼ 4x ¼ 6x ¼ 3 2 ð2=3Þx 2=3 2 12 6x x 1 ¼ x2 6x ¼ 4x2 6x 3 3

2 3x

1j

6x 4x2 þ 5x 6 ð4x2 6xÞ 11x 6

11x 11 2 3 33 ¼ ¼ 11 ¼ 11 ¼ ð2=3Þx 2=3 3 2 2 33 2 66 33 33 x 1 ¼ x ¼ 11x 2 3 6 2 2 6x þ 33 2 2 2 þ 5x 6 j x 1 4x 3 ð4x2 6xÞ 11x 6 ð11x 33 2Þ 21 2

The quotient is 6x þ 33 2 , and the remainder is

21 2.

PRACTICE Use long division to find the quotient and remainder. 1. 2.

ðx3 x2 þ 2x þ 5Þ ð3x 4Þ 3x3 x2 þ 4x þ 2 ð1=2Þx2 þ 1

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

300 SOLUTIONS 1.

1 2 3x 3

þ 19 x 3x 4j x x2 þ 2x þ 5 ðx3 43 x2 Þ 1 2 3 x þ 2x ð13 x2 49 xÞ 22 9 xþ5 ð22=9Þx 22=9 22 1 22 ¼ ¼ ¼ 3x 3 9 3 27 22 66x 88 22 88 ð3x 4Þ ¼ ¼ x 27 27 27 9 27 1 2 3x 3

þ 19 x þ 22 27 3x 4j x x2 þ 2x þ 5 ðx3 43 xÞ 1 2 3 x þ 2x ð13 x2 49 xÞ 22 9 xþ5 88 ð22 9 x 27Þ 223 27

2.

The quotient is 13 x2 þ 19 x þ 22 27, and the remainder is

223 27 .

3x3 3x 1 ¼ 3x ¼ 3x 2 ¼ 6x ¼ 2 ð1=2Þ 2 ð1=2Þx 1 2 6x x þ 0x þ 1 ¼ 3x3 þ 0x2 6x 2

12 x2 þ 0x þ 1j

6x 3x3 x2 þ 4x þ 2 ð3x3 0x2 6xÞ x2 þ 10x þ 2

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

301

x2 1 1 ¼1 ¼12¼2 ¼ 2 ð1=2Þx2 1=2 1 2 2 x þ 0x þ 1 ¼ x2 þ 0x þ 2 2

12 x2

þ 0x þ 1j

6x þ 2 3x3 x2 þ 4x þ 2 ð3x3 0x2 6xÞ x2 þ 10x þ 2 ðx2 þ 0x þ 2Þ 10x þ 0

The quotient is 6x þ 2, and the remainder is 10x. Synthetic division of polynomials is much easier than long division. It only works when the divisor is of a certain form, though. Here, we will use synthetic division when the divisor is of the form x number or x þ number. First we will learn how to set up the problems. For a problem of the form an xn þ an1 xn1 þ þ a1 x þ a0 xc or

ðan xn þ an1 xn1 þ þ a1 x þ a0 Þ ðx cÞó

write cj an

an1

a1

a0

Every power of x must be represented. EXAMPLES Set up the division problems for synthetic division. *

4x3 5x2 þ x 8 x2 The coeﬃcients of the dividend are 4, 5, 1, and 8. Because the divisor is x 2, c ¼ 2. 2j 4

5

1

8

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

302

*

x3 2x þ 1 x4 We need to think of x3 2x þ 1 as x3 þ 0x2 2x þ 1. The coeﬃcients are 1ó 0ó 2, and 1. The divisor is x 4, so c ¼ 4. 4j 1

*

0

2

1

3x4 x2 þ 2x þ 9 xþ5 Think of 3x4 x2 þ 2x þ 9 as 3x4 þ 0x3 x2 þ 2x þ 9 and x þ 5 as x ð5Þ. The coeﬃcients are 3ó 0ó 1ó 2, and 9, and c ¼ 5. 5j 3

0

1

2

PRACTICE Set up the problems for synthetic division. 1. 5x3 þ x2 3x þ 4 x2 2. x4 x3 þ 3x 10 x6 3. x3 þ 2x2 þ x 8 xþ3 4.

ðx3 þ 8Þ ðx þ 2Þ

SOLUTIONS 1. 2j 5 1 3 4 2. 6j 1 1 0 3 10 3. 3j 1 2 1 8 4. 2j 1 0 0 8

9

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions We are ready to learn the steps in synthetic division. The tedious work in long division is reduced to a few steps. Find the quotient and remainder using synthetic division. 4x3 5x2 þ x 8 x2 2j 4

5

1

8

5

1

8

Bring down the ﬁrst coeﬃcient. 2j 4 4 Multiply this coeﬃcient by 2 (the c) and put the product under 5, the next coeﬃcient. 2j 4

5 1 8

8

4 Add 5 and 8. Put the sum under 8. 2j 4 4

5 1 8 3

8

Multiply 3 by 2 and put the product under 1, the next coeﬃcient. 2j 4 4

5 1 8 6 3

8

Add 1 and 6. Put the sum under 6. 2j 4 4

5 1 8 6 3 7

8

Multiply 7 by 2. Put the product under 8, the last coeﬃcient. 2j 4 4

5 1 8 6 3 7

8 14

303

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

304

Add 8 and 14. Put the sum under 14. This is the last step. 2j 4 4

5 1 8 6 3 7

8 14 6

The numbers on the last row are the coeﬃcients of the quotient and the remainder. The degree of the remainder is smaller than the degree of the divisor. Because the divisor is x 2, its degree is 1. This means that the remainder has to be a constant (which is a term of degree 0). It also means that the degree of the quotient is exactly one less than the degree of the dividend. In this example, the degree of the dividend is 3, so the degree of the quotient is 2. The last number on the bottom row is the remainder. The numbers before it are the coeﬃcients of the quotient, in order from the highest degree to the lowest. The remainder in this example is 6. The coeﬃcients of the quotient are 4, 3, and 7. The quotient is 4x2 þ 3x þ 7. EXAMPLE * ð3x4 x2 þ 2x þ 9Þ ðx þ 5Þ 5j 3

0

1

2

9

Bring down 3, the ﬁrst coeﬃcient. Multiply it by 5. Put 3ð5Þ ¼ 15 under 0. 5j 3

0 15

1

2

9

3 Add 0 þ ð15Þ ¼ 15. Multiply 15 by 5 and put ð15Þð5Þ ¼ 75 under 1. 5j 3 3

0 15 15

1 75

Add 1 and 75. Multiply ð74Þð5Þ ¼ 370 under 2. 5j 3 3

0 15 15

1 75 74

2

9

1 þ 75 ¼ 74

2 370

9

by

5

and

put

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions Add 2 to 370. Multiply 2 þ ð370Þ ¼ 368 by 5 and put ð368Þð5Þ ¼ 1840 under 9. 5j 3

0 15 3 15

1 75 74

2 9 370 1840 368

Add 9 to 1840. Put 9 þ 1840 ¼ 1849 under 1840. This is the last step. 5j 3

0 15 3 15

1 75 74

2 9 370 1840 368 1849

The dividend has degree 4, so the quotient has degree 3. The quotient is 3x3 15x2 þ 74x 368 and the remainder is 1849. PRACTICE Find the quotient and remainder using synthetic division. 1. 5x3 þ x2 3x þ 4 x2 2. x3 þ 2x2 þ x 8 xþ3 3. 4.

ðx3 þ 8Þ ðx þ 2Þ

3x4 þ 6x3 þ 4x2 þ 9x 11 xþ1 5. 2x3 þ x2 4x 12 x þ ð1=2Þ

305

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

306 SOLUTIONS 1.

2j 5

1 10 5 11

3 22 19

4 38 42

The quotient is 5x2 þ 11x þ 19, and the remainder is 42. 2. 3j 1

2 3 1

1

1 3 4

8 12 20

The quotient is x2 x þ 4, and the remainder is 20. 3. 2j 1

0 2 2

1

0 8 4 8 4 0

The quotient is x2 2x þ 4, and the remainder is 0. 4. 1j 3 3

6 4 3 9 9 5

9 5 14

11 14 25

The quotient is 3x3 þ 9x2 5x þ 14, and the remainder is 25. 5. 12j 2 2

1 1 0

4 0 4

12 2 10

The quotient is 2x2 4, and the remainder is 10. When dividing a polynomial f ðxÞ by x c, the remainder tells us two things. If we get a remainder of 0, then both the divisor ðx cÞ and quotient are factors of f ðxÞ. In practice problem 3 above, we had ðx3 þ 8Þ ðx þ 2Þ ¼ x2 2x þ 4, with a remainder of 0. This means that

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

307

x3 þ 8 ¼ ðx þ 2Þðx2 2x þ 4Þ. Another fact we get from the remainder is that f ðcÞ ¼ remainder. f ðxÞ ¼ ðx cÞqðxÞ þ remainder f ðcÞ ¼ ðc cÞqðcÞ þ remainder f ðcÞ ¼ 0qðcÞ þ remainder f ðcÞ ¼ remainder The fact that f ðcÞ is the remainder is called the Remainder Theorem. It is useful when trying to evaluate complicated polynomials. We can also use this fact to check our work in synthetic division and long division (providing the divisor is x c). EXAMPLE * ðx3 6x2 þ 4x 5Þ ðx 3Þ By the Remainder Theorem, we should get the remainder to be 33 6ð32 Þ þ 4ð3Þ 5 ¼ 20. 3j 1 1

6 4 3 9 3 5

5 15 20

EXAMPLE Use synthetic division and the Remainder Theorem to evaluate f ðcÞ. *

f ðxÞ ¼ 14x3 16x2 þ 10x þ 8; c ¼ 1. We will ﬁrst perform synthetic division with x 1. 1j 14 14

16 14 2

10 2 8

8 8 16

The remainder is 16, so f ð1Þ ¼ 16. PRACTICE Use synthetic division and the Remainder Theorem to evaluate f ðcÞ. 1. 2. 3.

f ðxÞ ¼ 6x4 8x3 þ x2 þ 2x 5; c ¼ 2 f ðxÞ ¼ 3x3 þ 7x2 3x þ 4; c ¼ 23 f ðxÞ ¼ 4x3 þ 5x2 3x þ 4; c ¼ 12

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

308 SOLUTIONS 1. 2j 6

8 12 20

6

1 2 40 82 41 80

5 160 155

The remainder is 155, so f ð2Þ ¼ 155. 2. 2 3

j3 3

3.

7 2 9

3 6 3

4 2 6

The remainder is 6, so f ð23Þ ¼ 6. 12j 4 4 The remainder is

29 4,

5 2 7

3 72 13 2

4 13 4 29 4

so f ð 12Þ ¼ 29 4.

Now we will use synthetic division and the Remainder Theorem to help factor polynomials. Suppose x ¼ c is a zero for a polynomial f ðxÞ. Let us see what happens when we divide f ðxÞ by x c. f ðxÞ ¼ ðx cÞqðxÞ þ rðxÞ Because x ¼ c is a zero, the remainder is 0, so f ðxÞ ¼ ðx cÞqðxÞ þ 0, which means f ðxÞ ¼ ðx cÞqðxÞ. The next step in completely factoring f ðxÞ is factoring qðxÞ, if necessary. EXAMPLES Completely factor the polynomials. *

f ðxÞ ¼ x3 4x2 7x þ 10, c ¼ 1 is a zero. We will use the fact that c ¼ 1 is a zero to get started. We will use synthetic division to divide f ðxÞ by x 1. 1j 1 1

4 1 3

7 10 3 10 10 0

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions The quotient is x2 3x 10. We now have f ðxÞ partially factored. f ðxÞ ¼ x3 4x2 7x þ 10 ¼ ðx 1Þðx2 3x 10Þ Because the quotient is quadratic, we can factor it directly or by using the quadratic formula. x2 3x 10 ¼ ðx 5Þðx þ 2Þ Now we have the complete factorization of f ðxÞ: f ðxÞ ¼ x3 4x2 7x þ 10 ¼ ðx 1Þðx 5Þðx þ 2Þ *

RðxÞ ¼ x3 2x þ 1, c ¼ 1 is a factor. 1j 1 1

0 1 1

2 1 1 1 1 0

RðxÞ ¼ x3 2x þ 1 ¼ ðx 1Þðx2 þ x 1Þ We need to use the quadratic formula to ﬁnd the two zeros of x2 þ x 1. pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 1 12 4ð1Þð1Þ x¼ 2ð1Þ pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ 1 5 1 þ 5 1 5 ¼ ó 2 2 2 pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ The factors for these zeros are x ðð1 þ 5Þ=2Þ and x ðð1 5Þ=2Þ. pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ 1 þ 5 1 5 RðxÞ ¼ ðx 1Þ x x 2 2 PRACTICE Completely factor the polynomials. 1. 2. 3.

f ðxÞ ¼ x3 þ 2x2 x 2; c ¼ 1 is a zero. hðxÞ ¼ x3 þ x2 30x 72; c ¼ 4 is a zero. PðxÞ ¼ x3 5x2 þ 5x þ 3; c ¼ 3 is a zero.

309

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

310 SOLUTIONS 1. 1j 1

2 1 3

1

1 3 2

2 2 0

f ðxÞ ¼ ðx 1Þðx2 þ 3x þ 2Þ ¼ ðx 1Þðx þ 1Þðx þ 2Þ 2. 4j 1

1 4 3

1

30 12 18

72 72 0

hðxÞ ¼ ðx þ 4Þðx2 3x 18Þ ¼ ðx þ 4Þðx 6Þðx þ 3Þ 3. 3j 1 1

5 5 3 3 6 3 2 1 0

PðxÞ ¼ ðx 3Þðx2 2x 1Þ In order to factor x2 2x 1, we must ﬁrst ﬁnd its zeros. qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ð2Þ ð2Þ2 4ð1Þð1Þ x¼ 2ð1Þ pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ 2 8 22 2 ¼ ¼ 2 2 pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ 2ð1 2Þ ¼1 2 ¼ 2 pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ ¼ 1 þ 2ó 1 2

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ Because x ¼ 1 þ pﬃﬃ2ﬃ is a zero, x ð1 þ pﬃﬃ2ﬃ Þ ¼ x 1 pﬃﬃ2ﬃ is a factor. Because x ¼ 1 2 is a zero, x ð1 2Þ ¼ x 1 þ 2 is a factor. PðxÞ ¼ ðx 3Þðx 1

pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ 2Þðx 1 þ 2Þ

In the above examples and practice problems, a zero was given to help us get started. Usually, we have to ﬁnd a starting point ourselves. The Rational Zero Theorem gives us a place to start. The Rational Zero Theorem says that if a polynomial function f ðxÞ, with integer coeﬃcients, has a rational number p=q as a zero, then p is a divisor of the constant term and q is a divisor of the leading coeﬃcient. Not all polynomials have rational zeros, but most of those in algebra courses do. The Rational Zero Theorem is used to ﬁnd a list of candidates for zeros. These candidates are rational numbers whose numerators divide the polynomial’s constant term and whose denominators divide its leading coeﬃcient. Once we have this list, we try each number in the list to see which, if any, are zeros. Once we have found a zero, we can begin to factor the polynomial. EXAMPLES List the possible rational zeros. *

f ðxÞ ¼ 4x3 þ 6x2 2x þ 9 The numerators in our list will be the divisors of 9: 1ó 3, and 9 as well as their negatives, 1ó 3, and 9. The denominators will be the divisors of 4: 1ó 2, and 4. The list of possible rational zeros is 1 3 9 1 3 9 1 3 9 1 3 ó ó ó ó ó ó ó ó ó ó ó 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 9 1 3 9 1 3 9 ó ó ó ó ó ó and : 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 Normally, we would not write a fraction with 1 as a denominator. This list could be written with a little less eﬀort as 1ó 3ó 9ó 12 ó 32 ó 92 ó 14 ó 34 ó 94. We only need to list the numerators with negative numbers and not the denominators. The reason is that no new numbers are added to the list, only duplicates of numbers already there. For 1 example, 1 2 and 2 are the same number.

311

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

312 *

gðxÞ ¼ 6x4 5x3 þ 2x 8 The possible numerators are the divisors of 8: 1ó 2ó 4, and 8. The possible denominators are the divisors of 6: 1ó 2ó 3, and 6. The list of possible rational zeros is 1 2 4 8 1 2 4 8 1ó 2ó 4ó 8ó ó ó ó ó ó ó ó ó 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 1 2 4 8 ó ó ó 6 6 6 6 There are several duplicates on this list. There will be duplicates when the constant term and leading coeﬃcient have common factors. The duplicates do not really matter, but they could waste time when checking the list for zeros.

PRACTICE List the candidates for rational zeros. Do not try to find the zeros. 1. 2. 3. 4.

f ðxÞ ¼ 3x4 þ 8x3 11x2 þ 3x þ 4 f ðxÞ ¼ x3 1 gðxÞ ¼ x5 x3 þ x 10 PðxÞ ¼ 6x4 24

SOLUTIONS 1. Possible numerators: 1ó 2ó 4 Possible denominators: 1 and 3 Possible rational zeros: 1ó 2ó 4ó 13 ó 23 ó 43 2. Possible numerators: 1 Possible denominator: 1 Possible rational zeros: 1 3. Possible numerators: 1ó 2ó 5ó 10 Possible denominator: 1 Possible rational zeros: 1ó 2ó 5ó 10 4. Possible numerators: 1ó 2ó 3ó 4ó 6ó 8ó 12ó 24 Possible denominators: 1ó 2ó 3ó 6 Possible rational zeros (with duplicates omitted): 1ó 2ó 3, 4ó 6ó 8ó 12ó 24ó 12 ó 32 ó 13 ó 23 ó 43 ó 83 ó 16 Now that we have a starting place, we can factor many polynomials. Here is the strategy. First we will see if the polynomial can be factored directly. If not, we need to list the possible rational zeros. Then we will try the numbers in this list, one at a time, until we ﬁnd a zero. Once we have found a zero,

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

313

we will use polynomial division (long division or synthetic division) to ﬁnd the quotient. Next, we will factor the quotient. If the quotient is a quadratic factor, we will either factor it directly or use the quadratic formula to ﬁnd its zeros. If the quotient is a polynomial of degree 3 or higher, we will need to start over to factor the quotient. Eventually, the quotient will be a quadratic factor. EXAMPLES Completely factor each polynomial. *

PðxÞ ¼ x3 þ 5x2 x 5 While this polynomial factors using factoring by grouping, we will use the above strategy. The possible rational zeros are 1 and 5. Pð1Þ ¼ 13 þ 5ð1Þ2 1 5 ¼ 0 Now that we know that x ¼ 1 is a zero, we will use synthetic division to ﬁnd the quotient for ðx3 þ 5x2 x 5Þ ðx 1Þ. 1j 1 1

5 1 6

1 6 5

5 5 0

PðxÞ ¼ x3 þ 5x2 x 5 ¼ ðx 1Þðx2 þ 6x þ 5Þ ¼ ðx 1Þðx þ 1Þðx þ 5Þ *

f ðxÞ ¼ 3x4 2x3 7x2 2x First we will factor x from each term: f ðxÞ ¼ xð3x3 2x2 7x 2Þ. The possible rational zeros for 3x3 2x2 7x 2 are 1ó 2ó 13 ó 23. 3ð1Þ3 2ð1Þ2 7ð1Þ 2 6¼ 0 3ð1Þ3 2ð1Þ2 7ð1Þ 2 ¼ 0 We will use synthetic division to ﬁnd the quotient for ð3x3 2x2 7x 2Þ ðx þ 1Þ. 1j 3 3

2 3 5

7 5 2

2 2 0

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

314

The quotient is 3x2 5x 2 which factors into ð3x þ 1Þðx 2Þ. f ðxÞ ¼ 3x4 2x3 7x2 2x ¼ xð3x3 2x2 7x 2Þ ¼ xðx þ 1Þð3x2 5x 2Þ ¼ xðx þ 1Þð3x þ 1Þðx 2Þ *

hðxÞ ¼ 3x3 þ 4x2 18x þ 5 The possible rational zeros are 1ó 5ó 13, and 53. hð1Þ ¼ 3ð13 Þ þ 4ð12 Þ 18ð1Þ þ 5 6¼ 0 hð1Þ ¼ 3ð1Þ3 þ 4ð1Þ2 18ð1Þ þ 5 6¼ 0 hð5Þ ¼ 3ð53 Þ þ 4ð52 Þ 18ð5Þ þ 5 6¼ 0 Continuing in this way, we see that hð5Þ 6¼ 0ó hð13Þ 6¼ 0ó hð 13Þ 6¼ 0 and hð53Þ ¼ 0. 5 3

j3 3

4 5 9

18 15 3

5 5 0

5 hðxÞ ¼ x ð3x2 þ 9x 3Þ 3 5 5 2 ðx2 þ 3x 1Þ ¼ x ð3Þðx þ 3x 1Þ ¼ 3 x 3 3 ¼ ð3x 5Þðx2 þ 3x 1Þ We will ﬁnd the zeros of x2 þ 3x 1 using the quadratic formula. pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 32 4ð1Þð1Þ x¼ 2ð1Þ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 3 13 3 þ 13 3 13 ¼ ó ¼ 2 2 2 p ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 3 þ 13 3 13 hðxÞ ¼ ð3x 5Þ x x 2 2 3

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

315

PRACTICE Completely factor each polynomial. 1. 2. 3.

f ðxÞ ¼ x4 2x3 3x2 þ 8x 4 hðxÞ ¼ 2x3 þ 5x2 23x þ 10 PðxÞ ¼ 7x3 þ 26x2 15x þ 2

SOLUTIONS 1. The possible rational zeros are 1ó 2, and 4. f ð1Þ ¼ 0. 1j 1

2 1 1

1

3 8 1 4 4 4

4 4 0

f ðxÞ ¼ ðx 1Þðx3 x2 4x þ 4Þ The possible rational zeros for x3 x2 4x þ 4 (which could be factored by grouping) are 1ó 2, and 4. We will try x ¼ 1 again. Because 13 12 4ð1Þ þ 4 ¼ 0, x ¼ 1 is a zero again. 1j 1 1

1 1 0

4 4 0 4 4 0

x3 x2 4x þ 4 ¼ ðx 1Þðx2 4Þ ¼ ðx 1Þðx 2Þðx þ 2Þ f ðxÞ ¼ ðx 1Þðx3 x2 4x þ 4Þ ¼ ðx 1Þðx 1Þðx 2Þðx þ 2Þ ¼ ðx 1Þ2 ðx 2Þðx þ 2Þ 2.

The possible rational zeros are 1ó 2ó 5ó 10ó 12, and 52. Because hð2Þ ¼ 0, x ¼ 2 is a zero of hðxÞ. 2j 2 2

5 4 9

hðxÞ ¼ ðx 2Þð2x2 þ 9x 5Þ hðxÞ ¼ ðx 2Þð2x 1Þðx þ 5Þ

23 18 5

10 10 0

ð2x2 þ 9x 5 ¼ ð2x 1Þðx þ 5ÞÞ

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

316 3.

The possible rational zeros are 1ó 2ó 17, and 27. Because Pð27Þ ¼ 0, x ¼ 27 is a zero for PðxÞ. 2 7

j7 7

26 2 28

15 2 8 2 7 0

2 PðxÞ ¼ x ð7x2 þ 28x 7Þ 7 2 2 ¼ x ð7Þðx2 þ 4x 1Þ ¼ 7 x ðx2 þ 4x 1Þ 7 7 ¼ ð7x 2Þðx2 þ 4x 1Þ We will use the quadratic formula to ﬁnd the zeros for x2 þ 4x 1. pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 4 42 4ð1Þð1Þ 4 20 ¼ x¼ 2ð1Þ 2 pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ 4 2 5 2ð2 5Þ ¼ ¼ 2 ﬃﬃﬃ 2 pﬃﬃﬃ p pﬃﬃﬃ ¼ 2 5 ¼ 2 þ 5ó 2 5 pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ x2 þ 4x 1 ¼ ðx ð2 þ 5ÞÞðx ð2 5ÞÞ pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ ¼ ðx þ 2 5Þðx þ 2 þ 5Þ PðxÞ ¼ ð7x 2Þðx þ 2

pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ 5Þðx þ 2 þ 5Þ

For a polynomial such as f ðxÞ ¼ 5x3 þ 20x2 9x 36, the list of possible rational zeros is quite long—36! There are ways of getting around having to test every one of them. The fastest way is to use a graphing calculator to sketch the graph of y ¼ 5x3 þ 20x2 9x 36. There appears to be an x-intercept at x ¼ 4 (remember that x-intercepts and zeros are the same thing). 4j 5 5

20 20 0

9 0 9

36 36 0

f ðxÞ ¼ ðx þ 4Þð5x2 9Þ

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions We will solve 5x2 9 ¼ 0 to ﬁnd the other zeros. 5x2 9 ¼ 0 5x2 ¼ 9 9 x2 ¼ 5

rﬃﬃﬃ 9 3 x¼ ¼ pﬃﬃﬃ 5 5 pﬃﬃﬃ 5 3 ¼ pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ 5 5 pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ 3 5 3 5 3 5 ¼ ¼ ó 5 5 5

pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ 3 5 3 5 f ðxÞ ¼ ðx þ 4Þ x xþ 5 5 There are also a couple of algebra manipulations that can help eliminate some of the possible rational zeros. The ﬁrst we will learn is Descartes’ Rule of Signs. The second is the Upper and Lower Bounds Theorem. Descartes’ Rule of Signs counts the number of positive zeros and negative zeros. For instance, according to the rule f ðxÞ ¼ x3 þ x2 þ 4x þ 6 has no positive zeros at all. This shrinks the list of possible rational zeros from 1ó 2ó 3, and 6 to 1ó 2ó 3, and 6. The Upper and Lower Bounds Theorem gives us an idea of how large (in both the positive and negative directions) the zeros can be. For example, we can use the Upper and Lower Bounds Theorem to show that all of the zeros for f ðxÞ ¼ 5x3 þ 20x2 9x 36 are between 5 and 5. This shrinks the list of possible rational zeros from 1ó 2ó 3ó 4, 18 6ó 9ó 12ó 18ó 36ó 15 ó 25 ó 35 ó 45 ó 65 ó 95 ó 12 5 ó 5 , and 1 2 3 4 6 9 12 18 36 5 to 1ó 2ó 3ó 4ó 5, 5 ó 5 ó 5 ó 5 ó 5 ó 5 , and 5 . Descartes’ Rule of Signs counts the number of positive zeros and the number of negative zeros by counting sign changes. The maximum number of positive zeros for a polynomial function is the number of sign changes in f ðxÞ ¼ an xn þ an1 xn1 þ þ a1 x þ a0 . The possible number of positive zeros is the number of sign changes minus an even whole number. For example, if there are 5 sign changes, then there are 5 or 3 or 1 positive zeros. If there are 6 sign changes, there are 6 or 4 or 2 or 0 positive zeros. The polynomial function f ðxÞ ¼ 3x4 2x3 þ 7x2 þ 5x 8 has 3 sign changes: from 3 to 2, from 2 to 7, and from 5 to 8. There are either 3 or 1 positive zeros. The maximum number of negative zeros is the number of sign changes

317

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

318

in the polynomial f ðxÞ. The possible number of negative zeros is the number of sign changes in f ðxÞ minus an even whole number. EXAMPLES Use Descartes’ Rule of Signs to count the possible number of positive zeros and negative zeros for the polynomial functions. *

f ðxÞ ¼ 5x3 6x2 10x þ 4 There are 2 sign changes: from 5 to 6 and from 10 to 4. This means that there are either 2 or 0 positive zeros. Before we count the possible number of negative zeros, remember from earlier in the book that for a number a, aðxÞeven power ¼ axeven power and aðxÞodd power ¼ axodd power . f ðxÞ ¼ 5ðxÞ3 6ðxÞ2 10ðxÞ þ 4 ¼ 5x3 6x2 þ 10x þ 4

*

There is 1 sign change, from 6 to 10, so there is exactly 1 negative zero. gðxÞ ¼ x4 þ 3x2 9x þ 1 There are 3 sign changes: from 1 to 3, from 3 to 9, and from 9 to 1, so there are 3 or 1 positive zeros. If we were to rewrite gðxÞ as gðxÞ ¼ x4 þ 0x3 þ 3x2 9x þ 1, we would not consider zero coeﬃcients as changing signs. In other words, we will ignore the zero coeﬃcients. gðxÞ ¼ ðxÞ4 þ 3ðxÞ2 9ðxÞ þ 1 ¼ x4 þ 3x2 þ 9x þ 1

*

There is 1 sign change, from 1 to 3, so there is exactly 1 negative zero. PðxÞ ¼ x5 þ x3 þ x þ 4 There are no sign changes, so there are no positive zeros. PðxÞ ¼ ðxÞ5 þ ðxÞ3 þ ðxÞ þ 4 ¼ x5 x3 x þ 4 There is 1 sign change, so there is exactly 1 negative zero.

One of the advantages of the sign test is that if we know that there are two positive zeros and we have found one of them, then we know that there is exactly one more.

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions PRACTICE Use Descartes’ Rule of Signs to count the possible number of positive zeros and the possible number of negative zeros of the polynomial functions. 1. 2. 3.

f ðxÞ ¼ 2x4 6x3 x2 þ 4x 8 f ðxÞ ¼ x3 x2 þ x þ 1 hðxÞ ¼ x4 x2 6

SOLUTIONS 1. There are 3 sign changes in f ðxÞ, so there are 3 or 1 positive zeros. f ðxÞ ¼ 2ðxÞ4 6ðxÞ3 ðxÞ2 þ 4ðxÞ 8 ¼ 2x4 þ 6x3 x2 4x 8

2.

There is 1 sign change in f ðxÞ, so there is exactly 1 negative zero. There is 1 sign change in f ðxÞ, so there is exactly 1 positive zero. f ðxÞ ¼ ðxÞ3 ðxÞ2 þ ðxÞ þ 1 ¼ x3 x2 x þ 1

3.

There are 2 sign changes in f ðxÞ, so there are 2 or 0 negative zeros. There are no sign changes in hðxÞ, so there are no positive zeros. hðxÞ ¼ ðxÞ4 ðxÞ2 6 ¼ x4 x2 6 There are no sign changes in hðxÞ, so there are no negative zeros.

The Upper and Lower Bounds Theorem helps us to ﬁnd a range of xvalues that will contain all real zeros. It does not tell us what these bounds are. We make a guess as to what these bounds might be then check them. For a negative number x ¼ a, the statement ‘‘a is a lower bound for the real zeros’’ means that there is no number to the left of x ¼ a on the x-axis that is a zero. For a positive number x ¼ b, the statement ‘‘b is an upper bound for the real zeros’’ means that there is no number to the right of x ¼ b on the x-axis that is a zero. To determine whether a negative number x ¼ a is a lower bound for a polynomial, we need to use synthetic division. If the numbers in the bottom row alternate between nonpositive and nonnegative numbers, then x ¼ a is a lower bound for the negative zeros. ‘‘Nonpositive’’ means 0 or a negative number, and ‘‘nonnegative’’ means 0 or a positive number.

319

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

320

To determine whether a positive number x ¼ b is an upper bound for the positive zeros, again we need to use synthetic division. If the numbers on the bottom row are all nonnegative, then x ¼ b is an upper bound for the positive zeros. EXAMPLES Show that the given values for a and b are lower and upper bounds, respectively, for the polynomials. *

f ðxÞ ¼ x4 þ x3 16x2 4x þ 48; a ¼ 5 and b ¼ 5 5j 1

1 5 4

1

16 20 4

4 20 24

48 120 168

The bottom row alternates between positive and negative numbers, so a ¼ 5 is a lower bound for the negative zeros of f ðxÞ. 5j 1

1 5 6

1

*

4 70 66

48 330 378

The entries on the bottom row are all positive, so b ¼ 5 is an upper bound for the positive zeros of f ðxÞ. All of the real zeros for f ðxÞ are between x ¼ 5 and x ¼ 5. If 0 appears on the bottom row when testing for an upper bound, we can consider 0 to be positive. If 0 appears in the bottom row when testing for a lower bound, we can consider 0 to be negative if the previous entry is positive and positive if the previous entry is negative. In other words, consider it to be the opposite sign as the previous entry. PðxÞ ¼ 4x4 þ 20x3 þ 7x2 þ 3x 6 with a ¼ 5 5j 4 4

*

16 30 14

20 20 0

7 3 0 35 7 32

6 160 154

Because 0 follows a positive number, we will consider 0 to be negative. This makes the bottom row alternate between positive and negative entries, so a ¼ 5 is a lower bound for the negative zeros of PðxÞ. RðxÞ ¼ x3 þ 4x2 þ 12x 5 with a ¼ 2. 2j 1 1

4 2 6

12 12 0

5 0 5

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

321

Because 0 follows a positive number, we will consider 0 to be negative. The bottom row does not alternate between negative and positive entries, so a ¼ 2 is not a lower bound for the negative zeros of RðxÞ. PRACTICE Show that the given values for a are lower bounds and for b are upper bounds for the zeros of the polynomials. 1. 2. 3.

f ðxÞ ¼ x3 6x2 þ x þ 5; a ¼ 3ó b ¼ 7 f ðxÞ ¼ x4 x2 2; a ¼ 2ó b ¼ 2 gðxÞ ¼ 3x4 þ 6x3 þ 2x2 þ x 5; a ¼ 2ó b ¼ 1

SOLUTIONS 1. 3j 1

6 3 9

1

1 27 28

5 84 79

The entries on the bottom row alternate between positive and negative (or nonnegative and nonpositive), so a ¼ 3 is a lower bound for the zeros of f ðxÞ. 7j 1

6 7 1

1

1 7 8

5 56 61

The entries on the bottom row are positive (nonnegative), so b ¼ 7 is an upper bound for the positive zeros of f ðxÞ. 2. 2j 1 1

0 2 2

1 0 4 6 3 6

2 12 10

The entries on the bottom row alternate between positive and negative, so a ¼ 2 is a lower bound for the negative zeros of f ðxÞ. 2j 1 1

0 2 2

1 4 3

0 6 6

2 12 10

The entries on the bottom row are all positive, so b ¼ 2 is an upper bound for the positive zeros of f ðxÞ.

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

322 3. 2j 3 3

6 6 0

2 1 0 4 2 3

5 6 1

The entries on the bottom row alternate between nonnegative and nonpositive (because 0 follows a positive number, consider it nonpositive), so a ¼ 2 is a lower bound for the negative zeros of gðxÞ. 1j 3 3

6 3 9

2 9 11

1 11 12

5 12 7

The entries on the bottom row are all positive, so b ¼ 1 is an upper bound for the positive zeros of gðxÞ. The Upper and Lower Bounds Theorem has some limitations. For instance, it does not tell us how to ﬁnd upper and lower bounds for the zeros of a polynomial. For any polynomial, there are inﬁnitely many upper and lower bounds. For instance, if x ¼ 5 is an upper bound, then any number larger than 5 is also an upper bound. For many polynomials, a starting place is the quotient of the constant term and the leading coeﬃcient and its negative: ðconstant termÞ=ðleading coefficientÞ. First show that these are bounds for the zeros, then work your way inward. For example, if f ðxÞ ¼ 2x3 7x2 þ 50 x þ 50, let a ¼ 50 2 ¼ 25 and b ¼ 2 ¼ 25. Then, let a and b get closer together, say a ¼ 10 and b ¼ 10. The Upper and Lower Bounds Theorem does not work well when the leading coeﬃcient is negative. For example, f ðxÞ ¼ 2x4 þ x2 þ 6 has zeros pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ 2 and 2 but no matter what positive number we choose for b, the bottom row will always have 2 as its ﬁrst entry. The way around this is to multiply the polynomial by 1. This works because every polynomial and its ‘‘negative’’ have the same zeros. We are ready to sketch the graph of polynomial functions. The general scheme of graphing most polynomials is to ﬁnd the x-intercepts (the zeros), plot a point to the left of the smallest x-intercept, a point between consecutive x-intercepts, and a point to the right of the largest x-intercept. The tools we have learned will be useful. The Rational Zero Theorem and polynomial division will help us to ﬁnd the x-intercepts (if there are any). Descartes’ Rule of Signs and the Upper and Lower Bounds Theorem can help narrow down the list of possible rational zeros. Finally, if a function is even or odd, the work of computing points is cut in half.

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

323

EXAMPLES Sketch the graph for the polynomial functions. *

gðxÞ ¼ x3 x2 17x 15 The possible rational zeros are 1ó 3ó 5, and 15; gð1Þ ¼ 0. 1j 1 1

1 1 2

17 2 15

15 15 0

gðxÞ ¼ ðx þ 1Þðx2 2x 15Þ ¼ ðx þ 1Þðx þ 3Þðx 5Þ The x-intercepts are 3ó 1, and 5. We will plot points for x ¼ 3:5ó x ¼ 2ó x ¼ 0ó x ¼ 3, and x ¼ 5:5.

Fig. 9-18.

*

hðxÞ ¼ x3 4x This polynomial factors easily without having to use synthetic division: hðxÞ ¼ x3 4x ¼ xðx2 4Þ ¼ xðx 2Þðx þ 2Þ. The x-intercepts are 2ó 0, and 2. We will plot points for x ¼ 3ó 1ó 1, and 3. Because hðxÞ is an odd function, the y-value for x ¼ 3 will be the opposite of the y-value for x ¼ 3, and the y-value for x ¼ 1 will be the opposite of the y-value for x ¼ 1.

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

324

Fig. 9-19. *

f ðxÞ ¼ 2x3 þ 15x2 þ 31x þ 12 The list of possible rational zeros is 1ó 2ó 3ó 4ó 6ó 12ó 12, and 32. Because f ðxÞ has no sign changes, there are no positive zeros, so we only need to check 1ó 2ó 3ó 4ó 6ó 12ó 12 ó 32; f ð3Þ ¼ 0. 15 31 12 3j 2 6 27 12 2 9 4 0 2 f ðxÞ ¼ ðx þ 3Þð2x þ 9x þ 4Þ ¼ ðx þ 3Þð2x þ 1Þðx þ 4Þ The x-intercepts are 4ó 3, and 12 (from 2x þ 1 ¼ 0). We will plot points for x ¼ 5ó 3:5ó 2, and 0.

Fig. 9-20.

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

325

PRACTICE Sketch the graph of the polynomials. 1. 2. 3. 4.

f ðxÞ ¼ x3 þ x2 þ 2x gðxÞ ¼ x3 x2 10x 8 hðxÞ ¼ x4 þ 6x3 þ 11x2 þ 6x PðxÞ ¼ x3 5x2 þ 18

SOLUTIONS 1. f ðxÞ ¼ x3 þ x2 þ 2x ¼ xðx2 x 2Þ ¼ xðx 2Þðx þ 1Þ

Fig. 9-21.

2.

The possible rational zeros are 1ó 2ó 4, and 8; gð1Þ ¼ 0. 1j 1 1

1 1 2

10 2 8

8 8 0

gðxÞ ¼ x3 x2 10x 8 ¼ ðx þ 1Þðx2 2x 8Þ ¼ ðx þ 1Þðx 4Þðx þ 2Þ

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

326

Fig. 9-22.

3.

hðxÞ ¼ x4 þ 6x3 þ 11x2 þ 6x ¼ xðx3 þ 6x2 þ 11x þ 6Þ. The possible rational zeros for x3 þ 6x2 þ 11x þ 6 are 1ó 2ó 3, and 6. There are no sign changes, so there are no positive zeros; we only need to check 1ó 2ó 3, and 6: ð1Þ3 þ 6ð1Þ2 þ 11ð1Þþ 6 ¼ 0. 1j 1 1

6 1 5

11 5 6

6 6 0

hðxÞ ¼ x4 þ 6x3 þ 11x2 þ 6x ¼ xðx3 þ 6x2 þ 11x þ 6Þ ¼ xðx þ 1Þðx2 þ 5x þ 6Þ ¼ xðx þ 1Þðx þ 2Þðx þ 3Þ

Fig. 9-23.

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions 4.

327

The possible rational zeros are 1ó 2ó 3ó 6ó 9, and 18. Because a ¼ 4 is a lower bound for the negative zeros and x ¼ 6 is an upper bound for the positive zeros, we only need to check 1ó 2, and 3; Pð3Þ ¼ 0. 3j 1 1

5 0 3 6 2 6

18 18 0

PðxÞ ¼ x3 5x2 þ 18 ¼ ðx 3Þðx2 2x 6Þ The zeros for x2 2x 6 are qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ð2Þ ð2Þ2 4ð1Þð6Þ x¼ 2ð1Þ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2 28 1:65ó 3:65 ¼ 2

Fig. 9-24.

Complex Numbers Until now, the zeros of polynomials have been real numbers. The next topic involves complex pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ zeros. These zeros come from even roots of negative numbers like 1. Before working with complex zeros of polynomials, we will ﬁrst learn some complex number arithmetic.

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

328

Complex numbers are normally pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ written in the form a þ bi, where a and b are real numbers and i ¼ 1. Technically, real numbers are complex pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ﬃ numbersp where b ¼ 0. A number such as 4 þ 9 would be written as 4 þ 3i ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃpﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ because 9 ¼ 9 1 ¼ 3i. EXAMPLES Write the complex numbers in the form a þ bi, where a and b are real numbers. pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ * 1ﬃ ¼ p 8iﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ p64 ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ¼ p64 ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃpﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ * 27 ¼ 27 1 ¼ pﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ 27i ¼ 9 3i ¼ 3 3i Be careful, 3i 6¼ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ 3 i * 6 þ p8 ¼ 6 þ 8iﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ¼ 6 þ 4pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2i ¼ 6 þ 2 2ipﬃﬃﬃ ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ p * 2 50 ¼ 2 50i ¼ 2 25 2i ¼ 2 5 2i PRACTICE Write the complex numbers in the form a þ bi, where a and b are real numbers. pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 1. p25 ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2. p10 ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 3. 24pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 4. 14 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 36 5. 8 þ 12 SOLUTIONS pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 1. p25 ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ¼ p25 ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ i ¼ 5i 2. p10 ¼ ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ p10 ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ i pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ i ¼ 4 6 i ¼ 2 6i 3. 24p¼ 24 ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 4. 14 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 36 ¼ 14 p ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ36 i ¼ 14pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 6i ﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ 5. 8 þ 12 ¼ 8 þ 12 i ¼ 8 þ 4 3 i ¼ 8 þ 2 3 i Adding complex numbers is a matter of adding like terms. Add the real parts, a and c, and the imaginary parts, b and d. ða þ biÞ þ ðc þ diÞ ¼ ða þ cÞ þ ðb þ dÞi EXAMPLES Perform the addition. Write the sum in the form a þ bi, where a and b are real numbers. * * *

ð3 5iÞ þ ð4 þ 8iÞ ¼ ð3 þ 4Þ þ ð5 þ 8Þi ¼ 7 þ 3i 2i 6 þ 9i ¼ 6 þ 11i 4 þ i 3 i ¼ ð4 3Þ þ ð1 1Þi ¼ 1

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions *

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 7 18 þ 3 þ 5 2 ¼ 7 18i þ 3 þ 5 2i pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ¼ 7 9 2i þ 3 þ 5 2i ¼ 7 3 2i þ 3 þ 5 2i pﬃﬃﬃ ¼ 10 þ 2 2i

PRACTICE Perform the addition. Write the sum in the form a þ bi, where a and b are real numbers. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

18 4i þ ð15Þ þ 2i 8 2 þ 5i 5þiþ5i 7þp i þﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 12 þ i pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 1þ p 15 6 þ 2 15 ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ p ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 5 þ 12 þ 7 þ 4 12

SOLUTIONS 1. 18 4i þ ð15Þ þ 2i ¼ 3 2i 2. 8 2 þ 5i ¼ 6 þ 5i 3. 5 þ i þ 5 i ¼ 10 þ 0i ¼ 10 4. 7 þ ipþﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 12 þ i ¼ 19 þ p 2iﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 5. 1 þ 15 þ ð6Þ þ 2 15 ¼ 1 þ 15 i 6 þ 2 15 i ¼ 5 þ 3 15 i 6. pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 5 þ 12 þ 7 þ 4 12 ¼ 5 þ 12i þ 7 þ 4 12i pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ¼ 5 þ 4 3i þ 7 þ 4 4 3i pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ ¼ 5 þ 2 3i þ 7 þ 4 2 3i pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ ¼ 5 þ 2 3i þ 7 þ 8 3i pﬃﬃﬃ ¼ 2 þ 10 3i Two complex numbers can be subtracted by distributing the minus sign in the parentheses then adding the like terms. a þ bi ðc þ diÞ ¼ a þ bi c di ¼ ða cÞ þ ðb dÞi EXAMPLES Perform the subtraction and write the difference in the form a þ bi, where a and b are real numbers. * *

11 3i ð7 þ 6iÞ ¼ 11 3i 7 6i ¼ 4 9i i ð1 þ iÞ ¼ i 1 i ¼ 1

329

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

330 * *

9 p ð4ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ﬃiÞ ¼ 9 p4ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ þ i ¼ 5 þ ipﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 7 þ p8 ð1 18 Þ ¼ 7 þ 8 i 1 þ 18 i ¼ 7 þ 2 2 i 1 þ 3 2i ¼ ﬃﬃﬃ 6 þ 5 2i

PRACTICE Perform the subtraction and write the difference in the form a þ bi, where a and b are real numbers. 1. 2. 3.

2 þ 3i ð8 þ 7iÞ 4pþ 5i ð4 5iÞpﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 48 ð1 75Þ

SOLUTIONS 1. 2 þ 3i ð8 þ 7iÞ ¼ 2 þ 3i 8 7i ¼ 6 4i 2. 4 þ 5i ð4 5iÞ ¼ 4 þ 5i 4 þ 5i ¼ 10i 3. pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 48 ð1 75Þ ¼ 48i þ 1 þ 75i pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ¼ 16 3i þ 1 þ 25 3i pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ ¼ 4 3i þ 1 þ 5 3i ¼ 1 þ 9 3i Multiplying complex numbers is not as straightforward as are adding and subtracting them. First we will take the product of two purely imaginary pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ﬃ numbers (numbers whose real parts are 0). Remember that i ¼ 1, which makes i2 ¼ 1. In most complex number multiplication problems, we will have a term with i2 . Replace i2 with 1. EXAMPLES Write the product in the form a þ bi, where a and b are real numbers. * * *

ð5iÞð6iÞ ¼ 30i2 ¼ 30ð1Þ ¼ 30 2 ð2iÞð9iÞ ¼ 18i ¼p18 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ﬃ p¼ﬃﬃﬃ 18ð1Þ pﬃﬃﬃ ﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ ð 6Þð 9Þ ¼ ð 6iÞð 9iÞ ¼ ð 6Þð3Þi2 ¼ 3 6ð1Þ ¼ 3 6

PRACTICE Write the product in the form a þ bi, where a and b are real numbers. 1. 2.

ð2iÞð10iÞ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ð4 25Þð2 25Þ

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions 3. 4.

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ p3 ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ p12 ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 6 15

SOLUTIONS 1. ð2iÞð10iÞ ¼ 20i2 ¼ 20ð1Þ ¼ 20 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2. ð4 25Þð2 25Þ ¼ 4ð5iÞ½2ð5iÞ ¼ 200i2 ¼ 200ð1Þ ¼ 200 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 3. 3 12 ¼ 3 i 12 i ¼ 3 12 i2 ¼ 36 i2 ¼ 6ð1Þ ¼ 6 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 4. 6 15 ¼ 6 i 15 i ¼ 6 15 i2 ¼ 90 i2 ¼ 3 10ð1Þ ¼ 3 10 Two complex numbers in the form a þ bi can be multiplied using the FOIL method, substituting 1 for i2 and combining like terms. EXAMPLES Perform the multiplication. Write the product in the form a þ bi, where a and b are real numbers. * * *

ð4 þ 2iÞð5 þ 3iÞ ¼ 20 þ 12i þ 10i þ 6i2 ¼ 20 þ 22i þ 6ð1Þ ¼ 14 þ 22i ð1 iÞð2 þ iÞ ¼ 2 þ i 2i i2 ¼ 2 i ð1Þ ¼ 3 i ð8 2iÞð8 þ 2iÞ ¼ 64 þ 16i 16i 4i2 ¼ 64 4ð1Þ ¼ 68

PRACTICE 1. ð15 þ 3iÞð2 þ iÞ 2. ð1 þ 3iÞð4 2iÞ 3. ð3 þ 2iÞð3 2iÞ 4. ð2 iÞð2 þ iÞ SOLUTIONS 1. ð15 þ 3iÞð2 þ iÞ ¼ 30 þ 15i 6i þ 3i2 ¼ 30 þ 9i þ 3ð1Þ ¼ 33 þ 9i 2. ð1 þ 3iÞð4 2iÞ ¼ 4 þ 2i þ 12i 6i2 ¼ 4 þ 14i 6ð1Þ ¼ 2 þ 14i 3. ð3 þ 2iÞð3 2iÞ ¼ 9 6i þ 6i 4i2 ¼ 9 4ð1Þ ¼ 13 4. ð2 iÞð2 þ iÞ ¼ 4 þ 2i 2i i2 ¼ 4 ð1Þ ¼ 5 The two complex numbers a þ bi and a bi are called complex conjugates. The only diﬀerence between a complex number and its conjugate is the sign between the real part and the imaginary part. EXAMPLES * The complex conjugate of 3 þ 2i is 3 2i. * The complex conjugate of 7 i is 7 þ i. * The complex conjugate of 10i is 10i.

331

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

332

PRACTICE Identify the complex conjugate. 1. 2. 3.

15 þ 7i 3 þ i 9i

SOLUTIONS 1. The complex conjugate of 15 þ 7i is 15 7i. 2. The complex conjugate of 3 þ i is 3 i. 3. The complex conjugate of 9i is 9i. The product of any complex number and its conjugate is a real number. ða þ biÞða biÞ ¼ a2 abi þ abi b2 i2 ¼ a2 b2 ð1Þ ¼ a2 þ b2

EXAMPLES * ð7 2iÞð7 þ 2iÞ. Here, a ¼ 7 and b ¼ 2, so a2 ¼ 49 and b2 ¼ 4, making ð7 2iÞð7 þ 2iÞ ¼ 49 þ 4 ¼ 53: * ð1 iÞð1 þ iÞ. Here a ¼ 1 and b ¼ 1, so a2 ¼ 1 and b2 ¼ 1, making ð1 iÞ ð1 þ iÞ ¼ 1 þ 1 ¼ 2: * ð6 þ 3iÞð6 3iÞ ¼ 36 þ 9 ¼ 45 PRACTICE Perform the multiplication. 1. 2. 3.

ð8 10iÞð8 þ 10iÞ ð1 9iÞð1 þ 9iÞ ð5 2iÞð5 þ 2iÞ

SOLUTIONS 1. ð8 10iÞð8 þ 10iÞ ¼ 64 þ 100 ¼ 164 2. ð1 9iÞð1 þ 9iÞ ¼ 1 þ 81 ¼ 82 3. ð5 2iÞð5 þ 2iÞ ¼ 25 þ 4 ¼ 29 Dividing two complex numbers can be complicated. These problems are normally written in fraction form. If the denominator is purely imaginary, we can simply multiply the fraction by i=i and simplify.

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions EXAMPLES Perform the division. Write the quotient in the form a þ bi, where a and b are real numbers. *

2 þ 3i i

2 þ 3i i ð2 þ 3iÞi ¼ i i i2 2 2i þ 3i 2i þ 3ð1Þ ¼ ¼ 2 1 i 3 þ 2i ¼ ¼ ð3 þ 2iÞ 1 ¼ 3 2i ¼

*

4 þ 5i 2i

4 þ 5i i 4i þ 5i2 ¼ 2i i 2i2 4i þ 5ð1Þ 4i 5 ¼ ¼ 2ð1Þ 2 5 þ 4i ð5 þ 4iÞ ¼ ¼ 2 2 5 4i 5 ¼ ¼ 2i 2 2 ¼

PRACTICE Write the quotient in the form a þ bi, where a and b are real numbers. 12 þ 5i 1. 2i 4 9i 2. 3i 1þi 3. i SOLUTIONS 1. 12 þ 5i 12 þ 5i i 12i þ 5i2 ¼ ¼ 2i 2i i 2i2 12i þ 5ð1Þ 5 þ 12i ¼ ¼ 2ð1Þ 2 ð5 þ 12iÞ 5 12i 5 ¼ ¼ ¼ 6i 2 2 2

333

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

334 2.

4 9i 4 9i i 4i 9i2 ¼ ¼ 3i 3i i 3i2 4i 9ð1Þ 9 þ 4i 4 ¼ ¼ ¼3þ i 3ð1Þ 3 3 3. 1 þ i 1 þ i i i þ i2 ¼ ¼ 2 i i i i i þ ð1Þ 1 þ i ¼ ¼ 1 1 ð1 þ iÞ ¼ ¼1i 1 When the divisor (denominator) is in the form a þ bi, multiplying the fraction by i=i will not work. 2 5i i 2i 5i2 5 þ 2i ¼ ¼ 3 þ 6i i 3i þ 6i2 6 þ 3i What does work is to multiply the fraction by the denominator’s conjugate over itself. This works because the product of any complex number and its conjugate is a real number. We will use the FOIL method in the numerator (if necessary) and the fact that ða þ biÞða biÞ ¼ a2 þ b2 in the denominator. EXAMPLES Write the quotient in the form a þ bi, where a and b are real numbers. *

2 þ 7i 6þi ¼

2 þ 7i 6 i 12 2i þ 42i 7i2 ¼ 6þi 6i 62 þ 12

12 þ 40i 7ð1Þ 12 þ 40i þ 7 ¼ 37 37 19 þ 40i 19 40 ¼ ¼ þ i 37 37 37 ¼

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions *

4 9i 5 2i

4 9i 5 þ 2i 20 þ 8i 45i 18i2 ¼ 5 2i 5 þ 2i 52 þ 22 20 37i 18ð1Þ 20 37i þ 18 ¼ ¼ 25 þ 4 29 38 37i 38 37 ¼ i ¼ 29 29 29 ¼

PRACTICE Write the quotient in the form a þ bi, where a and b are real numbers. 1.

1 2i 1i

2.

4 þ 2i 1 3i

3.

8i 2 5i

4.

6 þ 4i 6 4i

SOLUTIONS 1. 1 2i 1 2i 1 þ i 1 þ i 2i 2i2 ¼ ¼ 1i 1i 1þi 12 þ 12 1 i 2ð1Þ 3 i 3 1 ¼ ¼ i ¼ 2 2 2 2 2. 4 þ 2i 4 þ 2i 1 þ 3i 4 þ 12i þ 2i þ 6i2 ¼ ¼ 1 3i 1 3i 1 þ 3i 12 þ 32 4 þ 14i þ 6ð1Þ 2 þ 14i 1 7 ¼ ¼ þ i ¼ 10 10 5 5 3. 8i 8 i 2 þ 5i 16 þ 40i 2i 5i2 ¼ ¼ 2 5i 2 5i 2 þ 5i 22 þ 52 16 þ 38i 5ð1Þ 21 þ 38i 21 38 ¼ ¼ ¼ þ i 29 29 29 29

335

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

336 4.

6 þ 4i 6 þ 4i 6 þ 4i 36 þ 24i þ 24i þ 16i2 ¼ ¼ 6 4i 6 4i 6 þ 4i 62 þ 42 36 þ 48i þ 16ð1Þ 20 þ 48i 5 12 ¼ ¼ ¼ þ i 36 þ 16 52 13 13 There are reasons to write complex numbers in the form a þ bi. One is that complex numbers are plotted in the plane (real numbers are plotted on the number line), where the x-axis becomes the real axis and the y-axis becomes the imaginary axis. The number 3 4i is plotted in Fig. 9-25.

Fig. 9-25.

Complex Solutions to Quadratic Equations Every quadratic equation has a solution, real or complex. The real solution, or solutions, for a quadratic equation is, or are, the x-intercept, or intercepts, for the graph of the quadratic function. The graph for f ðxÞ ¼ x2 þ 1 has no real solutions and no x-intercepts.

Fig. 9-26.

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions The equation x2 þ 1 ¼ 0 does have two complex solutions. x2 þ 1 ¼ 0 x2 ¼ 1 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ x ¼ 1 ¼ i EXAMPLES Solve the equations and write the solutions in the form a þ bi, where a and b are real numbers. *

3x2 þ 8x þ 14 ¼ 0

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 82 4ð3Þð14Þ 8 104 ¼ x¼ 2ð3Þ 6 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 8 2 26 i 2ð4 26 iÞ ¼ ¼ 6pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ p6ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 4 26 i 4 26 ¼ ¼ i 3pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 3 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 3 4 4 26 26 ¼ þ i; i 3 3 3 3 2 9x þ 25 ¼ 0 8

*

9x2 þ 25 ¼ 0 9x2 ¼ 25 25 x2 ¼ 9 rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 25 25 i x¼ ¼ 9 9 5 5 5 x ¼ i ¼ i; i 3 3 3 PRACTICE Solve the equations and write the solutions in the form a þ bi, where a and b are real numbers. 1. 2. 3. 4.

x2 þ 2x þ 4 ¼ 0 x2 þ 25 ¼ 0 9x2 þ 4 ¼ 0 6x2 þ 8x þ 9 ¼ 0

337

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

338 SOLUTIONS 1.

x2 þ 2x þ 4 ¼ 0 2 2 2 2 2 ¼ 4 þ x þ 2x þ 2 2 ðx þ 1Þ2 ¼ 3 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ x þ 1 ¼ 3 pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ x ¼ 1 3 i ¼ 1 þ 3 i; 1 3 i 2. x2 þ 25 ¼ 0 x2 ¼ 25 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ x ¼ 25 ¼ 5i ¼ 5i; 5i 3. 9x2 þ 4 ¼ 0 9x2 ¼ 4 4 x2 ¼ 9 rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 4 2 2 2 x ¼ ¼ i ¼ i; i 9 3 3 3 4. pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 82 4ð6Þð9Þ x¼ 2ð6Þ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 8 152 8 2 38 i ¼ ¼ 12pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 12pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2ð4 38 iÞ 4 38 i ¼ ¼ 12 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ p6ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 38 38 4 2 ¼ i¼ i 6 p6ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 3 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 6 2 2 38 38 i; i ¼ þ 3 3 6 6 8

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions In all the previous examples and practice problems, complex solutions to quadratic equations came in conjugate pairs. This always happens when the solutions are complex numbers. A quadratic expression that has complex zeros are called irreducible (over the reals) because they cannot be factored using real numbers. For example, the polynomial function f ðxÞ ¼ x4 1 can be factored using real numbers as ðx2 1Þðx2 þ 1Þ ¼ ðx 1Þðx þ 1Þðx2 þ 1Þ. The factor x2 þ 1 is irreducible because it is factored as ðx iÞðx þ iÞ. We can tell which quadratic factors are irreducible without having to use the quadratic formula. We only need part of the quadratic formula, the part under the square root sign, b2 4ac. When this number is negative, the quadratic factor has two pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ complex zeros, ðb negative numberÞ=2a. When this number is positive, pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ there are two real number solutions, ðb positive pﬃﬃﬃ numberÞ=2a. When this number is zero, there is one real zero, ðb 0Þ=2a ¼ b=2a. For this reason, b2 4ac is called the discriminant. The graphs of some polynomials having irreducible quadratic factors need extra points plotted to get a more accurate graph. The graph in Fig. 9-27 shows the graph of f ðxÞ ¼ x4 3x2 4 plotted using our usual method— plotting the x-intercepts, a point to the left of the smallest x-intercept, a point between each consecutive pair of x-intercepts, and a point to the right of the largest x-intercept.

Fig. 9-27.

See what happens to the graph when we plot the points for x ¼ 1 and x ¼ 1.

339

340

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

Fig. 9-28.

The graph of f ðxÞ ¼ ðx 2Þðx2 þ 6x þ 10Þ is sketched in Fig. 9-29. The graphs we have sketched have several vertices between x-intercepts. When this happens, we need calculus to ﬁnd them.

Fig. 9-29.

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

341

The Fundamental Theorem of Algebra By the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra, every polynomial of degree n has exactly n zeros (some might be counted more than once). Because x ¼ c is a zero implies x c is a factor, every polynomial can be completely factored in the form aðx cn Þðx cn1 Þ ðx c1 Þ, where a is a real number and ci is real or complex. Factors in the form x c are called linear factors. Factors such as 2x þ 1 can be written in the form x c by factoring 2: 2ðx þ 12Þ or 2ðx ð 12ÞÞ. To completely factor a polynomial, we usually need to ﬁrst ﬁnd its zeros. At times, we will use the Rational Zero Theorem, polynomial division, and the quadratic formula. EXAMPLES Find all zeros, real and complex. *

hðxÞ ¼ x4 16 This is the diﬀerence of two squares. x4 16 ¼ ðx2 4Þðx2 þ 4Þ ¼ ðx 2Þðx þ 2Þðx2 þ 4Þ The real zeros are 2 and 2. Find the complex zeros by solving x2 þ 4 ¼ 0. x2 þ 4 ¼ 0 x2 ¼ 4 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ x ¼ 4 ¼ 2i

*

The complex zeros are 2i. x4 þ 6x3 þ 9x2 6x 10 The possible rational zeros are 1ó 2ó 5, and 10. Pð1Þ ¼ 0. 1j 1 1

6 1 7

9 7 16

6 16 10

10 10 0

PðxÞ ¼ ðx 1Þðx3 þ 7x2 þ 16x þ 10Þ

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

342

Because x3 þ 7x2 þ 16x þ 10 has no sign changes, there are no positive zeros; x ¼ 1 is a zero for x3 þ 7x2 þ 16x þ 10. 1j 1

7 1 6

1

16 6 10

10 10 0

PðxÞ ¼ ðx 1Þðx þ 1Þðx2 þ 6x þ 10Þ Solve x2 þ 6x þ 10 ¼ 0 to ﬁnd the complex zeros. pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 6 62 4ð1Þð10Þ 6 4 x¼ ¼ 2 2ð1Þ 6 2i 2ð3 iÞ ¼ ¼ ¼ 3 i 2 2 The zeros are 1ó 3 i. PRACTICE Find all zeros, real and complex. 1. 2. 3. 4.

f ðxÞ ¼ x4 81 hðxÞ ¼ x3 þ 13x 34 f ðxÞ ¼ x4 þ 5x2 þ 4 PðxÞ ¼ x4 6x3 þ 29x2 76x þ 68

SOLUTIONS 1. f ðxÞ ¼ ðx2 9Þðx2 þ 9Þ ¼ ðx 3Þðx þ 3Þðx2 þ 9Þ x2 þ 9 ¼ 0 x2 ¼ 9 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ x ¼ 9 ¼ 3i

2.

The zeros are 3ó 3i. hð2Þ ¼ 0 2j 1 1

0 2 2

hðxÞ ¼ ðx 2Þðx2 þ 2x þ 17Þ

13 4 17

34 34 0

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

343

x2 þ 2x þ 17 ¼ 0

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 22 4ð1Þð17Þ 2 8i x¼ ¼ 2ð1Þ 2 2ð1 4iÞ ¼ ¼ 1 4i 2 The zeros are 2ó 1 4i. ðx4 þ 5x2 þ 4Þ ¼ ðx2 þ 1Þðx2 þ 4Þ 2

3.

x2 þ 1 ¼ 0

4.

x2 þ 4 ¼ 0

x2 ¼ 1

x2 ¼ 4

x ¼ i

x ¼ 2i

The zeros are ió 2i. Pð2Þ ¼ 0 2j 1 1

6 2 4

29 8 21

76 42 34

68 68 0

PðxÞ ¼ ðx 2Þðx3 4x2 þ 21x 34Þ x ¼ 2 is a zero for x3 4x2 þ 21x 34 2j 1 1

4 2 2

21 4 17

34 34 0

PðxÞ ¼ ðx 2Þðx 2Þðx2 2x þ 17Þ

x¼

x2 2x þ 17 ¼ 0 qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ð2Þ ð2Þ2 4ð1Þð17Þ

2ð1Þ 2 8i 2ð1 4iÞ ¼ ¼ ¼ 1 4i 2 2 The zeros are 2ó 1 4i.

¼

2

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 64 2

If we know a complex number is a zero for a polynomial, we automatically know another zero—the complex conjugate is also a zero. This gives us a quadratic factor for the polynomial. Once we have this computed, we can use long division to ﬁnd the quotient, which will be another factor of the polynomial. Each time we factor a polynomial, we are closer to ﬁnding its zeros.

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

344

EXAMPLES Find all zeros, real and complex. *

f ðxÞ ¼ 3x4 þ x3 þ 17x2 þ 4x þ 20 and x ¼ 2i is a zero. Because x ¼ 2i is a zero, its conjugate, 2i is another zero. This tells us that two factors are x 2i and x þ 2i. ðx 2iÞðx þ 2iÞ ¼ x2 þ 2ix 2ix 4i2 ¼ x2 4ð1Þ ¼ x2 þ 4 We will divide f ðxÞ by x2 þ 4 ¼ x2 þ 0x þ 4. 3x2 þ x þ 5 x þ 0x þ 4j 3x4 þ x3 þ 17x2 þ 4x þ 20 ð3x4 þ 0x3 þ 12x2 Þ x3 þ 5x2 þ 4x ðx3 þ 0x2 þ 4xÞ 5x2 þ 0x þ 20 ð5x2 þ 0x þ 20Þ 0 2

*

f ðxÞ ¼ ðx2 þ 4Þð3x2 þ x þ 5Þ. Solving 3x2 þ x þ 5 ¼ 0, we get the solutions pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 1 12 4ð3Þð5Þ 1 59 1 59 i x¼ ¼ ¼ 2ð3Þ 6 6 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ The zeros are 2ió ð1 59 iÞ=6. hðxÞ ¼ 2x3 7x2 þ 170x 246, x ¼ 1 þ 9i is a zero. Because x ¼ 1 þ 9i is a zero, we know that x ¼ 1 9i is also a zero. We also know that x ð1 þ 9iÞ ¼ x 1 9i and x ð1 9iÞ ¼ x 1 þ 9i are factors. We will multiply these two factors. ðx 1 9iÞðx 1 þ 9iÞ ¼ x2 x þ 9ix x þ 1 9i 9ix þ 9i 81i2 ¼ x2 2x þ 1 81ð1Þ ¼ x2 2x þ 82 x2 2x þ 82j

2x 3 2x3 7x2 þ 170x 246 ð2x3 4x2 þ 164xÞ 3x2 þ 6x 246 ð3x2 þ 6x 246Þ 0

hðxÞ ¼ ð2x 3Þðx2 2x þ 82Þ. The zeros are 1 9i and 32 (from 2x 3 ¼ 0).

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions PRACTICE Find all zeros, real and complex. 1. 2. 3.

f ðxÞ ¼ x4 x3 þ 8x2 9x 9; x ¼ 3i is a zero. gðxÞ ¼ x3 5x2 þ 7x þ 13; x ¼ 3 2i is a zero. hðxÞ ¼ x4 8x3 þ 21x2 þ 32x 100; x ¼ 4 þ 3i is a zero.

SOLUTIONS 1. x ¼ 3i is a zero, so x ¼ 3i is also a zero. One factor of f ðxÞ is ðx 3iÞðx þ 3iÞ ¼ x2 þ 9 ¼ x2 þ 0x þ 9. x2 x 1 x þ 0x þ 9j x4 x3 þ 8x2 9x 9 ðx4 þ 0x3 þ 9x2 Þ x3 x2 9x ðx3 þ 0x2 9xÞ x2 þ 0x 9 ðx2 þ 0x 9Þ 0 2

f ðxÞ ¼ ðx2 þ 9Þðx2 x 1Þ. Solve x2 x 1 ¼ 0: qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ ð1Þ ð1Þ2 4ð1Þð1Þ 1 5 x¼ ¼ 2 2ð1Þ pﬃﬃﬃ The zeros are 3ió ð1 5Þ=2. 2. x ¼ 3 2i is a zero, so x ¼ 3 þ 2i is also a zero. One factor of gðxÞ is ðx ð3 2iÞÞðx ð3 þ 2iÞÞ ¼ ðx 3 þ 2iÞðx 3 2iÞ ¼ x2 3x 2ix 3x þ 9 þ 6i þ 2ix 6i 4i2 ¼ x2 6x þ 9 4ð1Þ ¼ x2 6x þ 13: x2 6x þ 13j

xþ 1 x3 5x2 þ 7x þ 13 ðx3 6x2 þ 13xÞ x2 6x þ 13 ðx2 6x þ 13Þ 0

gðxÞ ¼ ðx þ 1Þðx2 6x þ 13Þ. The zeros are 1ó 3 2i.

345

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

346 3.

x ¼ 4 þ 3i is a zero, so x ¼ 4 3i is also a zero. One factor of gðxÞ is ðx ð4 þ 3iÞÞðx ð4 3iÞÞ ¼ ðx 4 3iÞðx 4 þ 3iÞ ¼ x2 4x þ 3ix 4x þ 16 12i 3ix þ 12i 9i2 ¼ x2 8x þ 16 9ð1Þ ¼ x2 8x þ 25: x2 4 x2 8x þ 25j x4 8x3 þ 21x2 þ 32x 100 ðx4 8x3 þ 25x2 Þ 4x2 þ 32x 100 ð4x2 þ 32x 100Þ 0 hðxÞ ¼ ðx2 4Þðx2 8x þ 25Þ. The zeros are 4 3i and 2 (from x2 4 ¼ 0).

A consequence of the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra is that a polynomial of degree n will have n zeros, although not necessarily n diﬀerent zeros. For example, the polynomial f ðxÞ ¼ ðx 2Þ3 ¼ ðx 2Þðx 2Þðx 2Þ has x ¼ 2 as a zero three times. The number of times an x-value is a zero is called its multiplicity. In the above example, x ¼ 2 is a zero with multiplicity 3. EXAMPLE * f ðxÞ ¼ x4 ðx þ 3Þ2 ðx 6Þ x ¼ 0 is a zero with multiplicity 4. (We can think of x4 as ðx 0Þ4 .) x ¼ 3 is a zero with multiplicity 2. x ¼ 6 is a zero with multiplicity 1. PRACTICE State each zero and its multiplicity. 1.

f ðxÞ ¼ x2 ðx þ 4Þðx þ 9Þ6 ðx 5Þ3

SOLUTION 1. x ¼ 0 is a zero with multiplicity 2. x ¼ 4 is a zero with multiplicity 1. x ¼ 9 is a zero with multiplicity 6. x ¼ 5 is a zero with multiplicity 3. Now, instead of ﬁnding the zeros for a given polynomial, we will ﬁnd a polynomial with the given zeros. Because we will know the zeros, we will

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions know the factors. Once we know the factors of a polynomial, we have a fairly good idea of the polynomial. EXAMPLES Find a polynomial with integer coefficients having the given degree and zeros. *

Degree 3 with zeros 1ó 2, and 5. Because x ¼ 1 is a zero, x 1 is a factor. Because x ¼ 2 is a zero, x 2 is a factor. And because x ¼ 5 is a zero, x 5 is a factor. Such a polynomial will be of the form aðx 1Þðx 2Þðx 5Þ, where a is some nonzero number. We will want to choose a so that the coeﬃcients are integers. aðx 1Þðx 2Þðx 5Þ ¼ aðx 1Þ½ðx 2Þðx 5Þ ¼ aðx 1Þðx2 7x þ 10Þ ¼ aðx3 7x2 þ 10x x2 þ 7x 10Þ ¼ aðx3 8x2 þ 17x 10Þ

*

Because the coeﬃcients are already integers, we can let a ¼ 1. One polynomial of degree 3 having integer coeﬃcients and 1ó 2, and 5 as zeros is x3 8x2 þ 17x 10. Degree 4 with zeros 3 and 2 5i, with 3 a zero of multiplicity 2. Because 3 is a zero of multiplicity 2, ðx þ 3Þ2 ¼ x2 þ 6x þ 9 is a factor. Because 2 5i is a zero, 2 þ 5i is another zero. Another factor of the polynomial is ðx ð2 5iÞÞðx ð2 þ 5iÞÞ ¼ ðx 2 þ 5iÞðx 2 5iÞ ¼ x2 2x 5ix 2x þ 4 þ 10i þ 5ix 10i 25i2 ¼ x2 4x þ 4 25ð1Þ ¼ x2 4x þ 29: The polynomial has the form aðx2 þ 6x þ 9Þðx2 4x þ 29Þ, where a is any real number that makes all coeﬃcients integers. aðx2 þ 6x þ 9Þðx2 4x þ 29Þ ¼ aðx4 4x3 þ 29x2 þ 6x3 24x2 þ 174x þ 9x2 36x þ 261Þ ¼ aðx4 þ 2x3 þ 14x2 þ 138x þ 261Þ

347

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

348

Because the coeﬃcients are already integers, we can let a ¼ 1. One polynomial that satisﬁes the given conditions is x4 þ 2x3 þ 14x2 þ 138x þ 261. PRACTICE Find a polynomial with integer coefficients having the given degree and zeros. 1. 2. 3.

Degree 3 with zeros 0ó 4, and 6. Degree 4 with zeros 5i and 3i. Degree 4 with zeros 1 and 6 7i, where x ¼ 1 has multiplicity 2.

SOLUTIONS 1. One polynomial with integer coeﬃcients, with degree 3 and zeros 0ó 4 and 6 is xðx þ 4Þðx 6Þ ¼ xðx2 2x 24Þ ¼ x3 2x2 24x: 2.

One polynomial with integer coeﬃcients, with degree 4 and zeros 5i and 3i is ðx þ 5iÞðx 5iÞðx 3iÞðx þ 3iÞ ¼ ðx2 þ 25Þðx2 þ 9Þ ¼ x4 þ 34x2 þ 225:

3.

One polynomial with integer coeﬃcients, with degree 4 and zeros 1, 6 7i, where x ¼ 1 has multiplicity 2 is ðx þ 1Þ2 ðx ð6 7iÞÞðx ð6 þ 7iÞÞ ¼ ðx þ 1Þ2 ðx 6 þ 7iÞðx 6 7iÞ ¼ ½ðx þ 1Þðx þ 1Þ½ðx2 6x 7ix 6x þ 36 þ 42i þ 7ix 42i 49i2 Þ ¼ ðx2 þ 2x þ 1Þðx2 12x þ 85Þ ¼ x4 12x3 þ 85x2 þ 2x3 24x2 þ 170x þ x2 12x þ 85 ¼ x4 10x3 þ 62x2 þ 158x þ 85:

In the previous problems, there were inﬁnitely many answers because a could be any integer. In the following problems, there will be exactly one polynomial that satisﬁes the given conditions. This means that a will likely be a number other than 1.

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions EXAMPLES Find a polynomial that satisfies the given conditions. Degree 3 with zeros 1ó 2, and 4, where the coeﬃcient for x is 20.

*

aðx þ 1Þðx þ 2Þðx 4Þ ¼ aðx þ 1Þ½ðx þ 2Þðx 4Þ ¼ aðx þ 1Þðx2 2x 8Þ ¼ aðx3 2x2 8x þ x2 2x 8Þ ¼ aðx3 x2 10x 8Þ ¼ ax3 ax2 10ax 8a Because we need the coeﬃcient of x to be 20, we need 10ax ¼ 20x, so we need a ¼ 2 (from 10a ¼ 20). The polynomial that satisﬁes the conditions is 2x3 2x2 20x 16: Degree 3 with zeros 23 and 1 5i, where the coeﬃcient of x2 is 4. If x ¼ 23 is a zero, then 3x 2 is a factor.

*

2 x ¼0 3 2 3 x ¼ 3ð0Þ 3 3x 2 ¼ 0 The other factors are x ð1 5iÞ ¼ x þ 1 þ 5i and x ð1 þ 5iÞ ¼ x þ 1 5i.

ðx þ 1 þ 5iÞðx þ 1 5iÞ ¼ x2 þ x 5ix þ x þ 1 5i þ 5ix þ 5i 25i2 ¼ x2 þ 2x þ 26

að3x 2Þðx2 þ 2x þ 26Þ ¼ að3x3 þ 6x2 þ 78x 2x2 4x 52Þ ¼ að3x3 þ 4x2 þ 74x 52Þ ¼ 3ax3 þ 4ax2 þ 74ax 52a We want 4ax2 ¼ 4x2 , so we need a ¼ 1. The polynomial that satisﬁes the conditions is 3x3 4x2 74x þ 52:

349

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

350

PRACTICE Find the polynomial that satisfies the given conditions. 1. 2. 3.

Degree 3, zeros 4 and 1, with leading coeﬃcient 3. Degree 3 with zeros 35 and 1, where the multiplicity of 1 is 2, and the coeﬃcient of x is 2. Degree 4 with zeros i and 4i, with constant term 8.

SOLUTIONS 1. The factors are x 4, x 1, and x þ 1. aðx 4Þðx 1Þðx þ 1Þ ¼ aðx 4Þ½ðx 1Þðx þ 1Þ ¼ aðx 4Þðx2 1Þ ¼ a½ðx 4Þðx2 1Þ ¼ aðx3 4x2 x þ 4Þ ¼ ax3 4ax2 ax þ 4a

2.

We want the leading coeﬃcient to be 3, so a ¼ 3. The polynomial that satisﬁes the conditions is 3x3 12x2 3x þ 12. Because x ¼ 35 is a zero, 5x þ 3 is a factor. 3 ¼0 x 5 3 5 xþ ¼ 5ð0Þ 5 5x þ 3 ¼ 0 The other factor is ðx 1Þ2 ¼ ðx 1Þðx 1Þ ¼ x2 2x þ 1. að5x þ 3Þðx2 2x þ 1Þ ¼ að5x3 10x2 þ 5x þ 3x2 6x þ 3Þ ¼ að5x3 7x2 x þ 3Þ ¼ 5ax3 7ax2 ax þ 3a We want ax ¼ 2x, so a ¼ 2. The polynomial that satisﬁes the conditions is 10x3 þ 14x2 þ 2x 6.

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions 3.

351

The factors are x þ ió x ió x 4i, and x þ 4i. aðx þ iÞðx iÞðx 4iÞðx þ 4iÞ ¼ a½ðx þ iÞðx iÞ½ðx 4iÞðx þ 4iÞ ¼ aðx2 þ 1Þðx2 þ 16Þ ¼ aðx4 þ 17x2 þ 16Þ ¼ ax4 þ 17ax2 þ 16a We want 16a ¼ 8, so a ¼ 12. The polynomial that satisﬁes the condi2 tions is 12 x4 þ 17 2 x þ 8.

Chapter 9 Review 1.

The graph of a polynomial function whose leading term is 5x4 a) goes up on the left and up on the right. b) goes down on the left and down on the right. c) goes up on the left and down on the right. d) goes down on the left and up on the right.

2.

The zeros for the function f ðxÞ ¼ xðx þ 1Þ2 ðx 2Þ are a) x ¼ 1ó 2 b) x ¼ 0ó 1ó 2 c) x ¼ 1ó 2 d) x ¼ 0ó 1ó 2

3.

The graph in Fig. 9-30 is the graph of what function? a) f ðxÞ ¼ xðx 2Þðx þ 3Þ ¼ x3 þ x2 6x b) f ðxÞ ¼ xðx 2Þðx þ 3Þ ¼ x3 x2 þ 6x c) f ðxÞ ¼ x2 ðx 2Þðx þ 3Þ ¼ x4 þ x3 6x2 d) f ðxÞ ¼ x4 x3 þ 6x2

Fig. 9-30.

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

352 4.

For the polynomial function f ðxÞ ¼ 3x4 þ 5x3 x 10 a) the degree is 4, and the constant term is 3. b) the degree is 3, and the constant term is 10. c) the degree is 3, and the constant term is 10. d) the degree is 4, and the constant term is 10.

5.

For the polynomial function f ðxÞ ¼ 15 ðx þ 3Þðx 1Þðx 5Þ, which set of points would be best to plot for the graph? a) ð4ó 4:2Þ, ð3ó 0Þ, ð0ó 3Þ, ð1ó 0Þ, ð2ó 3Þ, ð5ó 0Þ b) ð4ó 9Þ, ð3ó 0Þ, ð0ó 3Þ, ð1ó 0Þ, ð2ó 3Þ, ð5ó 0Þ ð6ó 9Þ c) ð4ó 9Þ, ð3ó 0Þ ð2ó 4:2Þ, ð1ó 0Þ, ð2ó 3Þ, ð4ó 4:2Þ, ð5ó 0Þ d) ð2ó 4:2Þ, ð4ó 4:2Þ, ð3ó 0Þ, ð1ó 4:8Þ, ð1ó 0Þ, ð3ó 4:8Þ, ð5ó 0Þ

6.

Find the quotient and remainder for ðx3 þ x þ 1Þ ðx2 1Þ. a) The quotient is x þ 2, and the remainder is 3. b) The quotient is x2 þ x þ 2, and the remainder is 3. c) The quotient is x, and the remainder is 2x þ 1. d) The quotient is x, and the remainder is 1.

7.

Find the quotient and remainder for ð5x2 þ 2x þ 3Þ ð2x þ 1Þ. a) The quotient is 52 x 14, and the remainder is 13 4. 5 9 21 b) The quotient is 2 x þ 4, and the remainder is 4 . c) The quotient is 52 x 12, and the remainder is 52. d) The quotient is 52 x 94, and the remainder is 11 4.

8.

Find the quotient and remainder for ð4x3 2x2 þ x 5Þ ðx 2Þ. a) The quotient is 4x2 10x þ 21, and the remainder is 47. b) The quotient is 4x2 þ 6x þ 13, and the remainder is 21. c) The quotient is 4x2 þ 6x 13, and the remainder is 21. d) The quotient is 4x2 þ 6x þ 13, and the remainder is 31.

9.

What are the solutions for 2x3 x2 5x 2 ¼ 0? a) x ¼ 0ó 1ó 2 b) x ¼ 1ó 12 ó 2 1 c) x ¼ 1ó 2 ó 2 d) Cannot be determined

10.

3 2 What are the zerospfor ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ f ðxÞ ¼ x þ 2x þ 4x þ 3?pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ a) x ¼ 1ó ð1 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 11 iÞ=2 b) x ¼ 1ó ð1 13Þ=2 c) x ¼ 1ó ð3 19 iÞ=2 d) Cannot be determined

11.

According to the Rational Zero Theorem, which of the following is not a possible rational zero for the polynomial PðxÞ ¼ 10x4 6x3 þ x2 þ 6? b) 13 c) 6 d) 1 a) 12

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions 12.

What are the zeros for PðxÞ ¼ 3x3 13x2 32x þ 12? b) x ¼ 3ó 6ó 2 a) x ¼ 13 ó 6ó 2 c) x ¼ 1ó 6ó 2 d) x ¼ 13 ó 6ó 2

13.

Which is a polynomial function having a zero of 2 3i? b) f ðxÞ ¼ x3 5x2 17x þ 13 a) f ðxÞ ¼ x3 5x2 þ 17x 13 3 2 d) f ðxÞ ¼ x3 þ 5x2 þ 17x 13 c) f ðxÞ ¼ x þ 5x 17x 13

14.

Write the quotient for ð5 þ 2iÞ=ð1 þ iÞ in the form a þ bi, where a and b are real numbers. a) 72 þ 72 i b) 72 32 i c) 32 þ 72 i d) 52 þ i

15.

According to Descartes’ Rule of Signs, how many zeros does the polynomial function f ðxÞ ¼ 2x3 þ x2 x 5 have? a) 2 or 0 positive zeros and 0 negative zeros. b) 3 or 1 positive zeros and 2 or 0 negative zeros. c) 2 or 0 positive zeros and 1 negative zero. d) 3 or 1 positive zeros and 1 negative zero.

SOLUTIONS 1. a) 2. d) 9. c) 10. a)

3. b) 11. b)

4. d) 5. b) 6. c) 7. a) 8. b) 12. d) 13. a) 14. b) 15. c)

353

10

CHAPTER

Systems of Equations and Inequalities

A system of equations is a collection of two or more equations whose graphs might or might not intersect (share a common point or points). If the graphs do intersect, then we say that the solution to the system is the point or points where the graphs intersect. For example, the solution to the system xþy ¼4 3x y ¼ 0 is ð1ó 3Þ because the graphs intersect at ð1ó 3Þ. We say that ð1ó 3Þ satisﬁes the system because if we let x ¼ 1 and y ¼ 3 in each equation, they will both be true. 1þ3¼4

This is a true statement

3ð1Þ 3 ¼ 0

This is a true statement

354 Copyright © 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click here for terms of use.

CHAPTER 10

Systems of Equations

355

Fig. 10-1.

There are several methods for solving systems of equations. One of them is by sketching the graphs and seeing where, if anywhere, the graphs intersect. Even with a graphing calculator, though, these solutions might only be approximations. When the equations are lines, matrices can be used. Graphing calculators are also useful for these. We will concentrate on two methods in this book. One of them is called substitution and the other is called elimination by addition. Both methods will work with many kinds of systems of equations, but we will start with systems of linear equations.

Substitution Substitution works by solving for one variable in one equation and making a substitution in the other equation. Technically, it does not matter which variable we use or which equation we begin with, but some choices are easier than others. EXAMPLES Solve the systems of equations. Put your solutions in the form of a point, ðxó yÞ. xþy ¼5 * 2x þ y ¼ 1 We have four places to start. 1. 2. 3. 4.

Solve Solve Solve Solve

for for for for

x in the ﬁrst equation: x ¼ 5 y y in the ﬁrst equation: y ¼ 5 x x in the second equation: x ¼ 12 þ 12 y y in the second equation: y ¼ 2x 1

CHAPTER 10 Systems of Equations

356

The third option looks like it would be the most trouble, so we will use one of the others. We will use the ﬁrst option. Because x ¼ 5 y came from the ﬁrst equation, we will substitute it for x in the second equation. Then 2x þ y ¼ 1 becomes 2ð5 yÞ þ y ¼ 1. This is the substitution step, substituting what x is equal to, namely 5 y, for x. Now we can solve the equation 2ð5 yÞ þ y ¼ 1. 2ð5 yÞ þ y ¼ 1 10 þ 2y þ y ¼ 1 3y ¼ 9 y¼3 Now that we know y ¼ 3, we could use any of the equations above to ﬁnd x. We know that x ¼ 5 y, so we will use this. x¼53¼2 The solution is x ¼ 2 and y ¼ 3 or the point ð2ó 3Þ. It is a good idea to check the solution. 2þ3¼5 2ð2Þ þ 3 ¼ 1 *

This is true. This is true.

4x y ¼ 12 A 3x þ y ¼ 2 B

We will solve for y in equation B: y ¼ 2 3x. Next we will substitute 2 3x for y in equation A and solve for x. 4x y ¼ 12 4x ð2 3xÞ ¼ 12 4x 2 þ 3x ¼ 12 7x ¼ 14 x¼2 Now that we know x ¼ 2, we will put x ¼ 2 in one of the above equations. We will use y ¼ 2 3x: y ¼ 2 3ð2Þ ¼ 4. The solution is x ¼ 2, y ¼ 4, or ð2ó 4Þ. The graphs in Fig. 10-2 verify that the solution ð2ó 4Þ is on both lines.

CHAPTER 10

Systems of Equations

Fig. 10-2.

(

y ¼ 4x þ 1

A

*

y ¼ 3x þ 2 B Both equations are already solved for y, so all we need to do is to set them equal to each other. 4x þ 1 ¼ 3x þ 2 x¼1 Use either equation A or equation B to ﬁnd y when x ¼ 1. We will use A: y ¼ 4x þ 1 ¼ 4ð1Þ þ 1 ¼ 5. The solution is x ¼ 1 and y ¼ 5, or ð1ó 5Þ. We can see from the graphs in Fig. 10-3 that ð1ó 5Þ is the solution to the system.

Fig. 10-3.

357

CHAPTER 10 Systems of Equations

358

PRACTICE Solve the systems of equations. Put your solutions in the form of a point, ðxó yÞ. 1.

2.

3.

4.

2x þ 3y ¼ 1 A x 2y ¼ 3 B

xþy ¼3 A x þ 4y ¼ 0 B

2x þ y ¼ 2 A 3x þ 2y ¼ 4 B

y ¼xþ1 3x þ 2y ¼ 2

A B

SOLUTIONS 1. Solve for x in B: x ¼ 3 þ 2y and substitute this for x in A. 2x þ 3y ¼ 1 2ð3 þ 2yÞ þ 3y ¼ 1 6 þ 4y þ 3y ¼ 1 7y ¼ 7 y¼1

Put y ¼ 1 in x ¼ 3 þ 2y

x ¼ 3 þ 2ð1Þ ¼ 1 2.

The solution is ð1ó 1Þ. Solve for x in B: x ¼ 4y and substitute this for x in A. xþy¼3 4y þ y ¼ 3 3y ¼ 3 y ¼ 1

Put y ¼ 1 in x ¼ 4y

x ¼ 4ð1Þ ¼ 4 The solution is ð4ó 1Þ.

CHAPTER 10 3.

Systems of Equations

359

Solve for y in A: y ¼ 2 2x and substitute for y in B. 3x þ 2y ¼ 4 3x þ 2ð2 2xÞ ¼ 4 3x 4 4x ¼ 4 7x ¼ 0 x¼0

Put x ¼ 0 in y ¼ 2 2x

y ¼ 2 2ð0Þ ¼ 2 4.

The solution is ð0ó 2Þ Equation A is already solved for y. Substitute x þ 1 for y in B. 3x þ 2y ¼ 2 3x þ 2ðx þ 1Þ ¼ 2 3x þ 2x þ 2 ¼ 2 x ¼ 4 x¼4

Put x ¼ 4 in A

y¼xþ1¼4þ1¼5 The solution is ð4ó 5Þ.

Elimination by Addition Solving a system of equations by substitution can be more diﬃcult when none of the coeﬃcients is 1. Fortunately, there is another way. We can always add the two equations to eliminate one of the variables. Sometimes, though, we might need to multiply one or both equations by a number to make it work. EXAMPLE Solve the systems of equations. Put your solutions in the form of a point, ðxó yÞ. 2x 3y ¼ 16 A * 5x þ 3y ¼ 2 B Add the equations by adding like terms. Because we will be adding 3y to 3y, the y-term will cancel, leaving one equation with only one variable.

CHAPTER 10 Systems of Equations

360

2x 3y ¼ 16 5x þ 3y ¼ 2 7x þ 0y ¼ 14 x¼2 We can put x ¼ 2 into either A or B to ﬁnd y. We will put x ¼ 2 into A. 2x 3y ¼ 16 2ð2Þ 3y ¼ 16 3y ¼ 12 y ¼ 4 The solution is ð2ó 4Þ. PRACTICE Solve the systems of equations. Put your solutions in the form of a point, ðxó yÞ. 1.

2x þ 7y 2x 4y

2.

3.

¼ 19 A ¼ 10 B

15x y ¼ 9 2x þ y ¼ 8

A B

5x þ 4y ¼ 3 A 3x 4y ¼ 11 B

SOLUTIONS 1. 2x þ 7y ¼ 19 2x 4y ¼ 10

A +B

3y ¼ 9 y¼3 2x þ 7ð3Þ ¼ 19 Put y ¼ 3 in A x¼1 The solution is ð1ó 3Þ.

CHAPTER 10

Systems of Equations

2. 15x y ¼ 9

A

2x þ y ¼ 8

+B

17x ¼ 17 x¼1 15ð1Þ y ¼ 9

Put x ¼ 1 in A

y¼6 The solution is ð1ó 6Þ. 3. 5x þ 4y ¼ 3 3x 4y ¼ 11

A +B

8x ¼ 8 x ¼ 1 5ð1Þ þ 4y ¼ 3

Put x ¼ 1 in A

y ¼ 2 The solution is ð1ó 2Þ. Sometimes we need to multiply one or both equations by some number or numbers so that one of the variables cancels. Multiplying both sides of any equation by a nonzero number never changes the solution. EXAMPLES 3x þ 6y * 2x þ 6y

¼ 12 A ¼ 14 B

Because the coeﬃcients on y are the same, we only need to make one of them negative. Multiply either A or B by 1, then add. 3x 6y ¼ 12 2x þ 6y ¼ 14

A +B

x ¼ 2 x¼2 3ð2Þ þ 6y ¼ 12 Put x ¼ 2 in A y ¼ 3 The solution is ð2ó 3Þ.

361

CHAPTER 10 Systems of Equations

362 *

2x þ 7y ¼ 1 A 4x 2y ¼ 18 B

Several options will work. We could multiply A by 2 so that we could add 4x (in 2A) to 4x in B. We could multiply A by 2 and multiply B by 7 so that we could add 14y (in 2A) to 14y (in 7B). We could also divide B by 2 so that we could add 2x (in A) to 2x (in 12B). We will add 2A þ B. 4x 14y ¼ 2 2A 4x 2y ¼ 18

+B

16y ¼ 16 y ¼ 1 2x þ 7ð1Þ ¼ 1 Put y ¼ 1 in A x¼4 The solution is ð4ó 1Þ. PRACTICE Solve the systems of equations. 1.

2.

3.

3x þ 2y ¼ 12 4x þ 2y ¼ 2

6x 5y ¼ 1 3x 2y ¼ 1

15x þ 4y 5x þ 2y

SOLUTIONS 1. We will add A þ B. 3x 2y ¼ 12 4x þ 2y ¼ 2

A B A B

¼ 1 A ¼ 3 B

A +B

7x ¼ 14 x ¼ 2 3ð2Þ þ 2y ¼ 12 Put x ¼ 2 in A y¼3 The solution is ð2ó 3Þ.

CHAPTER 10 2.

Systems of Equations

We will compute A2B. 6x 5y ¼ 1 6x þ 4y ¼ 2

A 2B

y ¼ 1 y¼1 6x 5ð1Þ ¼ 1 Put y ¼ 1 in A x¼1 3.

The solution is ð1ó 1Þ. We will compute A2B. 15x þ 4y ¼ 1 10x 4y ¼ 6

A 2B

5x ¼ 5 x¼1 15ð1Þ þ 4y ¼ 1

Put x ¼ 1 in A

y ¼ 4 The solution is ð1ó 4Þ. Both equations in each of the following systems will need to be changed to eliminate one of the variables. EXAMPLES 8x 5y * 3x þ 2y

¼ 2 ¼7

A B

There are many options. Some are 3A 8B, 3A þ 8B, and 2A þ 5B. We will compute 2A þ 5B. 16x 10y ¼ 4

2A

15x þ 10y ¼ 35

+5B

31x ¼ 31 x¼1 8ð1Þ 5y ¼ 2 y¼2 The solution is ð1ó 2Þ.

Put x ¼ 1 in A

363

CHAPTER 10 Systems of Equations

364 ( *

2 3x 1 2x

14 y þ 25 y

¼ 25 72 1 ¼ 30

A B

First, we will eliminate the fractions. The lowest common denominator for A is 72, and the lowest common denominator for B is 30. 48x 18y ¼ 25

72A

15x þ 12y ¼ 1

30B

Now we will multiply the ﬁrst equation by 2 and the second by 3. 96x 36y ¼ 50 45x þ 36y ¼ 3 141x ¼ 47 47 1 x¼ ¼ 141 3 1 96 36y ¼ 50 3 1 y¼ 2 The solution is ð13 ó 12Þ. PRACTICE Solve the systems of equations. Put your solutions in the form of a point, ðxó yÞ. 1.

2.

3.

4.

5x 9y 3x þ 2y

¼ 26 A ¼ 14 B

7x þ 2y 2x þ 3y

¼1 ¼ 7

A B

3x þ 8y 5x þ 6y

¼ 12 ¼ 2

A B

(3

4x

þ 15 y

¼ 23 60

A

1 6x

14 y

¼ 19

B

CHAPTER 10

Systems of Equations

SOLUTIONS 1. 15x 27y ¼ 78

3A

15x 10y ¼ 70

5B

37y ¼ 148 y¼4 5x 9ð4Þ ¼ 26

Put y ¼ 4 in A

x¼2 The solution is ð2ó 4Þ. 2. 21x þ 6y ¼ 3 4x 6y ¼ 14

3A 2B

17x ¼ 17 x¼1 7ð1Þ þ 2y ¼ 1

Put x ¼ 1 in A

y ¼ 3 The solution is ð1ó 3Þ. 3. 9x þ 24y ¼ 36 20x 24y ¼ 8

3A 4B

11x ¼ 44 x ¼ 4 3ð4Þ þ 8y ¼ 12 Put x ¼ 4 in A y¼3 4.

The solution is ð4ó 3Þ. First clear the fractions. 45x þ 12y ¼ 23

60A

6x 9y ¼ 4

36B

365

CHAPTER 10 Systems of Equations

366

Add 3 times the ﬁrst to 4 times the second. 135x þ 36y ¼ 69 24x 36y ¼ 16 159x ¼ 53 x¼

53 1 ¼ 159 3

1 þ 12y ¼ 23 45 3 y¼

2 3

The solution is ð13 ó 23Þ.

Application to Problems Systems of two linear equations can be used to solve many kinds of word problems. In these problems, two facts will be given about two variables. Each pair of facts can be represented by a linear equation. EXAMPLES * A movie theater charges $4 for each child’s ticket and $6.50 for each adult’s ticket. One night 200 tickets were sold, amounting to $1100 in ticket sales. How many of each type of ticket was sold? Let x represent the number of child tickets sold and y the number of adult tickets sold. One equation comes from the fact that a total of 200 adult and child tickets were sold, giving us x þ y ¼ 200. The other equation comes from the fact that the ticket revenue was $1100. The ticket revenue from child tickets is 4x, and the ticket revenue from adult tickets is 6:50y. Their sum is 1100 giving us 4x þ 6:50y ¼ 1100.

4x þ 6:50y ¼ 1100 A xþy

¼ 200

B

CHAPTER 10

Systems of Equations

We could use either substitution or addition to solve this system. Substitution is a little faster. We will solve for x in B. x ¼ 200 y 4ð200 yÞ þ 6:50y ¼ 1100 Put 200 y into A 800 4y þ 6:50y ¼ 1100 y ¼ 120 x ¼ 200 y ¼ 200 120 ¼ 80

*

Eighty child tickets were sold, and 120 adult tickets were sold. A farmer had a soil test performed. The farmer was told that a ﬁeld needed 1080 pounds of Mineral A and 920 pounds of Mineral B. Two mixtures of fertilizers provide these minerals. Each bag of Brand I provides 25 pounds of Mineral A and 15 pounds of Mineral B. Brand II provides 20 pounds of Mineral A and 20 pounds of Mineral B. How many bags of each brand should the farmer buy? Let x represent the number of bags of Brand I and y represent the number of bags of Brand II. Then the number of pounds of Mineral A obtained from Brand I is 25x and the number of pounds of Mineral B is 15x. The number of pounds of Mineral A obtained from Brand II is 20y and the number of pounds of Mineral B is 20y. The farmer needs 1080 pounds of Mineral A, 25x pounds will come from Brand I and 20y will come from Brand II. This gives us the equation 25x þ 20y ¼ 1080. The farmer needs 920 pounds of Mineral B, 15x will come from Brand I and 20y will come from Brand II. This gives us the equation 15x þ 20y ¼ 920. 25x þ 20y ¼ 1080 A 15x þ 20y ¼ 920 B We will compute AB. 25x þ 20y ¼ 1080

A

15x 20y ¼ 920

B

10x ¼ 160 x ¼ 16 25ð16Þ þ 20y ¼ 1080 y ¼ 34 The farmer needs 16 bags of Brand I and 34 bags of Brand II.

367

CHAPTER 10 Systems of Equations

368 *

A furniture manufacturer has some discontinued fabric and trim in stock. It can use them on sofas and chairs. There are 160 yards of fabric and 110 yards of trim. Each sofa takes 6 yards of fabric and 4.5 yards of trim. Each chair takes 4 yards of fabric and 2 yards of trim. How many sofas and chairs should be produced in order to use all the fabric and trim? Let x represent the number of sofas to be produced and y the number of chairs. The manufacturer needs to use 160 yards of fabric, 6x will be used on sofas and 4y yards on chairs. This gives us the equation 6x þ 4y ¼ 160. There are 110 yards of trim, 4:5x yards will be used on the sofas and 2y on the chairs. This gives us the equation 4:5x þ 2y ¼ 110. 6x þ 4y ¼ 160 F 4:5x þ 2y ¼ 110 T We will compute F2T. 6x þ 4y ¼ 160 9x 4y ¼ 220

F 2T

3x ¼ 60 x ¼ 20 6ð20Þ þ 4y ¼ 160 y ¼ 10 The manufacturer needs to produce 20 sofas and 10 chairs. PRACTICE 1. A grocery store sells two diﬀerent brands of milk. The price for the name brand is $3.50 per gallon, and the price for the store’s brand is $2.25 per gallon. On one Saturday, 4500 gallons of milk were sold for sales of $12,875. How many of each brand were sold? 2. A cable company oﬀers two services—basic cable and premium cable. It charges $25 per month for the basic service and $45 per month for the premium service. Last month, it had 94,000 subscribers and had $3,030,000 in billing. How many subscribers used the premium service? 3. A gardener wants to add 39 pounds of Nutrient A and 16 pounds of Nutrient B to a garden. Each bag of Brand X provides 3 pounds of Nutrient A and 2 pounds of Nutrient B. Each bag of Brand Y

CHAPTER 10

4.

Systems of Equations

provides 4 pounds of Nutrient A and 1 pound of Nutrient B. How many bags of each brand should be bought? A clothing manufacturer has 70 yards of a certain fabric and 156 buttons in stock. It manufactures jackets and slacks that use this fabric and button. Each jacket requires 1 13 yards of fabric and 4 buttons. Each pair of slacks required 1 34 yards of fabric and 3 buttons. How many jackets and pairs of slacks should the manufacturer produce to use all the available fabric and buttons?

SOLUTIONS 1. Let x represent the number of gallons of the name brand sold and y represent the number of gallons of the store brand sold. The total number of gallons sold is 4500, giving us x þ y ¼ 4500. Revenue from the name brand is 3:50x and is 2:25y for the store brand. Total revenue is $12,875, giving us the equation 3:50x þ 2:25y ¼ 12ó875.

xþy

¼ 4500

3:50x þ 2:25y

¼ 12ó875

We will use substitution. x ¼ 4500 y 3:50ð4500 yÞ þ 2:25y ¼ 12ó875 y ¼ 2300 x ¼ 4500 y ¼ 4500 2300 ¼ 2200

2.

The store sold 2200 gallons of the name brand and 2300 gallons of the store brand. Let x represent the number of basic service subscribers and y the number of premium service subscribers. The total number of subscribers is 94,000, so x þ y ¼ 94ó000. Revenue from basic services is 25x and 45y from premium services. Billing was $3,030,000, giving us 25x þ 45y ¼ 3ó030ó000.

94ó000

xþy

¼

25x þ 45y

¼ 3ó030ó000

369

CHAPTER 10 Systems of Equations

370

We will use substitution. x ¼ 94ó000 y 25ð94ó000 yÞ þ 45y ¼ 3ó030ó000 y ¼ 34ó000 3.

There are 34,000 premium service subscribers. Let x represent the number of bags of Brand X and y the number of bags of Brand Y. The gardener will get 3x pounds of Nutrient A from x bags of Brand X and 4y pounds from y bags of Brand Y, so we need 3x þ 4y ¼ 39. The gardener will get 2x pounds of Nutrient B from x bags of Brand X and 1y pounds of Nutrient B from y bags of Brand Y, so we need 2x þ y ¼ 16. We will use substitution. y ¼ 16 2x 3x þ 4ð16 2xÞ ¼ 39 x¼5 y ¼ 16 2x ¼ 16 2ð5Þ ¼ 6

4.

The gardener needs to buy 5 bags of Brand X and 6 bags of Brand Y. Let x represent the number of jackets to be produced and y the number of pairs of slacks. To use 70 yards of fabric, we need 1 13 x þ 1 34 y ¼ 70. To use 156 buttons, we need 4x þ 3y ¼ 156. 4 7 x þ y ¼ 70 3 4

F

4x þ 3y ¼ 156

B

16x þ 21y ¼ 840

12F

16x 12y ¼ 624

4B

9y ¼ 216 y ¼ 24 4x þ 3ð24Þ ¼ 156 x ¼ 21 The manufacturer should produce 21 jackets and 24 pairs of slacks.

CHAPTER 10

Systems of Equations

371

Systems with No Solutions Two lines in the plane either intersect in one point, are parallel, or are really the same line. Until now, our lines have intersected in one point. When solving a system of two linear equations that are parallel or are the same line, both variables will cancel and we are left with a true statement such as ‘‘3 ¼ 3’’ or a false statement such as ‘‘5 ¼ 1.’’ We will get a true statement when the two lines are the same and a false statement when they are parallel. EXAMPLES 2x 3y

¼6

A

4x þ 6y ¼ 8

B

*

4x 6y ¼ 12 2A 4x þ 6y ¼ 8

+B

0 ¼ 20 This is a false statement, so the lines are parallel. They are sketched in Fig. 10-4.

Fig. 10-4.

*

y ¼ 23 x 1 2x 3y ¼ 3

CHAPTER 10 Systems of Equations

372

We will use substitution. 2 2x 3 x 1 ¼ 3 3 2x 2x þ 3 ¼ 3 0¼0 Because 0 ¼ 0 is a true statement, these lines are the same.

Systems Containing Nonlinear Equations When the system of equations is not a pair of lines, there could be no solutions, one solution, or more than one solution. The same methods used for pairs of lines will work with other kinds of systems. EXAMPLES y ¼ x2 2x 3 * 3x y ¼ 7

A B

Elimination by addition would not work to eliminate x2 because B has no x2 term to cancel x2 in A. Solving for x in B and substituting it in for x in A would work to eliminate x. Both addition and substitution will work to eliminate y. We will use addition to eliminate y. y ¼ x2 2x 3

A

3x y ¼ 7

B

3x ¼ x2 2x þ 4 0 ¼ x2 5x þ 4 0 ¼ ðx 1Þðx 4Þ The solutions occur when x ¼ 1 or x ¼ 4. We need to ﬁnd two y-values. We will let x ¼ 1 and x ¼ 4 in A. y ¼ 12 2ð1Þ 3 ¼ 4;

(1, 4) is one solution.

y ¼ 42 2ð4Þ 3 ¼ 5;

(4, 5) is the other solution.

CHAPTER 10

Systems of Equations

373

We can see from the graphs in Fig. 10-5 that these solutions are correct.

Fig. 10-5.

(

x2 þ y2 ¼ 25

*

y¼

13 x2

þ7

A B

We could solve for x2 in A and substitute this in B. We cannot add the equations to eliminate y or y2 because A does not have a y term to cancel y in B and B does not have a y2 term to cancel y2 in A. We will move 13 x2 to the left side of B and multiply B by 3. Then we can add this to A to eliminate x2 . 1 2 x þy¼7 3

B

x2 þ y2 ¼ 25

A

x2 3y ¼ 21 y2 3y ¼ 4 y2 3y 4 ¼ 0 ð y 4Þð y þ 1Þ ¼ 0

3B

CHAPTER 10 Systems of Equations

374

The solutions occur when y ¼ 4ó 1. Put y ¼ 4ó 1 in A to ﬁnd their x-values. x2 þ 42 ¼ 25 x2 ¼ 9 x ¼ 3; 2

(3, 4) and (3, 4) are solutions.

2

x þ ð1Þ ¼ 25 x2 ¼ 24 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ x ¼ 24 ¼ 2 6; *

x2 þ y2 ¼ 4 y ¼ 2=x

pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ ð2 6ó 1Þ and (2 6ó 1) are solutions.

A B

Addition will not work on this system but substitution will. We will substitute y ¼ 2=x for y in A. 2 2 ¼4 x þ x 2

4 ¼4 x2 4 x2 x2 þ 2 ¼ x2 ð4Þ x x2 þ

x4 þ 4 ¼ 4x2 x4 4x2 þ 4 ¼ 0 ðx2 2Þðx2 2Þ ¼ 0 x2 ¼ 2 pﬃﬃﬃ x¼ 2 pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ We will put x ¼ 2 and x ¼ 2 in y ¼ 2=x. pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ 2 2 2 2 2 pﬃﬃﬃ y ¼ pﬃﬃﬃ ¼ pﬃﬃﬃpﬃﬃﬃ ¼ ¼ 2; ð 2ó 2Þ is a solution. 2 2 2 2 pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ 2 2 2 2 2 ¼ 2; ð 2ó 2 ) is a solution. y ¼ pﬃﬃﬃ ¼ pﬃﬃﬃpﬃﬃﬃ ¼ 2 2 2 2

CHAPTER 10

Systems of Equations

375

PRACTICE Solve the systems of equations. Put your solutions in the form of a point, ðxó yÞ. 1.

2.

3.

A B

x2 þ y2 þ 6x 2y ¼ 5 y ¼ 2x 5

4.

y ¼ x2 4 xþy¼8

x2 y2 x2 þ y2

¼16 ¼16

A B

4x2 þ y2 ¼ 5 y ¼ 1=x

A B

A B

SOLUTIONS 1. y ¼ x2 4 x y ¼ 8

A B

x ¼ x2 12 0 ¼ x2 þ x 12 ¼ ðx þ 4Þðx 3Þ There are solutions for x ¼ 4 and x ¼ 3. Put these in A. y ¼ ð4Þ2 4 ¼ 12; y ¼ 32 4 ¼ 5; 2.

ð4ó 12Þ is a solution.

ð3ó 5Þ is a solution.

Substitute 2x 5 for y in A. x2 þ ð2x 5Þ2 þ 6x 2ð2x 5Þ ¼ 5 x2 þ 4x2 þ 20x þ 25 þ 6x þ 4x þ 10 ¼ 5 5x2 þ 30x þ 40 ¼ 0 Divide by 5 x2 þ 6x þ 8 ¼ 0 ðx þ 4Þðx þ 2Þ ¼ 0

CHAPTER 10 Systems of Equations

376

There are solutions for x ¼ 4 and x ¼ 2. We will put these in B instead of A because there is less computation to do in B. y ¼ 2ð4Þ 5 ¼ 3;

ð4ó 3Þ is a solution.

y ¼ 2ð2Þ 5 ¼ 1;

ð2ó 1Þ is a solution.

3. x2 y2 ¼ 16

A

x2 þ y2 ¼ 16

+B

2x2 ¼ 32 x2 ¼ 16 x ¼ 4 Put x ¼ 4 and x ¼ 4 in A.

4.

ð4Þ2 y2 ¼ 16

42 y2 ¼ 16

16 y2 ¼ 16

16 y2 ¼ 16

y2 ¼ 0

y2 ¼ 0

y¼0

y¼0

The solutions are ð4ó 0Þ and ð4ó 0Þ. Substitute 1=x for y in A. 2 1 ¼5 x 1 2 2 x 4x þ 2 ¼ x2 ð5Þ x 4x2 þ

4x4 þ 1 ¼ 5x2 4x4 5x2 þ 1 ¼ 0 ð4x2 1Þðx2 1Þ ¼ 0 ð2x 1Þð2x þ 1Þðx 1Þðx þ 1Þ ¼ 0

CHAPTER 10

Systems of Equations

377

The solutions are x ¼ 12 (from 2x 1 ¼ 0 and 2x þ 1 ¼ 0) and x ¼ 1. Put these in B. 1 1 ¼ 2; ó 2 is a solution. y¼ 1=2 2 1 1 y¼ ¼ 2; ó 2 is a solution. ð1=2Þ 2 1 y ¼ ¼ 1; ð1ó 1Þ is a solution. 1 1 y¼ ¼ 1; ð1ó 1Þ is a solution. 1

Systems of Inequalities The solution (if any) for a system of inequalities is usually a region in the plane. The solution to a polynomial inequality (the only kind considered in this book) is the region above or below the curve. We will begin with linear inequalities. When sketching the graph for an inequality, we will use a solid graph for ‘‘’’ and ‘‘’’ inequalities, and a dashed graph for ‘‘’’ inequalities. We can decide which side of the graph to shade by choosing any point not on the graph itself. We will put this point into the inequality. If it makes the inequality true, then we will shade the side that has that point. If it makes the inequality false, we will shade the other side. EXAMPLES * 2x þ 3y 6 We will sketch the line 2x þ 3y ¼ 6, using a solid line because the inequality is ‘‘.’’

Fig. 10-6.

CHAPTER 10 Systems of Equations

378

We will always use the origin ð0ó 0Þ in our inequalities unless the graph goes through the origin. Does ð0ó 0Þ make 2x þ 3y 6 true? 2ð0Þ þ 3ð0Þ 6 is a true statement, so we will shade the side that has the origin.

Fig. 10-7.

*

x 2y > 4 We will sketch the line x 2y ¼ 4 using a dashed line because the inequality is ‘‘>.’’

Fig. 10-8.

Now we need to decide which side of the line to shade. When we put ð0ó 0Þ in x 2y > 4, we get the false statement 0 2ð0Þ > 4. We need to shade the side of the line that does not have the origin.

CHAPTER 10

Systems of Equations

Fig. 10-9.

*

Every point in the shaded region is a solution to the inequality. y < 3x We use a dashed line to sketch the line y ¼ 3x. Because the line goes through ð0ó 0Þ, we cannot use it to determine which side of the line to shade. This is because any point on the line makes the equality true. We want to know where the inequality is true. The point ð1ó 0Þ is not on the line, so we can use it. 0 < 3ð1Þ is true so we will shade the side of the line that has the point ð1ó 0Þ, which is the right-hand side.

Fig. 10-10.

*

x 3 The line x ¼ 3 is a vertical line through x ¼ 3. Because we want x 3 we will shade to the right of the line.

379

CHAPTER 10 Systems of Equations

380

Fig. 10-11. *

y1 y 1

SOLUTIONS 1.

Fig. 10-13.

2.

Fig. 10-14.

381

CHAPTER 10 Systems of Equations

382 3.

Fig. 10-15.

4.

Fig. 10-16.

5.

Fig. 10-17.

CHAPTER 10

Systems of Equations

Graphing the solution region for nonlinear inequalities is done the same way—graph the inequality, using a solid graph for ‘‘’’ and ‘‘’’ inequalities and a dashed graph for ‘‘’’ inequalities, then check a point to see which side of the graph to shade. EXAMPLES * y x2 x 2 The equality is y ¼ x2 x 2 ¼ ðx 2Þðx þ 1Þ. The graph for this equation is a parabola.

Fig. 10-18.

Because ð0ó 0Þ is not on the graph, we can use it to decide which side to shade; 0 02 0 2 is false, so we shade below the graph, the side that does not contain ð0ó 0Þ.

Fig. 10-19. *

y > ðx þ 2Þðx 2Þðx 4Þ When we check ð0ó 0Þ in the inequality, we get the false statement 0 > ð0 þ 2Þð0 2Þðx 4Þ. We will shade above the graph, the region that does not contain ð0ó 0Þ.

383

CHAPTER 10 Systems of Equations

384

Fig. 10-20.

PRACTICE Graph the solution. 1. 2. 3. 4.

y x2 4 y > x3 y < jxj y ðx 3Þðx þ 1Þðx þ 3Þ

SOLUTIONS 1.

Fig. 10-21.

CHAPTER 10

Systems of Equations

2.

Fig. 10-22.

3.

Fig. 10-23.

385

CHAPTER 10 Systems of Equations

386 4.

Fig. 10-24.

The solution (if there is one) to a system of two or more inequalities is the region that is part of each solution for the individual inequalities. For example, if we have a system of two inequalities and shade the solution to one inequality in blue and the other in yellow, then the solution to the system would be the region in green. EXAMPLES xy 1 Sketch the solution for each inequality.

Fig. 10-25.

CHAPTER 10

Systems of Equations

Fig. 10-26.

The region that is in both solutions is above and between the lines.

Fig. 10-27.

(

y 4 x2

*

x 7y 4 The ﬁrst inequality is shaded vertically and the second, horizontally (see Fig. 10-28). The region that is in both solutions is above the line and inside the parabola (see Fig. 10-29). Because a solid line indicates that the points on the graph are also solutions, to be absolutely accurate, the correct solution uses dashes for the parts of the graphs that are not on the border of the shaded region (see Fig. 10-30). We will not quibble with this technicality here.

387

388

CHAPTER 10 Systems of Equations

Fig. 10-28.

Fig. 10-29.

Fig. 10-30.

CHAPTER 10

*

Systems of Equations

8 > < 2x þ y 5 x0 > : y0 The inequalities x 0 and y 0 mean that we only need the top right corner of the graph. These inequalities are common in word problems.

Fig. 10-31.

The solution to the system is the region in the top right corner of the graph below the line 2x þ y ¼ 5.

Fig. 10-32.

389

CHAPTER 10 Systems of Equations

390

PRACTICE Sketch the solutions to the inequalities. 1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

xþy4

2x y 6 x3

y > x2 þ 2x 3 xþy <x þ y 4 *

> :

x1

yx

Fig. 10-39.

The region for x 1 is to the right of the line x ¼ 1, so we will erase the region to the left of x ¼ 1.

Fig. 10-40.

393

CHAPTER 10 Systems of Equations

394

The solution to y x is the region below the line y ¼ x, so we will erase the shading above the line y ¼ x. The shaded region in Fig. 10-41 is the solution for the system.

Fig. 10-41.

*

8 > y > x2 16 > > > > <x < 2 > > y < 5 > > > : x þ y < 8 We will begin with y ¼ x2 16.

Fig. 10-42.

CHAPTER 10

Systems of Equations

The solution to x < 2 is the region to the left of the line x ¼ 2. We will erase the shading to the right of x ¼ 2.

Fig. 10-43.

The solution to y < 5 is the region below the line y ¼ 5. We will erase the shading above the line y ¼ 5.

Fig. 10-44.

The solution to x þ y < 8 is the region below the line x þ y ¼ 8, so we will erase the shading above the line. The solution to the system is shown in Fig. 10-45.

395

CHAPTER 10 Systems of Equations

396

Fig. 10-45.

PRACTICE Sketch the solutions to the inequalities. 1. 8 < 2x þ y 1 x þ 2y 4 : 5x 3y 15 2. 8 < x þ 2y 6 yx : 5x þ 2y 10 3.

8 2 > : y x

4. 8 x þ 2y < 10 > > > > > < 2x þ y < 8 y<x > > > x0 > > : y0

CHAPTER 10

Systems of Equations

SOLUTIONS 1.

Fig. 10-46.

2.

Fig. 10-47.

397

CHAPTER 10 Systems of Equations

398 3.

Fig. 10-48.

4.

Fig. 10-49.

Chapter 10 Review In some of the following problems, you will be asked to ﬁnd such quantities as x þ 2y for a system of equations. Solve the system and put the solution in

CHAPTER 10

Systems of Equations

399

the formula. For example, if the solution is x ¼ 3 and y ¼ 5, x þ 2y becomes 3 þ 2ð5Þ ¼ 13. 1.

What is x þ y for the system? x 2y

¼ 1

4x þ 2y ¼ 16 a) 2 2.

b) 3

c) 4

d) 5

What is x þ y for the system? y ¼ 4x 10 x þ 2y ¼ 11 a) 4

3.

b) 5

c) 6

d) 7

What is 2x þ y for the system? y ¼ 3x þ 1 ¼xþ9

y a) 3 4.

b) 4

c) 5

d) 6

What is x þ 2y for the system? 4x 3y ¼ 1 2x þ 5y ¼ 7 a) 3

5.

b) 4

d) 6

What is x þ y for the system? ( x2 þ y2

¼9

x2 y2

¼9

a) 2 and 5 6.

c) 5

b) 3 and 3

What is x þ y for the system? 2x y y a) 2

7.

b) 3

c) 4

c) 4 and 4

d) 1 and 3

¼ 5 ¼ 4 x2

d) 5

The graph in Fig. 10-50 is the solution to which inequality? a) y > 2x þ 2 b) y 2x þ 2 c) y < 2x þ 2 d) y 2x þ 2

CHAPTER 10 Systems of Equations

400

Fig. 10-50.

8.

The graph in Fig. 10-51 is the solution to which inequality? b) y x2 2x þ 1 a) y > x2 2x þ 1 2 d) y x2 2x þ 1 c) y < x 2x þ 1

Fig. 10-51.

9.

The graph in Fig. 10-52 is the solution to which system? a) ( y x2 þ 4x yx

CHAPTER 10

Systems of Equations

b)

(

401

y x2 þ 4x yx

c)

(

y x2 þ 4x yx

d)

(

y x2 þ 4x yx

Fig. 10-52.

SOLUTIONS 1. d) 2. b)

3. a)

4. a)

5. b)

6. a)

7. c)

8. b)

9. a)

11

CHAPTER

Exponents and Logarithms

Many things in nature and business grow (and decay) exponentially. To see how exponential growth and decay work, let us imagine a small country where no one moves away, no one moves in, and everyone marries and stays married. Suppose the population this year is 100,000. What will the population be in two generations if every couple has exactly two children? The population remains 100,000 in the next generation and 100,000 in the generation after that. If every couple has exactly one child, the population would decrease to 50,000 (a loss of 50,000) in the next generation and would decrease to 25,000 (a loss of 25,000) in the following generation. If every couple has four children, the population would increase to 200,000 (an increase of 100,000) in the next generation and 400,000 (an increase of 200,000) in the generation after that. The decreases get smaller with each generation, and the increases get larger. This eﬀect is called exponential growth and decay.

402 Copyright © 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click here for terms of use.

CHAPTER 11

Exponents and Logarithms

An investment of money with compounded interest works the same way. For a ﬁxed percentage increase per year, the exponential growth formula is A ¼ Pð1 þ rÞt , where P is the initial amount, r is the percentage increase (as a decimal number), and t is the number of years. The formula for exponential decay is the same, except r is negative. The following example will illustrate how compounding works. Suppose $100 is deposited in an account that earns 5% interest, compounded annually. Compounded annually means that interest is paid at the end of one year and that this interest earns interest in the next year. How much would be in this account after four years? After one year, the account has grown to 100 þ 0:05ð100Þ ¼ 100 þ 5 ¼ $105. In the second year, the original $100 earns 5% interest plus the $5 earns 5% interest: 105 þ ð105Þð0:05Þ ¼ $110:25. Now this amount earns interest in the third year: 110:25 þ ð110:25Þð0:05Þ ¼ $115:76. Finally, this amount earns interest in the fourth year: 115:76 þ ð115:76Þð0:05Þ ¼ $121:55. If interest is not compounded, that is, the interest does not earn interest, the account would only be worth $120. The extra $1.55 is interest earned on interest. Compound growth is not dramatic over the short term but it is over time. If $100 is left in an account earning 5% interest, compounded annually, for 20 years instead of four years, the diﬀerence between the compound growth and noncompound growth is a little more interesting. After 20 years, the compound amount is $265.33 compared to $200 for simple interest (noncompound growth). A graph of the growth of each type over 40 years is given in Fig. 11-1. The line is the growth for simple interest, and the curve is the growth for compound interest.

Fig. 11-1.

403

CHAPTER 11 Exponents and Logarithms

404

EXAMPLES Find the compound amount. *

$5000 after three years, earning 6% interest, compounded annually We will use the formula A ¼ Pð1 þ rÞt . P ¼ 5000, r ¼ 0:06, and t ¼ 3. We want to know A, the compound amount. A ¼ 5000ð1 þ 0:06Þ3 ¼ 5000ð1:06Þ3 ¼ 5000ð1:191016Þ 5955:08

*

The compound amount is $5955.08. $10,000 after eight years, 7 14% interest, compounded annually A ¼ 10;000ð1 þ 0:0725Þ8 ¼ 10;000ð1:0725Þ8 10;000ð1:7505656Þ 17;505:66: The compound amount is $17,505.66

PRACTICE Find the compound amount. 1. 2. 3.

$800 after ten years, 6 12% interest, compounded annually $1200 after six years, 9 12% interest, compounded annually A 20-year-old college student opens a retirement account with $2000. If her account pays 8 14% interest, compounded annually, how much will be in the account when she reaches age 65?

SOLUTIONS 1. A ¼ 800ð1 þ 0:065Þ10 ¼ 800ð1:065Þ10 800ð1:877137Þ 1501:71 The compound amount is $1501.71. 2. A ¼ 1200ð1 þ 0:095Þ6 ¼ 1200ð1:095Þ6 1200ð1:72379Þ 2068:55 The compound amount is $2068.55. 3. A ¼ 2000ð1 þ 0:0825Þ45 ¼ 2000ð1:0825Þ45 2000ð35:420585Þ 70;841:17 The account will be worth $70,841.17.

CHAPTER 11

Exponents and Logarithms

Many investments pay more often than once a year, some paying interest daily. Instead of using the annual interest rate, we need to use the interest rate per period, and instead of using the number of years, we need to use the number of periods. If there are n compounding periods per year, then the interest rate per period is r=n and the total number of periods is nt. The compound amount formula becomes

r nt : A¼P 1þ n EXAMPLES Find the compound amount. *

$5000 after three years, earning 6% annual interest (a) compounded semiannually (b) compounded monthly For (a), interest compounded semiannually means that it is compounded twice each year, so n ¼ 2. 0:06 2ð3Þ A ¼ 5000 1 þ ¼ 5000ð1:03Þ6 5000ð1:194052Þ 5970:26 2 The compound amount is $5970.26. For (b), interest compounded monthly means that it is compounded 12 times each year, so n ¼ 12. 0:06 12ð3Þ ¼ 5000ð1:005Þ36 5000ð1:19668Þ 5983:40 A ¼ 5000 1 þ 12

*

The compound amount is $5983.40. $10,000 after eight years, earning 7 14% annual interest, compounded weekly. Interest that is paid weekly is paid 52 times each year, so n ¼ 52. 0:0725 52ð8Þ A ¼ 10;000 1 þ 52 10;000ð1:001394231Þ416 10;000ð1:785317Þ 17;853:17 The compound amount is $17,853.17.

405

CHAPTER 11 Exponents and Logarithms

406

PRACTICE Find the compound amount. 1.

2. 3.

$800 after ten years, earning 6 14% annual interest (a) compounded quarterly (b) compounded weekly $9000 after ﬁve years, earning 6 34% annual interest, compounded daily (assume 365 days per year). A 20-year-old college student opens a retirement account with $2000. If she earns 8 14% annual interest, compounded daily, how much will be in the account when she is 65? (Assume 365 days per year.)

SOLUTIONS 1. (a) n ¼ 4 0:0625 4ð10Þ A ¼ 800 1 þ 4 ¼ 800ð1:015625Þ40 800ð1:85924Þ 1487:39 The compound amount is $1487.39. (b) n ¼ 52 0:0625 52ð10Þ A ¼ 800 1 þ 52 ¼ 800ð1:00120192Þ520 800ð1:86754Þ 1494:04 2.

The compound amount is $1494.04. n ¼ 365 0:0675 365ð5Þ A ¼ 9000 1 þ 365 9000ð1:000184932Þ1825 9000ð1:4013959Þ 12;612:56 The compound amount is $12,612.56.

3. 0:0825 365ð45Þ 2000ð1:000226027Þ16;425 2000 1 þ 365 2000ð40:93889Þ 81;877:78 The $2000 investment will be worth $81,877.78 when she is 65 years old.

CHAPTER 11

Exponents and Logarithms

The more often interest is compounded per year, the more interest is earned. An amount of $1000 earning 8% annual interest, compounded annually, is worth $1080 after one year. If interest is compounded quarterly, it is worth $1081.60 after one year. And if interest is compounded daily, it is worth $1083.28 after one year. What if interest is compounded each hour? Each second? It turns out that the most this investment could be worth (at 8% interest) is $1083.29, when interest is compounded each and every instant of time. Each instant of time, a tiny amount of interest is earned. This is called continuous compounding. The formula for the compound amount for interest compounded continuously is A ¼ Pert , where Aó Pó r, and t are the same quantities as before. The letter e stands for a constant called Euler’s number. It is approximately 2.718281828. You probably have an e or ex key on your calculator. Although e is irrational, it can be approximated by rational numbers of the form

1 1þ m

m ó

where m is a large rational number. The larger m is, the better the approximation for e. If we make the substitution m ¼ n=r and use some algebra, we can see how ð1 þ r=nÞnt is very close to ert , for large values of n. If interest is compounded every minute, n would be 525,600, a rather large number! EXAMPLE * Find the compound amount of $5000 after eight years, earning 12% annual interest, compounded continuously. A ¼ 5000e0:12ð8Þ ¼ 5000e0:96 5000ð2:611696Þ 13;058:48 The compound amount is $13,058.48. PRACTICE Find the compound amount. 1. 2. 3.

$800 after 10 years, earning 6 12% annual interest, compounded continuously. $9000, after 5 years, earning 6 34% annual interest, compounded continuously. A 20-year-old college student opens a retirement account with $2000. If she earns 8 14% annual interest, compounded continuously, how much will the account be worth by the time she is 65?

407

CHAPTER 11 Exponents and Logarithms

408 SOLUTIONS 1.

A ¼ 800e0:065ð10Þ ¼ 800e0:65 800ð1:915540829Þ 1532:43 The compound amount is $1532.43. 2. A ¼ 9000e0:0675ð5Þ ¼ 9000e0:3375 9000ð1:401439608Þ 12;612:96 The compound amount is =$12;612:96. 3. A ¼ 2000e0:0825ð45Þ ¼ 2000e3:7125 2000ð40:95606882Þ 81;912:14 The account will be worth $81,912.14 by the time she is 65. The compound growth formula for continuously compounded interest is used for other growth and decay problems. The general exponential growth model is nðtÞ ¼ n0 ert , where nðtÞ replaces A and n0 replaces P. Their meanings are the same—nðtÞ is still the compound growth, and n0 is still the beginning amount. The variable t represents time in this formula; however, time will not always be measured in years. The growth rate and t need to have the same unit of measure. If the growth rate is in days, then t needs to be in days. If the growth rate is in hours, then t needs to be in hours, and so on. If the ‘‘population’’ is getting smaller, then the formula is nðtÞ ¼ n0 ert . EXAMPLES * The population of a city is estimated to be growing at the rate of 10% per year. In 2000, its population was 160,000. Estimate its population in the year 2005. The year 2000 corresponds to t ¼ 0, so the year 2005 corresponds to t ¼ 5; n0 , the population in year t ¼ 0, is 160,000. The population is growing at the rate of 10% per year, so r ¼ 0:10. The formula nðtÞ ¼ n0 ert becomes nðtÞ ¼ 160;000e0:10t . We want to ﬁnd nðtÞ for t ¼ 5. nð5Þ ¼ 160;000e0:10ð5Þ 263;795

*

The city’s population is expected to be 264,000 in the year 2005 (estimates and projections are normally rounded oﬀ ). A county is losing population at the rate of 0:7% per year. If the population in 2001 is 1,000,000, what is it expected to be in the year 2008?

CHAPTER 11

Exponents and Logarithms

409

n0 ¼ 1ó000ó000, t ¼ 0 is the year 2001, t ¼ 7 is the year 2008, and r ¼ 0:007. Because the county is losing population, we will use the decay model: nðtÞ ¼ n0 ert . The model for this county’s population is nðtÞ ¼ 1ó000ó000e0:007t . We want to ﬁnd nðtÞ for t ¼ 7. nð7Þ ¼ 1ó000ó000e0:007ð7Þ 952ó181

*

The population is expected to be 952,000 in the year 2008. In an experiment, a culture of bacteria grew at the rate of 35% per hour. If 1000 bacteria were present at 10:00, how many were present at 10:45? n0 ¼ 1000, r ¼ 0:35, t is the number of hours after 10:00. The growth model becomes nðtÞ ¼ 1000e0:35t . We want to ﬁnd nðtÞ for 45 minutes, or t ¼ 0:75 hours. nð0:75Þ ¼ 1000e0:35ð0:75Þ ¼ 1000e0:2625 1300 At 10:45, there were approximately 1300 bacteria present in the culture.

PRACTICE 1. The population of a city in the year 2002 is 2,000,000 and is expected to grow at 1.5% per year. Estimate the city’s population for the year 2012. 2. A school is built for a capacity of 1500 students. The student population is growing at the rate of 6% per year. If 1000 students attend when it opens, will the school be at capacity in seven years? 3. A construction company estimates that a piece of equipment is worth $150,000 when new. If it lost value continuously at an annual rate of 10%, what would its value be in 10 years? 4. Under certain conditions a culture of bacteria grows at the rate of about 200% per hour. If 8000 bacteria are present in a dish, how many will be in the dish after 30 minutes? SOLUTIONS 1. n0 ¼ 2ó000ó000, r ¼ 0:015 The growth formula 0:015t and we want to ﬁnd nðtÞ when t ¼ 10. 2ó000ó000e

is

nðtÞ ¼

nð10Þ ¼ 2ó000ó000e0:015ð10Þ 2ó323ó668 The population in the year 2012 is expected to be about 2.3 million.

CHAPTER 11 Exponents and Logarithms

410 2.

n0 ¼ 1000, r ¼ 0:06 The growth formula is nðtÞ ¼ 1000e0:06t . We want to ﬁnd nðtÞ when t ¼ 7. nð7Þ ¼ 1000e0:06ð7Þ 1522

3.

Yes, the school will be at capacity in seven years. n0 ¼ 150ó000, r ¼ 0:10 We will use the decay formula because value is being lost. The formula is nðtÞ ¼ 150ó000e0:10t . We want to ﬁnd nðtÞ when t ¼ 10. nð10Þ ¼ 150ó000e0:10ð10Þ 55ó181:92

4.

The equipment will be worth about $55,000 after 10 years. n0 ¼ 8000, r ¼ 2 The growth formula is nðtÞ ¼ 8000e2t . We want to ﬁnd nðtÞ when t ¼ 0:5. nð0:5Þ ¼ 8000e2ð0:5Þ 21ó746 About 21,700 bacteria will be present after 30 minutes.

A basic exponential function is of the form f ðxÞ ¼ ax , where a is any positive number except 1. The graph of f ðxÞ ¼ ax comes in two shapes depending whether 0 < a < 1 (a is positive but smaller than 1) or a > 1. Figure 11-2 shows the graph of f ðxÞ ¼ ð12Þx and Fig. 11-3 is the graph of f ðxÞ ¼ 2x . We can sketch the graph of f ðxÞ ¼ ax by plotting points for x ¼ 3ó x ¼ 2ó x ¼ 1ó x ¼ 0ó x ¼ 1ó x ¼ 2, and x ¼ 3. If a is too large or too small, points for x ¼ 3 and x ¼ 3 might be too awkward to graph because

Fig. 11-2.

CHAPTER 11

Exponents and Logarithms

Fig. 11-3.

their y-values are too large or too close to 0. Before we begin sketching graphs, we will review the following exponent laws. n 1 1 n ¼ an a ¼ n a a EXAMPLE Sketch the graphs. *

f ðxÞ ¼ 2:5x We will begin with x ¼ 3ó 2ó 1ó 0ó 1ó 2, and 3 in a table of values (Table 11-1). Table 11-1 x 3

f ðxÞ 0:064 ð2:53 ¼ 2:51 3 Þ (Too hard to plot)

2

0:16 ð2:52 ¼ 2:51 2 Þ

1

1 0:40 ð2:51 ¼ 2:5 Þ

0

1

1

2:5

2

6:25

3

15:625

411

CHAPTER 11 Exponents and Logarithms

412

Fig. 11-4. *

gðxÞ ¼ ð13Þx The values plotted are given in Table 11-2. Table 11-2 x

f ðxÞ

3

27 (ð13Þ3 ¼ 33 Þ

2

9 (ð13Þ2 ¼ 32 Þ

1

3 (ð13Þ1 ¼ 31 Þ

0

1

1

0:33

2

0:11

3

0:037 (too hard to plot)

Fig. 11-5.

CHAPTER 11

Exponents and Logarithms

PRACTICE Sketch the graphs. 1. 2. 3.

f ðxÞ ¼ ð32Þx gðxÞ ¼ ð23Þx hðxÞ ¼ ex (Use the e or ex key on your calculator.)

SOLUTIONS 1. The values plotted are given in Table 11-3 Table 11-3

2.

x

f ðxÞ

3

8 Þ 0:30 ðð32Þ3 ¼ ð23Þ3 ¼ 27

2

0:44 ðð32Þ2 ¼ ð23Þ2 ¼ 49Þ

1

0:67 ðð32Þ1 ¼ 23Þ

0

1

1

1:5

2

2:25

3

3:375

Fig. 11-6.

The values plotted are given in Table 11-4. Table 11-4 x

f ðxÞ

3

3:375 ðð23Þ3 ¼ ð32Þ3 Þ

2

2:25 ðð23Þ2 ¼ ð32Þ2 Þ

1

1:5 ðð23Þ1 ¼ 32Þ

0

1

1

0:67

2

0:44

3

0:30

413

CHAPTER 11 Exponents and Logarithms

414

Fig. 11-7.

3.

The values plotted are given in Table 11-5. Table 11-5 x

f ðxÞ

3

0:05

2

0:14

1

0:37

0

1

1

2:72

2

7:39

3

20:09

Fig. 11-8.

CHAPTER 11

Exponents and Logarithms

415

Transformations of the graphs of exponential functions behave in the same way as transformations of other functions. *

*

* *

The graph of f ðxÞ ¼ 2x is the graph of y ¼ 2x reﬂected about the x-axis (ﬂipped upside down). The graph of gðxÞ ¼ 2x is the graph of y ¼ 2x reﬂected about the y-axis (ﬂipped sideways). The graph of hðxÞ ¼ 2xþ1 is the graph of y ¼ 2x shifted to the left 1 unit. The graph of f ðxÞ ¼ 3 þ 2x is the graph of y ¼ 2x shifted down 3 units.

Present Value Suppose a couple wants to give their newborn grandson a gift of $50,000 on his 20th birthday. They can earn 7 12% interest, compounded annually. How much should they deposit now so that it grows to $50,000 in 20 years? To answer this question, we will use the formula A ¼ Pð1 þ rÞt , where we know that A ¼ 50ó000 but are looking for P. 50ó000 ¼ Pð1 þ 0:075Þ20 ¼ Pð1:075Þ20 50ó000 ¼ P ¼ 11;770:66 ð1:075Þ20 The couple should deposit $11,770.66 now so that the investment grows to $50,000 in 20 years. We say that $11,770.66 is the present value of $50,000 due in 20 years, earning 7 12% interest, compounded annually. The present value formula is P ¼ Að1 þ rÞt for interest compounded annually, and P ¼ Að1 þ ðr=nÞÞnt for interest compounded n times per year. EXAMPLE * Find the present value of $20,000 due in 8 12 years, earning 6% annual interest, compounded monthly. 0:06 12ð8:5Þ ¼ 20ó000ð1:005Þ102 12ó025:18 P ¼ 20ó000 1 þ 12 The present value is $12,025.18.

CHAPTER 11 Exponents and Logarithms

416

PRACTICE 1. Find the present value of $9000 due in ﬁve years, earning 7% annual interest, compounded annually. 2. Find the present value of $50,000 due in 10 years, earning 4% annual interest, compounded quarterly. 3. Find the present value of $125,000 due in 4 12 years, earning 6 12% annual interest, compounded weekly. SOLUTIONS 1. P ¼ 9000ð1:07Þ5 6416:88 The present value is $6416.88. 2. 0:04 4ð10Þ P ¼ 50ó000 1 þ ¼ 50ó000ð1:01Þ40 33ó582:66 4 The present value is $33,582.66. 3. 0:065 52ð4:5Þ P ¼ 125ó000 1 þ 52 ¼ 125ó000ð1:00125Þ234 93ó316:45 The present value is $93,316.45.

Logarithms A common question for investors is, ‘‘How long will it take for my investment to double?’’ If $1000 is invested so that it earns 8% interest, compounded annually, how long will it take to grow to $2000? To answer the question using the compound growth formula, we need to solve for t in the equation 2000 ¼ 1000ð1:08Þt . We will divide both sides of the equation by 1000 to get 2 ¼ ð1:08Þt . Now what? It does not make sense to ‘‘take the tth root’’of both sides. We need to use logarithms. Logarithms ‘‘cancel’’ exponentiation in the same way subtraction ‘‘cancels’’ addition and division ‘‘cancels’’ multiplication. Logarithms (or logs) are very useful in solving many science and business problems.

CHAPTER 11

Exponents and Logarithms

The logarithmic equation loga x ¼ y is another way of writing the exponential equation ay ¼ x. Verbally, we say, ‘‘log base a of x is (or equals) y.’’ For loga x, we say, ‘‘(the) log base a of x.’’ EXAMPLES Rewrite the logarithmic equation as an exponential equation. *

log3 9 ¼ 2 The base of the logarithm is the base of the exponent, so 3 will be raised to a power. The number that is equal to the log is the power, so the power on 3 is 2. log3 9 ¼ 2 rewritten as an exponent is 32 ¼ 9

*

log2 18 ¼ 3 The base is 2 and the power is 3. 23 ¼

*

1 8

log9 3 ¼ 12 The base is 9 and the power is 12. 1

92 ¼ 3 PRACTICE Rewrite the logarithmic equation as an exponential equation. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

log4 16 ¼ 2 log3 81 ¼ 4 log100 10 ¼ 12 loga 4 ¼ 3 loge 2 ¼ 0:6931 logðxþ1Þ 9 ¼ 2 1 log7 49 ¼ 2 log8 4 ¼ 23

SOLUTIONS 1. log4 16 ¼ 2 rewritten as an exponential equation is 42 ¼ 16 2. log3 81 ¼ 4 rewritten as an exponential equation is 34 ¼ 181 3. log100 10 ¼ 12 rewritten as an exponential equation is 1002 ¼ 10 4. loga 4 ¼ 3 rewritten as an exponential equation is a3 ¼ 4

417

CHAPTER 11 Exponents and Logarithms

418 5. 6. 7. 8.

loge 2 ¼ 0:6931 rewritten as an exponential equation is e0:6931 ¼ 2 logðxþ1Þ 9 ¼ 2 rewritten as an exponential equation is ðx þ 1Þ2 ¼ 9 1 1 log7 49 ¼ 2 rewritten as an exponential equation is 72 ¼ 49 2=3 log8 4 ¼ 23 rewritten as an exponential equation is 8 ¼ 4

Now we will work in the other direction, rewriting exponential equations as logarithmic equations. The equation 43 ¼ 64 written as a logarithmic equation is log4 64 ¼ 3. PRACTICE Rewrite the exponential equation as a logarithmic equation. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

52 ¼ 25 40 ¼ 1 71 ¼ 17 1251=3 104 ¼ 0:0001 e1=2 ¼ 1:6487 8x ¼ 5

SOLUTIONS 1. 52 ¼ 25 rewritten as a logarithmic equation is log5 25 ¼ 2 2. 40 ¼ 1 rewritten as a logarithmic equation is log4 1 ¼ 0 3. 71 ¼ 17 rewritten as a logarithmic equation is log7 17 ¼ 1 4. 1251=3 ¼ 5 rewritten as a logarithmic equation is log125 5 ¼ 13 5. 104 ¼ 0:0001 rewritten as a logarithmic equation is log10 0:0001 ¼ 4 6. e1=2 ¼ 1:6487 rewritten as a logarithmic equation is loge 1:6487 ¼ 12 7. 8x ¼ 5 rewritten as a logarithmic equation is log8 5 ¼ x

Logarithm Properties The ﬁrst two logarithm properties we will learn are the cancelation properties. They come directly from rewriting one form of an equation in the other form. loga ax ¼ x

and

aloga x ¼ x

When the bases of the exponent and logarithm are the same, they cancel. Let us see why these properties are true. What would the expression loga ax

CHAPTER 11

Exponents and Logarithms

be? We will rewrite the equation loga ax ¼ ? as an exponential equation: a? ¼ ax . Now we can see that ‘‘?’’ is x. This is why loga ax ¼ x. What would aloga x be? Rewrite aloga x ¼ ? as a logarithmic equation: loga ? ¼ loga x, so ‘‘?’’ is x, and aloga x ¼ x. EXAMPLE * 5log5 2 The bases of the logarithm and exponent are both 5, so 5log5 2 simpliﬁes to 2. * * * 10log10 8 ¼ 8 4log4 x ¼ x eloge 6 ¼ 6 log29 1 r * * * 29 ¼1 logm m ¼ r log7 7ab ¼ ab * * * log9 93 ¼ 3 log16 164 ¼ 4 log10 10x ¼ x PRACTICE Use logarithm properties to simplify the expression. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

9log9 3 10log10 14 5log5 x log15 152 log10 108 loge ex

SOLUTIONS 1. 9log9 3 ¼ 3 2. 10log10 14 ¼ 14 3. 5log5 x ¼ x 4. log15 152 ¼ 2 5. log10 108 ¼ 8 6. loge ex ¼ x Sometimes we will need to use exponent properties before using the property loga ax ¼ x. ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ p 1 n am ¼ am=n and m ¼ am a EXAMPLES *

log9 3 ¼ log9 ¼ 12

pﬃﬃﬃ 9 ¼ log9 91=2

*

1 log7 49 ¼ log7 712 ¼ log7 72 ¼ 2

419

CHAPTER 11 Exponents and Logarithms

420 *

log10

p ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 4 10 ¼ log10 101=4 ¼ 14

*

log10

p ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ p ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 5 5 100 ¼ log10 102 ¼ log10 102=5 ¼ 25

PRACTICE Use logarithm properties to simplify the expression. pﬃﬃﬃ 1. log7 7 2. log5 15 3. log3 p1ﬃﬃ3 4. 5. 6. 7.

1 log4 16 log25 15 log8 12pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ log10 1000

SOLUTIONS 1. log7

pﬃﬃﬃ 1 7 ¼ log7 71=2 ¼ 2

2. 1 log5 ¼ log5 51 ¼ 1 5 3. 1 1 1 log3 pﬃﬃﬃ ¼ log3 1=2 ¼ log3 31=2 ¼ 2 3 3 4. log4

1 1 ¼ log4 2 ¼ log4 42 ¼ 2 16 4

5.

6.

1 1 1 1 log25 ¼ log25 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ¼ log25 1 ¼ log25 251=2 ¼ 5 2 25 252 ﬃﬃ ﬃ p 2¼ 38 1 1 1 1 ﬃﬃﬃ ¼ log8 1 ¼ log8 81=3 ¼ log8 ¼ log8 p 3 2 3 3 8 8

CHAPTER 11 7.

Exponents and Logarithms

1000 ¼ 103 log10

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 3 1000 ¼ log10 103 ¼ log10 103=2 ¼ 2

Two types of logarithms occur frequently enough to have their own notation. They are loge and log10 . The notation for loge is ‘‘ln’’, pronounced ‘‘ell-in,’’ and is called the natural log. The notation for log10 is ‘‘log’’ (no base is written) and is called the common log. The cancelation properties for these special logarithms are ln ex ¼ x

eln x ¼ x

and log 10x ¼ x

EXAMPLES * ln e15 ¼ 15 * eln 14 ¼ 14 * ln e4 ¼ 4

* * *

PRACTICE Simplify. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

ln e5 pﬃﬃ log 10 x 10log 9 eln 6 log 103x1 ln exþ1

SOLUTIONS 1. ln e5 ¼pﬃﬃ5 pﬃﬃﬃ 2. log 10 x ¼ x 3. 10log 9 ¼ 9 4. eln 6 ¼ 6 5. log 103x1 ¼ 3x 1 6. ln exþ1 ¼ x þ 1

10log x ¼ x:

10log 5 ¼ 5 log 101=2 ¼ 12 log 104 ¼ 4

421

CHAPTER 11 Exponents and Logarithms

422

Three More Important Logarithm Properties The following three logarithm properties come directly from the exponent properties am an ¼ amþn , am =an ¼ amn , and amn ¼ ðam Þn . 1. 2. 3.

logb mn ¼ logb m þ logb n logb m=n ¼ logb m logb n logb mt ¼ t logb m

We will see why Property 1 works. Let x ¼ logb m and y ¼ logb n. Rewriting these equations as exponential equations, we get bx ¼ m and by ¼ n. Multiplying m and n, we have mn ¼ bx by ¼ bxþy . Rewriting the equation mn ¼ bxþy as a logarithmic equation, we get logb mn ¼ x þ y. Because x ¼ logb m and y ¼ logb n, logb mn ¼ x þ y becomes logb mn ¼ logb m þ logb n. EXAMPLE Use Property 1 to rewrite the logarithms. * *

*

log4 7x ¼ log4 7 þ log4 x log6 19t2 ¼ log6 19 þ log6 t2

*

log9 3 þ log9 27 ¼ log9 3ð27Þ ¼ log9 81 ¼ 2

*

*

ln 15t ¼ ln 15 þ ln t log 100y4 ¼ log 102 þ log y4 ¼ 2 þ log y4 pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ ln x þ ln y ¼ ln x y

PRACTICE Use Property 1 to rewrite the logarithms. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

ln 59t log 0:10y log30 148x2 log6 3 þ log6 12 log5 9 þ log5 10 log 5 þ log 20

SOLUTIONS 1. ln 59t ¼ ln 59 þ ln t 2. log 0:10y ¼ log 0:10 þ log y ¼ log 101 þ log y ¼ 1 þ log y 3. log30 148x2 ¼ log30 148 þ log30 x2 4. log6 3 þ log6 12 ¼ log6 ð3 12Þ ¼ log6 36 ¼ log6 62 ¼ 2 5. log5 9 þ log5 10 ¼ log5 ð9 10Þ ¼ log5 90 6. log 5 þ log 20 ¼ logð5 20Þ ¼ log 100 ¼ log 102 ¼ 2

CHAPTER 11

Exponents and Logarithms

EXAMPLES Use Property 2 to rewrite the logarithms. * * *

logðx=4Þ ¼ log x log 4 log15 3 log15 2 ¼ log15 32 log4 43 ¼ log4 4 log4 3 ¼ 1 log4 3

* *

lnð5=xÞ ¼ ln 5 ln x ln 16 ln t ¼ ln ð16=tÞ

PRACTICE Use Property 2 to rewrite the logarithms. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

log4 10=9x log2 78 ln t=4 log 100=x2 log7 2 log7 4 log8 x log8 3

SOLUTIONS 1. log4

10 ¼ log4 10 log4 9x 9x

2. 7 log2 ¼ log2 7 log2 8 ¼ log2 7 log2 23 ¼ ðlog2 7Þ 3 8 3. t ln ¼ ln t ln 4 4 4. log

100 ¼ log 100 log x2 ¼ log 102 log x2 ¼ 2 log x2 x2

5. 2 1 log7 2 log7 4 ¼ log7 ¼ log7 4 2

423

CHAPTER 11 Exponents and Logarithms

424 6.

log8 x log8 3 ¼ log8

x 3

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ The exponent property n am ¼ am=n allows us to apply the third logarithm property to roots as well as to powers. The third logarithm property is especially useful in science and business applications. EXAMPLE Use Property 3 to rewrite the logarithms. * * *

log4 3x ¼ x log4 3 1 ¼ ln t1=3 3 ln t p ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ log6 2x ¼ log6 ð2xÞ1=2 ¼ 12 log6 2x

* * *

log x2 ¼ 2 log x 3plog 8 ¼ log 83 ﬃﬃﬃﬃ 4 ln t3 ¼ lnt3=4 ¼ 34 lnt

PRACTICE Use Property 3 to rewrite the logarithms. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

ln 5x pﬃﬃﬃ 3ﬃ log12 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ log 16x log5 6t 2 log8 3 ðx þ 6Þ log4 3 log16 102x 2 log4 5

SOLUTIONS 1. ln 5x ¼ pﬃﬃxﬃ ln 5 2. log12 3 ¼ log12 31=2 ¼ 12 log12 3 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 3. log 16x ¼ logð16xÞ1=2 ¼ 12 log 16x 4. log5 6t ¼ t log5 6 5. 2 log8 3 ¼ log8 32 ¼ log8 9 6. ðx þ 6Þ log4 3 ¼ log4 3xþ6 7. log16 102x ¼ 2x log16 10 1 8. 2 log4 5 ¼ log4 52 ¼ log4 512 ¼ log4 25 Sometimes we will need to use several logarithm properties to rewrite more complicated logarithms. The hardest part of this is to use the properties in the correct order. For example, which property should be used ﬁrst on log ðx=y3 Þ? Do we ﬁrst use the third property or the second property? We need to use the

CHAPTER 11

Exponents and Logarithms

425

second property ﬁrst. For the expression logðx=yÞ3 , we would use the third property ﬁrst. Going in the other direction, we need to use all three properties in the expression log2 9 log2 x þ 3 log2 y. We need to use the second property to combine the ﬁrst two terms. 9 log2 9 log2 x þ 3 log2 y ¼ log2 þ 3 log2 y x We cannot use the ﬁrst property on log2 ð9=xÞ þ 3 log2 y until we have used the third property to move the 3. 9 9 9 9y3 log2 þ 3 log2 y ¼ log2 þ log2 y3 ¼ log2 y3 ¼ log2 x x x x EXAMPLES Rewrite as a single logarithm. *

log2 3x 4 log2 y We need use the third property to move the 4, then we can use the second property. log2 3x 4 log2 y ¼ log2 3x log2 y4 ¼ log2

*

3x y4

3 log 4x þ 2 log 3 2 log y

3 log 4x þ 2 log 3 2 log y ¼ logð4xÞ3 þ log 32 log y2 3 3

2

¼ log 4 x 3 log y

2

Property 1

¼ log 576x3 log y2 ¼ log *

*

576x3 y2

t ln 4 þ ln 5 t ln 4 þ ln 5 ¼ ln 4t þ ln 5 ¼ lnð5 4t Þ

Property 3

ðnot ln 20t Þ

Expand each logarithm. pﬃﬃﬃ ln 3 x=y2 pﬃﬃﬃ 3 x ln 2 ¼ ln 3ðx1=2 Þ ln y2 ¼ ln 3 þ ln x1=2 ln y2 y 1 ¼ ln 3 þ ln x 2 ln y 2

Property 2

CHAPTER 11 Exponents and Logarithms

426 *

log7 4=10xy2 log7

4 ¼ log7 4 log7 10xy2 10xy2 ¼ log7 4 ðlog7 10 þ log7 x þ log7 y2 Þ ¼ log7 4 ðlog7 10 þ log7 x þ 2 log7 yÞ or log7 4 log7 10 log7 x 2 log7 y

PRACTICE For 1–5, rewrite each as a single logarithm. For 6–10, expand each logarithm. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

2 log x þ 3 log y log6 2x 2 log6 3 3 ln t ln 4 þ 2 ln 5 t ln 6 þ 2 ln 5 1 2 log x 2 log 2y þ 3 log z log 4x=y pﬃﬃﬃ ln 6= y pﬃﬃﬃ log4 10x= 3 z pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ln 4x=5y2 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ log 2y3 =x

SOLUTIONS 1. 2 log x þ 3 log y ¼ log x2 þ log y3 ¼ log x2 y3 2. log6 2x 2 log6 3 ¼ log6 2x log6 32 ¼ log6 2x log6 9 ¼ log6 3. 3 ln t ln 4 þ 2 ln 5 ¼ ln t3 ln 4 þ ln 52 t3 þ ln 25 4 t3 25t3 ¼ ln 25 ¼ ln 4 4 ¼ ln

2x 9

CHAPTER 11

Exponents and Logarithms

4. t ln 6 þ 2 ln 5 ¼ ln 6t þ ln 52 ¼ ln½25ð6t Þ 5. 1 log x 2 log 2y þ 3 log z ¼ log x1=2 logð2yÞ2 þ log z3 2 ¼ log x1=2 log 22 y2 þ log z3 ¼ log x1=2 log 4y2 þ log z3 1=2 x1=2 3 3x þ log z ¼ log z 4y2 4y2 p ﬃﬃﬃ z3 x1=2 z3 x ¼ log or log 4y2 4y2

¼ log

6. log

4x ¼ log 4x log y ¼ log 4 þ log x log y y

7. 6 1 pﬃﬃﬃ ln pﬃﬃﬃ ¼ ln 6 ln y ¼ ln 6 ln y1=2 ¼ ln 6 ln y 2 y 8. pﬃﬃﬃ 10x ﬃﬃﬃ ¼ log4 10x log4 3 z ¼ log4 10x log4 z1=3 log4 p 3 z 1 ¼ log4 10 þ log4 x log4 z 3 9. pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 4x ln 2 ¼ ln 4x ln 5y2 ¼ lnð4xÞ1=2 ln 5y2 5y 1 1 ¼ ln 4x ðln 5 þ ln y2 Þ ¼ ðln 4 þ ln xÞ ðln 5 þ 2 ln yÞ 2 2 1 1 or ln 4 þ ln x ln 5 2 ln y 2 2

427

CHAPTER 11 Exponents and Logarithms

428 10.

sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ !1=2 2y3 2y3 1 2y3 log ¼ log ¼ log 2 x x x 1 1 ¼ ðlog 2y3 log xÞ ¼ ðlog 2 þ log y3 log xÞ 2 2 1 1 3 1 ¼ ðlog 2 þ 3 log y log xÞ or log 2 þ log y log x 2 2 2 2 With these logarithm properties we can solve some logarithm and exponent equations. We can use these properties to rewrite equations either in the form ‘‘log ¼ log’’ or ‘‘log ¼ number.’’ When the equation is in the form ‘‘log ¼ log,’’ the logs cancel. When the equation is in the form ‘‘log ¼ number,’’ we can rewrite the equation as an exponential equation.

The Change of Base Formula There are countless bases for logarithms but calculators usually have only two logarithms—log and ln. How can we use our calculators to approximate log2 5? We can use the change of base formula; but ﬁrst, let us use logarithm properties to ﬁnd this number. Let x ¼ log2 5. Then 2x ¼ 5. Take the common log of each side. log 2x ¼ log 5

Now use the third logarithm property.

x log 2 ¼ log 5 Divide both sides by the number log 2. log 5 0:698970004 x¼ 2:321928095 log 2 0:301029996 This means that 22:321928095 is very close to 5. We just proved that log2 5 ¼ log10 5= log10 2. Replace 2 with b, 5 with x, and 10 with a and we have the change of base formula. logb x ¼

loga x loga b

This formula converts a logarithm with old base b to new base a. Usually, the new base is either e or 10.

CHAPTER 11

Exponents and Logarithms

EXAMPLE * Evaluate log7 15. Give your solution accurate to four decimal places. log 15 1:176091259 1:3917 log 7 0:84509804 ln 15 2:708050201 ¼ 1:3917 ln 7 1:945910149

log7 15 ¼

PRACTICE Evaluate the logarithms. Give your solution accurate to four decimal places. 1. 2.

log6 25 log20 5

SOLUTIONS 1. log6 25 ¼ ¼

ln 25 3:218875825 1:7965 ln 6 1:791759469 log 25 1:397940009 1:7965 log 6 0:7781525

2. log20 5 ¼ ¼

ln 5 1:609437912 0:5372 ln 20 2:995732274 log 5 0:698970004 0:5372 log 20 1:301029996

The change of base formula can be used to solve equations like 42xþ1 ¼ 8 by rewriting the equation in logarithmic form and using the change of base formula. The equation becomes log4 8 ¼ 2x þ 1. Because log4 8 ¼ ln 8= ln 4, the equation can be written as 2x þ 1 ¼ ln 8= ln 4. 2x þ 1 ¼

ln 8 ln 4

ln 8 2x ¼ 1 þ ln 4 1 ln 8 1 x¼ 1 þ ¼ 2 ln 4 4

429

CHAPTER 11 Exponents and Logarithms

430

Chapter 11 Review 1.

$1200 is deposited into an account that earns 712% annual interest, compound monthly. How much will be in the account in ten years? a) $2534.48 b) $2473.24 c) $2941.63 d) $1277.14

2.

How much is an investment worth if $10,000 is invested for ﬁfteen years, earning 5% annual interest, compounded continuously? a) $20,789.28 b) $21,170.00 c) $21,137.04 d) $21,162.37

3.

A couple wants to present a $25,000 gift to their newborn grandson on his 20th birthday. If they can earn 8% annual interest, compounded quarterly, how much do they need to invest now? a) $121,886 b) $5047 c) $18,165 d) $5128

4.

The graph in Figure 11.9 is the graph for what function? a) y ¼ ð23Þx1 b) y ¼ ð23Þxþ1 c) y ¼ ð32Þx1 d) y ¼ ð32Þxþ1

Fig. 11-9.

5.

The population of a country is growing at an annual rate of 1.5%. If the population in 2004 is 4 million, estimate the population for the year 2015. a) 3.5 million b) 4.1 million c) 4.7 million d) 5.2 million

6.

The population of a certain species of bird in a region is approximated by the function n(t) ¼ 115e0.01t where t is the number of years after 1998 and n(t) is the population in thousands. Estimate the bird population in the region for the year 2005. a) About 107,000 b) About 111,000 c) About 117,000 d) About 121,000

CHAPTER 11

Exponents and Logarithms

7.

Rewrite t ¼ logb m as an exponential equation b) bm ¼ t c) m ¼ bt d) mt ¼ b a) t ¼ mb

8.

1 log9 81 ¼ a) 1 b) 2 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ log 10 ¼ a) 1 b) 12

9 10. 11. 12.

13.

c) 2 c)

1 2

431

d) Does not exist d) 2

2t

ln e ¼ a) 2 b) t

c) 2t

ln x 2 ln y ¼ x b) 2 ln 2y a) ln 2y pﬃﬃﬃ log5 x y ¼ a) log5 x þ 12 log y pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ d) ðlog5 xÞ log5 y log8 10 ¼ b) a) lnln10 8

SOLUTIONS 1. a) 2. b) 9. c) 10. c)

ln 8 ln 10

3. d) 11. c)

d) Cannot be determined without a calculator c) ln yx2

d)

b) log5 x þ

c)

ln 8 ln 10

ln x 2 ln y

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ log5 y

d)

c)

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ log5 x þ log5 y

ln 10 ln 8

4. a) 5. c) 6. a) 12. a) 13. a)

7. c)

8. b)

Final Exam

1.

What is the slope of the line y ¼ 4? a) 4 b) 0 c) 4 d) The slope does not exist.

2.

What is the range for the function f ðxÞ ¼ x2 þ 2x 3? a) ½4ó 1Þ b) ð1ó 4 c) ½1ó 1Þ d) ð1ó 1

3.

What kind of triangle do the points ð3ó 1Þ, ð1ó 3Þ, and ð2ó 0Þ form? a) Isosceles triangle (exactly two sides are equal) b) Right triangle c) Equilateral triangle (all three sides are equal) d) None of the above

4.

What is the solution for j6x þ 1j ¼ 5? b) x ¼ 23 a) x ¼ 23 2 2 c) x ¼ 3 and x ¼ 3 d) x ¼ 23 and x ¼ 1

5.

$5000 is deposited into a retirement account. If it earns 8% annual interest, compounded annually, what will it be worth in 25 years? a) $36,223.23 b) $11,098.20 c) $34,242.38 d) $36,947.28

432 Copyright © 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click here for terms of use.

Final Exam 6.

433

What is x þ y for the solution to the system? 5x 2y ¼ 2 x þ 2y ¼ 10 a) 3 b) 4 c) 5 d) 6

7.

What is the solution for the inequality x2 2x 3 0? a) ½1ó 3 b) ð1ó 1 [ ½3ó 1Þ c) ð1ó 1Þ [ ð3ó 1Þ d) ð1ó 1 [ ½1ó 3

8.

Which of the following correctly completes the square for y ¼ x2 þ 6x 4? b) y ¼ ðx2 þ 6x þ 9Þ 4 þ 9 a) y ¼ x2 þ 6x þ 9 4 2 c) y ¼ x þ 6x þ 9 d) y ¼ ðx2 þ 6x þ 9Þ 4 9

9.

Is f ðxÞ ¼ 3=x2 þ 2 an even function, odd function, or neither? a) Even b) Odd c) Neither d) Cannot be determined

10.

What is the midpoint for the points ð2ó 5Þ and ð1ó 6Þ? b) ð 32 ó 12Þ c) ð32 ó 12Þ d) ð72 ó 52Þ a) ð12 ó 11 2Þ

11.

What is the present value of $100,000 due in ten years, earning 6% annual interest, compounded monthly? a) $54,963 b) $54,881 c) $55,840 d) $48,780

12.

The (a) (b) (c) (d)

13.

The graph shown in Fig. A-1 is the graph of what function? b) y ¼ ð32Þx1 c) y ¼ ð23Þxþ1 d) y ¼ ð23Þx1 a) y ¼ ð32Þxþ1

graph of a polynomial function whose leading term is 6x5 goes up on the left and up on the right. goes up on the left and down on the right. goes down on the left and up on the right. goes down on the left and down on the right.

Fig. A-1.

The next three problems refer to the function f ðxÞ whose graph is shown in Fig. A-2.

Final Exam

434

Fig. A-2.

14. 15.

What is the domain for f ðxÞ? a) ½5ó 3 b) ½5ó 4 c) ½4ó 2 What is f ð3Þ? a) 2 b) 2

c) 0

d) ½0ó 4

d) 4

16.

For what interval(s) of x is this function decreasing? a) ð2ó 2Þ b) ð5ó 2Þ [ ð0ó 4Þ c) ð3ó 1Þ d) ð5ó 3Þ [ ð0ó 3Þ

17.

A purchasing agent rents a car during a business trip. Her bill for Wednesday was $33 for driving 45 miles. Her bill for Thursday was $39 for driving 60 miles. Find an equation that gives the daily cost in terms of the number of miles driven. a) y ¼ 0:40x þ 31:80 b) y ¼ 2:50x 79:50 c) y ¼ 0:40x þ 44:40 d) y ¼ 0:40x þ 15

18.

Evaluate log7 p1ﬃﬃ7. c) 1 a) 2 b) 12

19.

d) 12 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ What is the domain for f ðxÞ ¼ x2 9? a) ½3ó 1Þ b) ð1ó 3Þ [ ð3ó 3Þ [ ð3ó 1Þ c) ð1ó 3 [ ½3ó 1Þ d) ½3ó 1Þ [ ½3ó 1Þ

20.

What are the x-intercepts of the polynomial function f ðxÞ ¼ ðx þ 4Þðx þ 1Þ ðx 3Þ2 ðx 5Þ? a) 4ó 1ó 3ó 5 b) 4ó 1ó 9ó 5 c) 4ó 1ó 3ó 5 d) 4ó 1ó 9ó 5

21.

What 6Þ? pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ between pﬃﬃð5ó ﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃis the distance pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃð2ó 3Þ and a) 40 b) 122 c) 58 d) 2

Final Exam 22.

23.

24.

25.

435

The cost per unit of a product is given by the function CðxÞ ¼ 0:05x2 40x þ 8002:5, where x is the number of units produced and C is in dollars. How many units should be produced to minimize the cost per unit? a) 400 b) 450 c) 500 d) 550 Expand the logarithm ln ðxy2 =zÞ: ln x 2 ln y a) ln x þ 2 ln y ln z b) ln z c) ln x þ ln y ln z d) ln x þ ðln yÞ2 ln z Are the lines 6x 2y ¼ 5 and 2x þ 6y ¼ 9 parallel, perpendicular, or neither? a) Parallel b) Perpendicular c) Neither d) Cannot be determined What is x þ y for the solution to the system? y ¼ 2x 5 y ¼ 3x 7 a) 2

b) 1

c) 0

d) 1

26.

Find the x- and y-intercepts for y ¼ ðx þ 1Þ=ðx 3Þ. (a) The x-intercepts are 1 and 3, and the y-intercept is 13. (b) The x-intercepts are 1 and 3, and there is no y-intercept. (c) The x-intercept is 1, and the y-intercept is 13. (d) There is no x-intercept, the y-intercept is 13.

27.

Which of the following lines is perpendicular to the line y ¼ 23? b) y ¼ 32 x c) x ¼ 2 d) None a) y ¼ 32

28.

Evaluate gðu þ vÞ for gðxÞ ¼ 12x þ 10. a) 12u þ 12v þ 10 b) 12u þ v þ 10 c) ðu þ vÞð12x þ 10Þ d) 12x þ 10 þ u þ v

29.

What is the solution for jx þ 3j < 4? a) ð1ó 7Þ [ ð1ó 1Þ b) ð7ó 1Þ

c) ð1ó 1Þ

30.

d) ð1ó 1Þ pﬃﬃﬃ What is the domain for f gðxÞ when f ðxÞ ¼ x2 and gðxÞ ¼ x? a) ð1ó 1Þ b) ½0ó 1Þ c) ð1ó 0Þ [ ð0ó 1Þ d) ð0ó 1Þ

31.

What are the zeros for the polynomial function f ðxÞ ¼ x4 16? a) 4 b) 2 c) 2ó 4 d) 2ó 2i

32.

Find the equation of the line containing the points ð1ó 0Þ and ð0ó 1Þ. a) y ¼ x þ 1 b) y ¼ x þ 1 c) y ¼ x 1 d) y ¼ x 1

Final Exam

436 33.

What is the center and radius for the circle whose equation is ðx þ 5Þ2 þ ðy 6Þ2 ¼ 9? (a) The center is ð5ó 6Þ, and the radius is 81. (b) The center is ð5ó 6Þ, and the radius is 3. (c) The center is ð5ó 6Þ, and the radius is 81. (d) The center is ð5ó 6Þ, and the radius is 3.

34.

What is the domain for f ðxÞ ¼ xxþ1 2 4? a) ð2ó 1Þ c) ð1ó 2Þ [ ð2ó 1Þ

b) ð1ó 2Þ [ ð2ó 2Þ [ ð2ó 1Þ d) ð1ó 1Þ [ ð1ó 2Þ [ ð2ó 1Þ

35.

Is a ¼ 3 a lower bound for the real zeros of the polynomial function f ðxÞ ¼ x4 x3 þ x2 þ x 4? a) Yes b) No c) Cannot be determined

36.

x2 þ x 1 ¼ 0 is equivalent to b) ðx þ 12Þ2 ¼ 32 a) ðx þ 14Þ2 ¼ 54 c) ðx þ 12Þ2 ¼ 54 d) ðx þ 12Þ2 ¼ 34

37.

Rewrite log5 3x in base 8. log8 3x log8 5 a) b) log8 5 log8 3x

c)

log8 3x ln 5

d)

log8 5 log 3x

38.

What is the solution for the inequality x2 > 1? a) ð1ó 1Þ b) ð1ó 1Þ [ ð1ó 1Þ c) ð1ó 1Þ [ ð1ó 1Þ d) ð1ó 1Þ

39.

The (a) (b) (c) (d)

40.

Evaluate f ð2Þ for f ðxÞ ¼ 6. a) 2 b) 12 c) 6 d) Cannot be determined

41.

Find an equation of the line whose slope is 53 and contains the point ð6ó 8Þ. a) 5x 3y ¼ 6 b) 5x 3y ¼ 22 c) 3x 5y ¼ 22 d) 3x 5y ¼ 6

42.

What are the zeros for the polynomial function f ðxÞ ¼ 6x3 11x2 þ 6x 1?

graph of 12 f ðxÞ is the graph of f ðxÞ reﬂected about the x-axis and vertically stretched. reﬂected about the x-axis and vertically ﬂattened. reﬂected about the y-axis and vertically stretched. reﬂected about the y-axis and vertically ﬂattened.

Final Exam a) 12 ó 3ó 1 mined.

437 b)

1 1 2ó 3ó

1

c) 12 ó

1 3ó

1

d) Cannot be deter-

43.

The population of a certain type of ﬁsh in a lake is approximated by the function nðtÞ ¼ 25e0:024t , where t is the number of years after 2000 and nðtÞ is the size of the population in hundreds. Estimate the size of the ﬁsh population in the lake for the year 2006. a) About 2300 b) About 2500 c) About 2700 d) About 2900

44.

If f ðxÞ ¼ x3 and gðxÞ ¼ 1=ðx þ 1Þ, ﬁnd f gð2Þ. c) 18 d) 8 a) 1 b) 17

45.

What is x þ y for the solution for the system? y ¼ 2x2 x þ 3 3x y ¼ 1 a) 2 b) 3 c) 5 d) 6

46.

What is the vertex for y ¼ 12 x2 þ 3x 4? a) ð6ó 32Þ b) ð3ó 17 c) ð 32 ó 25 2Þ 4Þ

d) ð3ó

19 2Þ

47.

What is the solution for j7 xj > 2? a) ð1ó 5Þ [ ð9ó 1Þ b) ð1ó 5Þ [ ð1ó 9Þ c) ð9ó 5Þ d) ð5ó 9Þ

48.

The solid graph in Fig. A-3 is the graph of f ðxÞ ¼ x3 . The dashed graph is the graph of which function? a) y ¼ ðx þ 1Þ3 þ 1 b) y ¼ ðx þ 1Þ3 1 c) y ¼ ðx 1Þ3 þ 1 3 d) y ¼ ðx 1Þ 1

Fig. A-3.

Final Exam

438 49.

According to the Rational Zero Theorem, which of the following is not a possible zero for the polynomial function f ðxÞ ¼ 12x4 x2 þ 9? c) 92 d) All are possible rational zeros a) 4 b) 13

50.

Evaluate gð3Þ for gðxÞ ¼ a) 8

51.

b) 24

c) 10

8 xþ7

if x 1 if x > 1

d) 8 and 10

Rewrite mt ¼ u as a logarithm equation. b) logm u ¼ t c) logu m ¼ t a) logm t ¼ u

d) logu t ¼ m

2

the function f ðxÞ ¼ 12 x þ 3x þ 4 the maximum functional value is 17 2. 17 the minimum functional value is 2 . the maximum functional value is 3. the minimum functional value is 3.

52.

For (a) (b) (c) (d)

53.

What are the zeros for the function PðxÞ ¼ x3 þ 3x2 2x 8? (Hint: x ¼ 2 is a zero.) pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 1 17 1 17i a) 2ó b) 2ó 2 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2 c) 2ó 2 17 i d) 2ó 2 3i What is the center and radius for the circle whose equation is x2 þ y2 þ 8x þ 6y ¼ 11? (a) The center is ð4ó 3Þ, and the radius is 6. pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ (b) The center is ð4ó 3Þ, and the radius is 11. (c) The center is ð4ó 3Þ, and the radius is 6. pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ (d) The center is ð4ó 3Þ, and the radius is 11.

54.

55.

To complete the square, what numbers should be used to ﬁll in the blanks for y ¼ 23 ðx2 6x þ Þ þ 2 þ ? (a) Use 9 for the ﬁrst blank and 6 for the second blank. (b) Use 9 for the ﬁrst blank and 6 for the second blank. (c) Use 9 for the ﬁrst blank and 9 for the second blank. (d) Use 9 for the ﬁrst blank and 9 for the second blank.

56.

Find the quotient and remainder for ð4x3 x þ 2Þ ðx2 þ 1Þ. (a) The quotient is 4x2 þ 3x þ 3, and the remainder is 5. (b) The quotient is 4x, and the remainder is 5x þ 2. (c) The quotient is 4x, and the remainder is 3x þ 2. (d) The quotient is 4x, and the remainder is 3x þ 2.

Final Exam

439

57.

Is f ðxÞ ¼ x3 4 an even function, odd function or neither? a) Even b) Odd c) Neither d) Cannot be determined.

58.

eln 2 = a) e2

b) 2eln

c) 2

d) ln 2

59.

Find an equation of the circle with center ð8ó 5Þ containing the point ð5ó 9Þ. b) ðx 8Þ2 þ ðy 5Þ2 ¼ 25 a) ðx 8Þ2 þ ðy 5Þ2 ¼ 5 2 2 d) ðx þ 8Þ2 þ ðy þ 5Þ2 ¼ 25 c) ðx þ 8Þ þ ðy þ 5Þ ¼ 5

60.

Solve for x:

xþ2 > 0: x2

a) ð2ó 1Þ c) ð2ó 1Þ [ ð2ó 1Þ 61.

b) ð2ó 2Þ d) ð1ó 2Þ [ ð2ó 1Þ

What is the vertex for y ¼ x2 8x þ 1? a) ð4ó 49Þ b) ð8ó 1Þ c) ð4ó 15Þ

d) ð8ó 129Þ

62.

The (a) (b) (c) (d)

graph of f ðxÞ ¼ ðx þ 4Þ 5 is the graph of f ðxÞ shifted to the left 4 units and down 5 units. shifted to the left 4 units and up 5 units. shifted to the right 4 units and down 5 units. shifted to the right 4 units and up 5 units.

63.

The graph in Fig. A-4 is the solution to which system? (a) y <x1 y < 3x þ 3 (b)

y <x1 y > 3x þ 3

(c)

y >x1 y < 3x þ 3

(d)

y >x1 y > 3x þ 3

Final Exam

440

Fig. A-4.

64.

Solve for x: a) ½ 52 ó 6

2x þ 5 0. x6 b) ½ 52 ó 6Þ

c) ð 52 ó 6Þ

d) ð 52 ó 6

65.

In the equation x2 þ y2 ¼ 25, is y a function of x? a) Yes b) No c) Cannot be determined

66.

What is the vertex for y ¼ 12 ðx 4Þ2 3? a) ð4ó 3Þ b) ð4ó 3Þ c) ð2ó 3Þ

d) ð2ó 3Þ

4

67.

Find the quotient and remainder for ð3x 5x þ 2Þ ðx 4Þ. (a) The quotient is 3x3 þ 12x2 48x þ 187, and the remainder is 746. (b) The quotient is 3x þ 7, and the remainder is 30. (c) The quotient is 3x3 12x2 48x 197, and the remainder is 790. (d) The quotient is 3x3 þ 12x2 þ 48x þ 187, and the remainder is 750.

68.

What are the intercepts for y ¼ x2 þ 2x 24? (a) The x-intercepts are 4 and 6, and the y-intercept is 24. (b) The x-intercepts are 8 and 9, and the y-intercept is 24. (c) The x-intercepts are 8 and 9, and the y-intercept is 24. (d) The x-intercepts are 4 and 6, and the y-intercept is 24.

69.

A property manager wants to fence the back of an oﬃce building for storage. The side against the building will not be fenced. If 100 feet of fencing is available and if the area to be fenced is rectangular, what is the maximum area? a) 1000 square feet b) 1250 square feet c) 1500 square feet d) Cannot be determined.

Final Exam 70.

441

The solid graph in Fig. A-5 is the graph of f ðxÞ ¼ jxj. The dashed graph is the graph of which function? a) y ¼ 3jxj b) y ¼ 3jxj c) y ¼ 13 jxj d) y ¼ 13 jxj

Fig. A-5.

71.

72.

73.

74.

State the zeros and their multiplicity for the polynomial function f ðxÞ ¼ x2 ðx þ 2Þ3 ðx 6Þ5 . (a) The zeros are 2 (multiplicity 1), 3 (multiplicity 2), and 5 (multiplicity 6). (b) The zeros are 0 (multiplicity 2), 2 (multiplicity 3), and 6 (multiplicity 5). (c) The zeros are 0 (multiplicity 2), 2 (multiplicity 3), and 6 (multiplicity 5). (d) The zeros are 2 (multiplicity 3), and 6 (multiplicity 5). 3x Solve for x: > 5. xþ3 a) ð3ó 1Þ [ ð2ó 1Þ b) ð3ó 3Þ c) ð1ó 3Þ [ ð3ó 1Þ d) ð3ó 2Þ Put the quotient ð7 4iÞ=ð1 þ 3iÞ in the form a þ bi, where a and b are real numbers. 1 17 1 5 4 19 17 a) þ i b) i c) 7 i d) þ i 2 2 2 2 3 10 10 What numbers should be used to ﬁll in the blank for y ¼ ðx2 10x þ Þ þ 6 þ ? (a) Put 25 in the ﬁrst blank and 25 in the second blank. (b) Put 25 in the ﬁrst blank and 25 in the second blank. (c) Put 25 in the ﬁrst blank and 25 in the second blank. (d) Put 25 in the ﬁrst blank and 25 in the second blank.

Final Exam

442 75.

Evaluate ð f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞÞ=h for f ðxÞ ¼ 4x 1. a) h b) 1 c) 4h þ 8 d) 4

SOLUTION 1. b) 2. 8. d) 9. 15. b) 16. 22. a) 23. 29. b) 30. 36. c) 37. 43. d) 44. 50. c) 51. 57. c) 58. 64. b) 65. 71. c) 72.

a) a) d) a) b) a) a) b) c) b) d)

3. 10. 17. 24. 31. 38. 45. 52. 59. 66. 73.

b) a) d) b) d) b) c) a) b) a) b)

4. 11. 18. 25. 32. 39. 46. 53. 60. 67. 74.

d) a) d) d) b) b) b) a) d) d) c)

5. 12. 19. 26. 33. 40. 47. 54. 61. 68. 75.

c) b) c) c) d) c) a) a) c) d) d)

6. 13. 20. 27. 34. 41. 48. 55. 62. 69.

d) b) a) c) b) a) d) a) a) b)

7. 14. 21. 28. 35. 42. 49. 56. 63. 70.

a) a) c) a) a) b) a) b) d) b)

INDEX

Absolute value equations, 15–20 function 240, 247–250 inequalities, 20–27 of a number, 14–15 Addition and subtraction of complex numbers (see Complex numbers) of functions, 262, 263 Applications of exponential functions, 404–410 linear, 92–102 of linear systems, 366–370 quadratic, 205–216 Area, maximizing, 208–213 Base change of, 428–429 of exponent, 417 of logarithm, 417 Center of circle (see Circles) Change of base formula, 428–429 Circles, 45–56 center, 46–48 completing the square, 53–56 diameter, 51–53 graphing, 48–50 radius, 46–48 Coeﬃcients, 278 and synthetic division, 301 Combinations of functions, 262–274

arithmetic combinations, 262–263 composition, 264–274 Completing the square, 1–13 for the center and radius of a circle, 53–56 to solve a quadratic equation, 6–12 for the vertex of a parabola, 113–119 Complex numbers arithmetic, 327–336 conjugate, 331–332 as zeros of a polynomial, 336–345, 347–351 Composition of functions, 264–274 Constant function, 157, 239, 278 Constant interval (see Interval) Continuous interest, 407–408 Coordinates, 29–33 and evaluating functions, 172–174 Cubic function, 240–243 Decreasing interval (see Interval) Degree of a polynomial, 278–282 Dependent variable, 148 Descartes’ Rule of Signs, 317–319 Diameter of a circle, 51–53 Distance between two points, 33–43 Division of complex numbers, 333–336 of functions, 262–263 of polynomials, 292–327 Divisor polynomial, 292 Domain, 150–156

443 Copyright © 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click here for terms of use.

INDEX

444 in function composition, 270–272 from a graph, 174–178 Elimination by addition, 359–366 End behavior of polynomials, 278–282 Equations (see also Equations of lines) of circles, 46–56 exponential, 404–410 quadratic, 102–103, 109–120, 199–216 of polynomials, 278–327, 341–351 systems of, 354–366, 371–377 Equations of lines in applications, 92–102 graphing, 45, 58–62, 72–74, 81–87 horizontal lines, 72–74 parallel lines, 84–85, 88–90 perpendicular lines, 86–90 point-slope form, 75–79 slope-intercept form, 80–84 vertical lines, 73–74 Evaluating functions, 156–168 from a graph, 172–174 Even functions, 257–261 Exponential functions, 240 applications of, 404–410 graphs of, 410–415 growth, 402–410 Exponential properties, 419, 422, 424 Factoring of polynomials, 308–311, 313–317 unusual quantities, 114–115, 117–118 and zeros of a polynomial, 282–288, 346–351 Fahrenheit and Celsius, 93–95 Fencing problems, 208–213 FOIL method, 1 Functional value, 157 and graphs, 172–174 Functions, 148–194 combining, 262–274 composition of, 264–274 constant, 157 domain and range, 150–156, 174–178 evaluating, 156–168, 172–174 even and odd, 257–261 graphs of, 168–194

increasing/decreasing/constant intervals, 178–183 and Newton’s quotient, 163–168 piecewise, 158–160, 183–194 polynomial, 278–351 quadratic, 199–216 special, 239–254 vertical line test, 168–172 y as a function of x, 149–150 Fundamental Theorem of Algebra, 341, 346 Graphs of circles, 48–50 and domain and range, 174–178 of equations, 45 and function composition, 268–270 and function evaluation, 172–174 and functions, 168–194 of inequalities, 377–398 intercepts of, 62–69 of lines, 45, 58–62, 72–74, 81–87 of parabolas and quadratic functions, 102–112,199–200 of piecewise functions, 183–194 of polynomials, 278–292, 323–327 reﬂections of, 224–226, 227–231, 254 of special functions, 240–254 of systems of equations, 355, 357, 371, 373 of systems of inequalities, 377–398 transformations of, 219–254 vertical line test, 168–172 Horizontal line, 72–74 transformations, 220–224, 230–239 Increasing interval, (see Interval) Independent variable, 148 Inequalities absolute value, 20–27 graphing, 377–398 nonlinear, 129–146 systems of, 378–398 Intercepts, 62–69 x-intercepts and zeros of a polynomial, 282–292 Interval, constant/decreasing/increasing, 178–183

INDEX

445

Laws of logarithms, 418–428 Leading coeﬃcient, 278, 280–282 Leading term, 278, 280–282 Line segment midpoint, 43–45 length, 33–43 Linear functions, 240 (see also Linear equations) Lines graphs of, 45, 58–62, 72–74, 81–87 horizontal, 72–74 parallel, 84–85, 88–90 perpendicular, 86–90 point-slope form, 75–79 slope of, 69–74 slope-intercept form, 80–84 systems of, 354–366 vertical, 72–74 Linear equations (see Equations of lines) Logarithms, 416–429 Long division of polynomials, 292–301 Lower bounds (see Upper and Lower Bounds Theorem)

ﬁnding the vertex, 103, 113–120, 200–201 and quadratic functions, 199 Parallel lines, 84–85, 88–90, 371–372 Perpendicular lines, 86–90 Piecewise functions evaluating, 158–160 graphing, 183–194 Point-slope formula, 75–79 Polynomial division long division, 292–301 synthetic division, 301–309 Polynomial functions, 278–351 complex zeros of, 336–345, 347–351 division of, 292–327 graphs of, 278–292, 323–327 rational zeros of, 311–313 real zeros of, 282–283 x-intercepts of, 282–288 Population growth, 408–410 Present value, 415–416 Properties of logarithms (see Laws of logarithms) Pythagorean theorem, 36, 38–40, 41–42

Maximizing (and minimizing) functions applied, 205–216 quadratic, 202–204 Maximum (and minimum) functional value, 202–204 Midpoint formula, 43–45 and ﬁnding the center of a circle, 51–52 Multiplication of complex numbers, 330–331 of functions, 262, 263 Multiplicity of zeros, 346

Quadratic equations, (see also quadratic functions) 1, 199 completing the square to solve, 6–12 Quadratic formula, 1 completing the square to ﬁnd, 12–13 Quadratic functions, 199–216, 240 applications of, 205–216 graphs of (see also Parabola), 102–112, 199–200 maximizing and minimizing, 202–204 range of, 201–202 Quotient polynomial, 292

Newton’s quotient, 163–168 Nonlinear inequalities, 129–146 graphs of, 383–386 systems of, 387–392 Odd functions, 257–261 Origin, 29, 30 symmetry, 254 Parabola, 102–120 graphs of, 102–112, 199–200

Radius of a circle, 46–48 Range, 150 from a graph, 174–178 of quadratic functions, 201–202 Rational exponent, 424 Rational zeros of a polynomial, 311–313 Reﬂection of a graph, 224–226, 227–231, 254 Remainder Theorem, 307–308 Revenue, maximizing, 206, 213–216

INDEX

446 Shifting graphs, 220–253 Sign graphs and the domain of a function, 153–156 and inequalities, 131–146 Slope of a line, 69–74 applications, 98–102 and ﬁnding the equation of a line, 90–92 and graphing a line, 81–84 Slope-intercept form of a line, 80–84 Special functions, 239–254 Square root function, 240, 243–247 Substitution method, 355–359, 374–377 Symmetry, 254–257 Synthetic division of polynomials, 301–309 Systems of equations, 354–377 applications of, 366–370 elimination by addition, 359–366 having no solution, 371–372 linear, 354–366 nonlinear, 372–377 substitution, 355–359, 374–376 Systems of inequalities, 377–398 having no solution, 392 linear, 386–387, 389–391, 393–394 nonlinear, 387–388, 390–391, 394–398 Transformations of graphs/functions, 219–253

Upper and Lower Bounds Theorem, 317, 319–322 Vertex, 103 ﬁnding by completing the square, 113–120 using b 2a , 200–204 used to maximize/minimize functions, 202–216 Vertical lines, 72–74 transformations, 221–239 Vertical line test, 168–172 x- and y-axis, 29 in the complex plane, 336 symmetry, 255–257 x- and y-coordinates, 29–33 as coordinates of intercepts, 62–69 and evaluating functions, 172–174 x-intercepts as zeros of a polynomial, 282–289 xy coordinate plane, 29–56 Zeros complex, 336–345, 347–351 of a polynomial function, 282–288, 311, 313, 341–351 and x-intercepts, 282–289

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Rhonda Huettenmueller has taught mathematics at the college level for over 14 years. Popular with students for her ability to make higher math understandable and even enjoyable, she incorporates many of her teaching techniques in this book. She received her Ph.D. in mathematics from the University of North Texas.

2 Copyright © 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click here for terms of use.

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Rhonda Huettenmueller

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CONTENTS

Preface

vii

CHAPTER 1

Completing the Square

1

CHAPTER 2

Absolute Value Equations and Inequalities

14

CHAPTER 3

The x y Coordinate Plane

29

CHAPTER 4

Lines and Parabolas

58

CHAPTER 5

Nonlinear Inequalities

124

CHAPTER 6

Functions

148

CHAPTER 7

Quadratic Functions

199

CHAPTER 8

Transformations and Combinations

219

CHAPTER 9

Polynomial Functions

278

CHAPTER 10

Systems of Equations and Inequalities

354

CHAPTER 11

Exponents and Logarithms

402

Final Exam

432

Index

443 v

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PREFACE

Early in my teaching career, I realized two seemingly contradictory facts— that students are fully capable of understanding mathematical concepts but that many have had little success with mathematics. There are several reasons people struggle with mathematics. One is a weak background in basic mathematics. Most topics in mathematics are sequential. Weaknesses in any area will likely cause problems later. Another is that textbooks tend to present too many concepts at once, keeping students from being able to absorb them. I wrote this book (as well as my previous book, Algebra Demystiﬁed) with these issues in mind. Each section is short, containing exactly one new concept. This gives you a chance to absorb the material. Also, I have included detailed examples and solutions so that you can concentrate on the new lesson without being distracted by missing steps. The extra detail will also help you to review important skills. You will get the most out of this book if you work on it several times a week, a little at a time. Before working on a new section, review the previous sections. Most sections expand on the ideas in previous sections. Study for the end-of-chapter reviews and ﬁnal exam as you would a regular test. This will help you to see the big picture. Finally, study the graphs and their equations. Even with graphing calculators to plot graphs, it is important in college algebra and more advanced courses to understand why graphs behave the way they do. Because testing has become so important, I would like to leave you with a few tips on how to study for and to take a mathematics test. * *

Study at regular, frequent intervals. Do not cram. Prepare one sheet of notes as if you were allowed to bring it into the test. This exercise will force you to summarize the concepts and to focus on what is important.

vii Copyright © 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click here for terms of use.

PREFACE

viii *

*

*

Imagine explaining the material to someone else. You will have mastered the material only when you can explain it in your own words. When taking a test, read it over before answering any questions. Answer the easy questions ﬁrst. By the time you get to the more diﬃcult problems, your mind will already be thinking mathematically. Also, this can keep you from spending too much valuable test time on harder problems. Be patient with yourself while you are learning. Understanding will not come all at once. But it will come.

Acknowledgments I am very grateful to my family for tolerating my neglect while ﬁnishing this book. I also want to express my appreciation to my friends at the University of North Texas for their encouragement. In particular, I want to thank my colleague Mary Ann Teel for her suggestions. Finally, I want to thank my editor Judy Bass for her enthusiasm and support.

Copyright © 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click here for terms of use.

1

CHAPTER

Completing the Square

Quadratic equations (those of the form ax2 þ bx þ c ¼ 0, where a 6¼ 0) are usually solved by factoring and setting each factor equal to zero or by using the quadratic formula pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ b b2 4ac x¼ : 2a Another method used to solve quadratic equations is called completing the square. This method is also useful in graphing circles and parabolas. The goal is to rewrite the quadratic equation in the form ‘‘ðx þ aÞ2 ¼ number’’ or ‘‘ðx aÞ2 ¼ number.’’ To see how we can begin, we will use the FOIL method (First ﬁrst þ Outer outer þ Inner inner þ Last last) on two perfect squares. ðx aÞ2 ¼ ðx aÞðx aÞ ðx þ aÞ2 ¼ ðx þ aÞðx þ aÞ ¼ x2 þ 2ax þ a2

¼ x2 2ax þ a2

1 Copyright © 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click here for terms of use.

CHAPTER 1 Completing the Square

2

The constant term is a2 and the coeﬃcient of x is 2a or 2a. This means that, in a perfect square, the constant term is the square of half of the coeﬃcient of x: ð2a=2Þ2 ¼ a2 . (Ignore the sign in front of x.) EXAMPLES * ðx þ 3Þ2 ¼ x2 þ 6x þ 9 * ðx 5Þ2 ¼ x2 10x þ 25 * ðx þ 4Þ2 ¼ x2 þ 8x þ 16 * ðx 12Þ2 ¼ x2 x þ 14

Half Half Half Half

of of of of

6 is 3 and 32 is 9. 10 is 5 and 52 is 25. 8 is 4 and 42 is 16. 1 is 12 and ð12Þ2 is 14.

One of the steps on any completing the square problem is to decide what constant term should be added to the x2 and x terms to ‘‘complete the square.’’ Divide the coeﬃcient of x by 2, then square that number. EXAMPLES Fill in the blank with the number that completes the square. *

x2 þ 12x þ

12 2

¼ 6 and 62 ¼ 36

*

x2 4x þ

4 2

*

x2 þ 16x þ

16 2

*

x2 þ 2x þ

2 2

¼ 1 and 12 ¼ 1

*

x2 þ 13 x þ

1 2

13 ¼ 16 and

*

x2 25 x þ

1 2

25 ¼ 15 and

¼ 2 and 22 ¼ 4 ¼ 8 and 82 ¼ 64

12 6

12 5

1 ¼ 36 1 ¼ 25

x2 þ 12x þ 36 is a perfect square. 2 x 4x þ 4 is a perfect square. 2 x þ 16x þ 64 is a perfect square. 2 x þ 2x þ 1 is a perfect square. 2 1 x þ 13 x þ 36 is a perfect square. 1 x2 25 x þ 25 is a perfect square.

PRACTICE Fill in the blank with the number that completes the square. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

x2 þ 18x þ x2 þ 14x þ x2 22x þ x2 þ 30x þ x2 7x þ x2 þ 14 x þ x2 þ 43 x þ

CHAPTER 1 Completing the Square

3

SOLUTIONS 1. x2 þ 18x þ 81 2. x2 þ 14x þ 49 3. x2 22x þ 121 4. x2 þ 30x þ 225 5. x2 7x þ 49 4 1 6. x2 þ 14 x þ 64

7. x2 þ 43 x þ 49 Another step in completing the square is to rewrite the expression as a perfect square. First we write ðx þ Þ2 if the ﬁrst sign is a plus sign, and write ðx Þ2 if the ﬁrst sign is a minus sign. Then we can ﬁll in the blank in one of two ways. Divide the coeﬃcient of x by 2 (multiplying by 12 is the same thing) or take the square root of the constant term. EXAMPLES * x2 þ 12x þ 36 ¼ ðx þ Þ2 ¼ ðx þ 6Þ2 * x2 4x þ 4 ¼ ðx Þ2 ¼ ðx 2Þ2 2 * x þ 16x þ 64 ¼ ðx þ Þ2 ¼ ðx þ 8Þ2 * x2 þ 2x þ 1 ¼ ðx þ Þ2 ¼ ðx þ 1Þ2 2 1 * x þ 13 x þ 36 ¼ ðx þ Þ2 2 ¼ x þ 16 *

1 x2 25 x þ 25 ¼ ðx Þ2 2 ¼ x 15

Use 6 in the blank pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ because 6 ¼ 12 36. 2 ¼ Use 2 in the blank pﬃﬃﬃ because 2 ¼ 42 ¼ 4: Use 8 in the blank pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ because 8 ¼ 16 64: 2 ¼ Use 1 in the blank pﬃﬃﬃ because 1 ¼ 22 ¼ 1: Use 16 in the blank qﬃﬃﬃﬃ because 16 ¼ 12 13 ¼

Use

1 36:

1 5

in the blankqﬃﬃﬃﬃ 1 because 15 ¼ 12 25 ¼ 25 :

PRACTICE Write the quadratic expression as a perfect square. These are the same problems as used in the previous practice problems. 1. 2. 3. 4.

x2 þ 18x þ 81 ¼ x2 þ 14x þ 49 ¼ x2 22x þ 121 ¼ x2 þ 30x þ 225 ¼

CHAPTER 1 Completing the Square

4 5. x2 7x þ 49 4 ¼ 1 ¼ 6. x2 þ 14 x þ 64

7. x2 þ 43 x þ 49 ¼ SOLUTIONS 1. x2 þ 18x þ 81 ¼ ðx þ 9Þ2 2. x2 þ 14x þ 49 ¼ ðx þ 7Þ2 3. x2 22x þ 121 ¼ ðx 11Þ2 4. x2 þ 30x þ 225 ¼ ðx þ 15Þ2 7 2 5. x2 7x þ 49 4 ¼ ðx 2Þ 1 6. x2 þ 14 x þ 64 ¼ ðx þ 18Þ2 ðsince

7. x2 þ 43 x þ 49 ¼ ðx þ 23Þ2 ðsince

1 2 1 2

14 ¼ 18Þ

43 ¼ 23Þ

To solve an equation of the form ðx þ aÞ2 ¼ number or ðx aÞ2 ¼ number, we will take the square root of each side of the equation, then solve for x. ðx aÞ2 ¼ number pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ x a ¼ number pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ x ¼ a number

ðx þ aÞ2 ¼ number pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ x þ a ¼ number pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ x ¼ a number

We need to use the ‘‘’’ symbol in the second and third steps to get both solutions (most quadratic equations have two solutions). EXAMPLES * ðx 1Þ2 ¼ 9 pﬃﬃﬃ x 1 ¼ 9 ¼ 3 x ¼ 1 3 ¼ 1 þ 3ó 1 3 x ¼ 4ó 2 *

2 x þ 12 ¼ 5 pﬃﬃﬃ 1 xþ ¼ 5 2 1 pﬃﬃﬃ x¼ 5 2

CHAPTER 1 Completing the Square *

ðx 6Þ2 ¼ 0 pﬃﬃﬃ x6¼ 0¼0 x¼6

PRACTICE Solve for x. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

ðx 2Þ2 ¼ 4 ðx þ 1Þ2 ¼ 25 ðx 4Þ2 ¼ 9 ðx þ 5Þ2 ¼ 10 ðx þ 13Þ2 ¼ 1

6. ðx 25Þ2 ¼ 0 SOLUTIONS 1. ðx 2Þ2 ¼ 4 x 2 ¼ 2 x ¼ 2 2 ¼ 2 þ 2ó 2 2 x ¼ 4ó 0 2. ðx þ 1Þ2 ¼ 25 x þ 1 ¼ 5 x ¼ 1 5 ¼ 1 þ 5ó 1 5 x ¼ 4ó 6 3. ðx 4Þ2 ¼ 9 x 4 ¼ 3 x ¼ 4 3 ¼ 4 þ 3ó 4 3 x ¼ 7ó 1

5

CHAPTER 1 Completing the Square

6 4.

ðx þ 5Þ2 ¼ 10 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ x þ 5 ¼ 10 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ x ¼ 5 10 5.

1 xþ 3

2 ¼1

pﬃﬃﬃ 1 x þ ¼ 1 ¼ 1 3 1 1 3 x¼ 1¼ 3 3 3 2 4 x¼ ó 3 3 6.

2 x 5

2 ¼0

2 x ¼ 0 ¼ 0 5 2 x¼ 5

Completing the Square To Solve a Quadratic Equation We can solve a quadratic equation in the form ax2 þ bx þ c ¼ 0, with a 6¼ 0, by completing the square if we follow the steps below. 1. 2. 3.

4.

Move the constant term to the other side of the equation. (Sometimes this step is not necessary.) Divide both sides of the equation by a. (Sometimes this step is not necessary.) Find the constant that would make the left-hand side of the equation a perfect square. (This is what we did in earlier practice problems.) Add this number to both sides of the equation. Rewrite the left-hand side as a perfect square.

CHAPTER 1 Completing the Square 5. 6. 7.

7

Take the square root of both sides of the equation. Remember to use a ‘‘’’symbol on the right-hand side of the equation. Move the constant to the right-hand side of the equation. Simplify the right-hand side. (Sometimes this step is not necessary.)

EXAMPLES * x2 þ 6x 7 ¼ 0 x2 þ 6x ¼ 7

Step 1

x2 þ 6x þ 9 ¼ 7 þ 9

Step 3

2

ðx þ 3Þ ¼ 16 pﬃﬃﬃ x þ 3 ¼ 16 ¼ 4

*

Step 5

x ¼ 3 4 ¼ 3 þ 4ó 3 4

Step 6

x ¼ 1ó 7

Step 7

x2 þ 4x ¼ 1 x2 þ 4x þ 4 ¼ 1 þ 4 ðx þ 2Þ2 ¼ 3

pﬃﬃﬃ xþ2¼ 3

pﬃﬃﬃ x ¼ 2 3

*

Step 4

Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6

2x2 2x 24 ¼ 0 2x2 2x ¼ 24 2 2 2 24 x x¼ 2 2 2 2 x x ¼ 12 1 1 x2 x þ ¼ 12 þ 4 4 48 1 49 ¼ þ ¼ 4 4 4 1 2 49 ¼ x 2 4

Step 1 Step 2

Step 3

Step 4

CHAPTER 1 Completing the Square

8

rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 1 49 x ¼ 2 4 1 7 x ¼ 2 2 1 7 x¼ 2 2 1 7 1 7 x¼ þ ó 2 2 2 2 x ¼ 4ó 3 *

Step 6

Step 7

3x2 þ 15x ¼ 4 3 2 15 4 x þ x¼ 3 3 3 4 2 x þ 5x ¼ 3 25 4 25 x2 þ 5x þ ¼ þ 4 3 4 4 25 16 75 59 þ ¼ þ ¼ ¼ 3 4 12 12 12 5 2 59 xþ ¼ 2 12 rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 5 59 xþ ¼ 2 12 rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 59 59 ¼ ¼ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 12 12 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ 59 59 3 ¼ pﬃﬃﬃ ¼ pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ 2 3 2 3 3 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 177 177 5 ¼ xþ ¼ 2 3 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ6ﬃ 2 177 5 x¼ 2 6

PRACTICE Solve for x by completing the square. 1. 2. 3.

Step 5

x2 10x þ 24 ¼ 0 x2 þ 6x þ 5 ¼ 0 2x2 8x 24 ¼ 0

Step 2

Step 3

Step 4 Step 5

Step 6

CHAPTER 1 Completing the Square 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

x2 þ 5x þ 6 ¼ 0 x2 3x ¼ 4 4x2 þ 11x ¼ 6 x2 þ 7x þ 2 ¼ 0 3x2 þ 9x 2 ¼ 0

SOLUTIONS 1. x2 10x þ 24 ¼ 0 x2 10x ¼ 24 x2 10x þ 25 ¼ 24 þ 25 ðx 5Þ2 ¼ 1 x 5 ¼ 1 x ¼ 5 1 ¼ 5 þ 1ó 5 1 x ¼ 6ó 4 2. x2 þ 6x þ 5 ¼ 0 x2 þ 6x ¼ 5 x2 þ 6x þ 9 ¼ 5 þ 9 ðx þ 3Þ2 ¼ 4 x þ 3 ¼ 2 x ¼ 3 2 ¼ 3 þ 2ó 3 2 x ¼ 1ó 5 3. 2x2 8x 24 ¼ 0 2x2 8x ¼ 24 2 2 8 24 x x¼ 2 2 2 2 x 4x ¼ 12 x2 4x þ 4 ¼ 12 þ 4 ðx 2Þ2 ¼ 16 x 2 ¼ 4 x ¼ 2 4 ¼ 2 þ 4ó 2 4 x ¼ 6ó 2

9

CHAPTER 1 Completing the Square

10 4.

x2 þ 5x þ 6 ¼ 0 x2 þ 5x ¼ 6 25 25 24 25 x2 þ 5x þ ¼ 6 þ ¼ þ 4 4 4 4 5 2 1 xþ ¼ 2 4 rﬃﬃﬃ 5 1 1 ¼ xþ ¼ 2 4 2 5 1 5 1 5 1 x¼ ¼ þ ó 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 6 x ¼ ó ¼ 2ó 3 2 2 5. x2 3x ¼ 4 9 9 16 9 x2 3x þ ¼ 4 þ ¼ þ 4 4 4 4 3 25 x ¼ 2 4 rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 3 25 5 x ¼ ¼ 2 4 2 3 5 3 5 3 5 x¼ ¼ þ ó 2 2 2 2 2 2 8 2 x ¼ ó ¼ 4ó 1 2 2 6. 4x2 þ 11x ¼ 6 4 2 11 6 3 x þ x¼ ¼ 4 4 4 2 11 121 3 121 xþ ¼ þ x þ 4 64 2 64 2

since

! 1 11 2 121 ¼ 2 4 64

CHAPTER 1 Completing the Square

11 2 96 121 xþ ¼ þ 8 64 64 25 64 rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 11 25 5 xþ ¼ ¼ 8 64 8 11 5 11 5 11 5 x¼ ¼ þ ó 8 8 8 8 8 8 6 16 3 x¼ ó ¼ ó 2 8 8 4 ¼

7. x2 þ 7x þ 2 ¼ 0 x2 þ 7x ¼ 2 49 49 8 49 ¼ 2 þ ¼ þ 4 4 4 4 2 7 41 xþ ¼ 2 4 rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 41 41 7 41 ¼ pﬃﬃﬃ ¼ xþ ¼ 2 4 2 4 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 41 7 7 41 x¼ or 2 2 2

x2 þ 7x þ

8. 3x2 þ 9x 2 ¼ 0 3x2 þ 9x ¼ 2 3 2 9 2 x þ x¼ 3 3 3 2 3 9 2 9 8 27 x2 þ 3x þ ¼ þ ¼ þ 4 3 4 12 12 x2 þ 3x ¼

11

12

CHAPTER 1 Completing the Square 3 2 35 xþ ¼ 2 12 rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 35 35 3 35 xþ ¼ ¼ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ¼ pﬃﬃﬃpﬃﬃﬃ 2 12 12 4 3 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 35 3 105 105 3 x þ ¼ pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ ¼ ¼ 2 3 6 2 3 2 3 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 105 3 x¼ 6 2 Not every quadratic equation has real number solutions. p For ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃexample, ðx 1Þ2 ¼ 10 has no real number solutions. This is because 10 is not a real number. The equation does have two complex number solutions, though. Now that we are experienced at solving quadratic equations by completing the square, we can see why the quadratic formula works. The quadratic formula comes from solving ax2 þ bx þ c ¼ 0 for x by completing the square. ax2 þ bx þ c ¼ 0 ax2 þ bx ¼ c

Step 1

a 2 b c x þ x¼ a a a

Step 2

b b2 c b2 x2 þ x þ 2 ¼ þ 2 a a 4a 4a

Step 3

b b2 c 4a b2 x2 þ x þ 2 ¼ þ 2 a a 4a 4a 4a

Simplify

b b2 4ac þ b2 x2 þ x þ 2 ¼ a 4a 4a2 b 2 b2 4ac xþ ¼ 2a 4a2 sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ b b2 4ac xþ ¼ 2a 4a2 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ b2 4ac b xþ ¼ 2a 2a

Simplify Step 4

Step 5 Simplify

CHAPTER 1 Completing the Square

13

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ b b2 4ac x¼ 2a ﬃ 2a pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2 b b 4ac x¼ 2a

Step 6 Step 7

Chapter 1 Review 1.

What number completes the square for x2 8x? a) 4 b) 4 c) 16 d) 16

2.

x2 þ 5x þ 25 4 ¼ 5 2 b) ðx þ 54Þ2 a) ðx þ 2Þ

3.

2 c) ðx þ 25 2Þ

2 d) ðx þ 25 4Þ

What are the solutions for ðx þ 1Þ2 ¼ 9? a) x ¼ 2 and x ¼ 4 b) x ¼ 2 and x ¼ 4 d) x ¼ 8 and x ¼ 10

c) x ¼ 8 and x ¼ 10

4.

What number completes the square for x2 þ 23 x? b) 49 c) 13 d) 16 a) 19

5.

x2 þ 14 x 2 ¼ 0 is equivalent to 1 2 1 2 Þ ¼ 17 b) ðx þ 16 Þ ¼ 33 a) ðx þ 16 8 16 d) ðx þ 18Þ2 ¼ 17 8

c) ðx þ 18Þ2 ¼ 129 64

6.

What are the solutions for ðx 3Þ2p¼ﬃﬃﬃ 12? pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ a) x ¼ 3 2 3 b) x ¼ 3 2 3 c) x ¼ 3 3 2 pﬃﬃﬃ d) x ¼ 3 3 2

7.

3x2 6x 2 ¼ 0 is equivalent to b) ðx 3Þ2 ¼ 7 a) ðx 3Þ2 ¼ 11 d) ðx 1Þ2 ¼ 53

SOLUTIONS 1. c) 2. a)

3. a)

4. a)

5. c)

c) ðx 1Þ2 ¼ 3

6. b)

7. d)

2

CHAPTER

Absolute Value Equations and Inequalities

The absolute value of a number is its distance from 0 on the number line. Because distances are not negative, the absolute value of a number is never negative. The symbol for the absolute value is a pair of absolute value bars, ‘‘j j.’’ Hence j 3j ¼ 3 because 3 is 3 units away from 0 on the number line. A number written without absolute value bars gives both the distance from 0 as well as the direction. For example, 3 is 3 units to the left of 0 and 3 is 3 units to the right of 0, but j 3j ¼ 3 simply means 3 units away from 0. Because 0 is no distance from 0, j0j ¼ 0.

14 Copyright © 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click here for terms of use.

CHAPTER 2 Absolute Value EXAMPLES * j100j 5 ¼ 5100 ¼ * 2 2 * j10 1j ¼ 9

* * *

15

j 83j ¼ 83 j5 11j ¼ 6 j68 90j ¼ 22

PRACTICE 1. j 6:75j ¼ 2. j8j ¼ 3. j 4j ¼ 4. j8 19j ¼ 5. j13 25j ¼ SOLUTIONS 1. j 6:75j ¼ 6:75 2. j8j ¼ 8 3. j 4j ¼ 4 4. j8 19j ¼ 11 5. j13 25j ¼ 12 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ to believe Technically x2 ¼ jxj instead of x, unless we have pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ x is pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃreason 2 2 ¼ 16 ¼ 4, ¼ ð4Þ not negative. For example,psuppose x ¼ 4. Then x ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2 not 4. But j4j ¼ 4, so ð4Þ ¼pj4j ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ is a true statement. For any even number n and any real number a, n an ¼ jaj.

Absolute Value Equations The equation jxj ¼ 5 is really the question, ‘‘What numbers are 5 units away from 0?’’ Two numbers are 5 units from 0, 5 and 5, so there are two solutions, x ¼ 5 and x ¼ 5. Absolute value equations often have two solutions. One can solve an equation of the type jexpressionj ¼ positive number by solving the two equations: expression ¼ negative number and expression ¼ positive number. Equations such as jxj ¼ 6 have no solution because no number has a negative distance from 0. However, jxj ¼ 6, which is equivalent to jxj ¼ 6, does have solutions. EXAMPLES * jxj ¼ 16 The solutions are x ¼ 16ó 16.

CHAPTER 2

16 *

jx þ 3j ¼ 5 x þ 3 ¼ 5 x ¼ 8

*

Absolute Value

xþ3¼5 x¼2

The solutions are x ¼ 8 and x ¼ 2. j6 8xj ¼ 0 Because 0 and 0 are the same number, there is only one equation to solve. 6 8x ¼ 0 8x ¼ 6 6 3 x¼ ¼ 8 4

PRACTICE Solve for x. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

j 5x þ 1j ¼ 6 j 34 x 8j ¼ 1 jx þ 12 j ¼ 23 j3x þ 4j ¼ 2 j2x 9j ¼ 0 3x 2 5 ¼7

SOLUTIONS 1. 5x þ 1 ¼ 6

5x þ 1 ¼ 6

5x ¼ 5

5x ¼ 7 7 x¼ 5

x ¼ 1 2. 3 x8¼1 4 3 x¼9 4 4 x ¼ 9 ¼ 12 3

3 x 8 ¼ 1 4 3 x¼7 4 4 28 x¼ 7¼ 3 3

CHAPTER 2 Absolute Value

17

3. 1 2 xþ ¼ 2 3 1 2 x¼ þ 2 3 3 4 1 x¼ þ ¼ 6 6 6 4.

1 2 xþ ¼ 2 3 1 2 x¼ 2 3 3 4 7 x¼ ¼ 6 6 6

j3x þ 4j ¼ 2 becomes j3x þ 4j ¼ 2 3x þ 4 ¼ 2

3x þ 4 ¼ 2

3x ¼ 2

3x ¼ 6

2 x¼ 3

x ¼ 2

5. 2x 9 ¼ 0 2x ¼ 9 9 x¼ 2 6. 3x 2 ¼7 5 3x 2 ¼ 5ð7Þ 5 5

3x 2 ¼ 7 5 3x 2 ¼ 5ð7Þ 5 5

3x 2 ¼ 35

3x 2 ¼ 35

3x ¼ 37

3x ¼ 33

x¼

37 3

x¼

33 ¼ 11 3

Sometimes an absolute value expression is part of a more complex equation. We need to isolate the absolute value expression on one side of the equation, then we can solve it as before.

CHAPTER 2

18 EXAMPLES * 2jx 4j þ 7 ¼ 13 7 7

2jx 4j ¼ 6 2jx 4j 6 ¼ 2 2 jx 4j ¼ 3 x4¼3

x 4 ¼ 3

x¼7 *

1 3 j2x

x¼1

þ 8j 10 ¼ 2 þ10 þ 10 1 j2x þ 8j ¼ 8 3 1 3 j2x þ 8j ¼ 3ð8Þ 3 j2x þ 8j ¼ 24 2x þ 8 ¼ 24

2x þ 8 ¼ 24

2x ¼ 16

2x ¼ 32

x¼8

x ¼ 16

PRACTICE Solve for x. 1. 2. 3.

4j5x 2j þ 3 ¼ 11 3 2jx 9j ¼ 1 2 5 j4x 3j 9 ¼ 1

SOLUTIONS 1. 4j5x 2j þ 3 ¼ 11 3

3

Absolute Value

CHAPTER 2 Absolute Value

19

4j5x 2j ¼ 8 4j5x 2j 8 ¼ 4 4 j5x 2j ¼ 2 5x 2 ¼ 2

5x 2 ¼ 2

5x ¼ 4 x¼

5x ¼ 0

4 5

x¼

0 ¼0 5

2. 3 2jx 9j ¼ 1 3

3

2jx 9j ¼ 2 2jx 9j 2 ¼ 2 2 jx 9j ¼ 1 x9¼1

x 9 ¼ 1

x ¼ 10

x¼8

3. 2 j4x 3j 9 ¼ 1 5 þ9

þ9

2 j4x 3j ¼ 8 5 5 2 5 j4x 3j ¼ 8 2 5 2 j4x 3j ¼ 20

CHAPTER 2

20 4x 3 ¼ 20

4x 3 ¼ 20

4x ¼ 23

4x ¼ 17

x¼

23 4

x¼

Absolute Value

17 4

Absolute Value Inequalities The inequality jxj < 4 is, in mathematical symbols, the question,‘‘What real numbers are closer to 0 than 4 is?’’ A look at the number line might help with this question.

Fig. 2-1.

From the number line we can see that the numbers between 4 and 4 have an absolute value less than 4. The solution to jxj < 4 is the interval ð4ó 4Þ. In inequality notation, the solution is 4 < x < 4. (A double inequality of the form smaller number < x < larger number is shorthand for x > smaller number and x < larger number.) Similarly, the solution to the inequality jxj > 3 is all numbers further from 0 than 3 is.

Fig. 2-2.

The solution is all numbers smaller than 3 or larger than 3. In interval notation, the solution is ð1ó 3Þ [ ð3ó 1Þ. The ‘‘[’’ symbol means ‘‘or.’’ In inequality notation, the solution is x < 3 or x > 3. The notation ‘‘3 < x < 3’’ has no meaning because no number x is both larger than 3 and smaller than 3.

CHAPTER 2 Absolute Value

21

Absolute value

Inequalities

Interval(s)

jxj < positive number

neg. number < x < pos. number

ðneg: no:ó pos: no:Þ

jxj positive number

neg. number x pos. number

½neg: no:ó pos: no:

jxj > positive number

x < neg. number or x > pos. number

ð1ó neg: no:Þ [ ðpos: no:ó 1Þ

jxj positive number

x neg. number or x pos. number

ð1ó neg: no: [ ½pos: no:ó 1Þ

EXAMPLES Absolute value

Inequalities

Interval(s)

jxj < 1

1 < x < 1

ð1ó 1Þ

jxj > 16

x < 16 or x > 16

ð1ó 16Þ [ ð16ó 1Þ

jxj 3

x 3 or x 3

ð1ó 3 [ ½3ó 1Þ

jxj 5

5 x 5

½5ó 5

8 jxj is equivalent to jxj 8

8 x 8

½8ó 8

21 < jxj is equivalent to jxj > 21

x < 21 or x > 21

ð1ó 21Þ [ ð21ó 1Þ

Some absolute value inequalities, like absolute value equations, have no solution: jxj < 6. Because absolute values are not negative, no number has an absolute value smaller than 6. If we switch the inequality sign, jxj > 6, then we get an inequality for which every real number is a solution. PRACTICE Solve the inequality and give the solution in inequality and interval notation. 1. 2. 3. 4.

jxj > 12 jxj 9 jxj < 10 jxj 25

CHAPTER 2

22 SOLUTIONS 1. jxj > 12 2. jxj 9 3. jxj < 10 4. jxj 25

x < 12 or x > 12 9x9 10 < x < 10 x 25 or x 25

Absolute Value

ð1ó 12Þ [ ð12ó 1Þ ½9ó 9 ð10ó 10Þ ð1ó 25 [ ½25ó 1Þ

For some absolute value inequalities, ﬁnding the inequalities is only the ﬁrst step toward ﬁnding the solution. EXAMPLES * j4x 5j 9

Fig. 2-3.

From the number line, we can see that either 4x 5 9 or 4x 5 9. These are the inequalities we need to solve. 4x 5 9 4x 4

4x 5 9 4x 14 14 7 ¼ x 1 x 4 2 The solution in interval notation is ð1ó 1 [ 72 ó 1 . *

j2x þ 5j < 11

Fig. 2-4.

From the number line, we can see that 2x þ 5 is between 11 and 11. This means that 11 < 2x þ 5 < 11. 11 < 2x þ 5 < 11 16 < 2x < 6 8 < x < 3 ð8ó 3Þ

CHAPTER 2 Absolute Value *

23

j9 3xj < 12 12 < 9 3x < 12

*

21 < 3x < 3 21 3 3 > x> 3 3 3 7 > x > 1 or ð2 3xÞ=4 > 1

Reverse the signs at this step. 1<x1 4

2 3x < 4

2 3x > 4

3x < 6

3x > 2

ð1ó 7Þ

2 2 1ó [ ð2ó 1Þ 3 3 Tables 2-1 and 2-2 should help to set up the inequalities for an absolute value inequality. x>2

x pos. number

Expression < neg. number or Expression > pos. number

jExpressionj pos. number

Expression neg. number or Expression pos. number

jExpressionj < pos. number

neg. number < Expression < pos. number

jExpressionj pos. number

neg. number Expression pos. number

Table 2-2 Absolute value inequality

Interval notation

jalgebraic expressionj > positive number

ð1; aÞ [ ðb; 1Þ

jalgebraic expressionj positive number

ð1; a [ ½b; 1Þ

jalgebraic expressionj < positive number

ða; bÞ

jalgebraic expressionj positive number

½a; b

CHAPTER 2

24

Absolute Value

PRACTICE Solve the inequality and give the solution in interval notation. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

j3x þ 4j < 5 jx 2j > 4 j6 2xj 4 x 4 3 < 2 j8 3xj 5 j 13 x þ 2j < 4

SOLUTIONS 1. 5 < 3x þ 4 < 5 9 < 3x < 1 1 1 3ó 3 < x < 3 3 2. x 2 < 4

x2>4

x < 2

x>6

ð1ó 2Þ [ ð6ó 1Þ

3. 4 6 2x 4 10 2x 2 10 2 2 x 2 2 2 5x1 1x5

½1ó 5

4. x4 3 7x þ 4 < 3 7x < 7 x < 1

7x þ 4 > 3 7x > 1 1 x> 7

1 ð1ó 1Þ [ ó 1 7

Chapter 2 Review 1. 2.

What is the solution for jx 7j ¼ 1? a) x ¼ 8 b) x ¼ 6 and x ¼ 8 c) x ¼ 8 and x ¼ 8 What is the solution for jxj > 4? a) ð4ó 4Þ b) ð4ó 4Þ c) ð4ó 1Þ

d) x ¼ 6

d) ð1ó 4Þ [ ð4ó 1Þ

CHAPTER 2

28 3.

4. 5. 6.

Solve for x: 12 jx 6j 4 ¼ 1. a) x ¼ 12 b) x ¼ 8 and x ¼ 4 no solution

Absolute Value

c) x ¼ 12 and x ¼ 0

d) There is

What is the solution for j2x 3j 1? a) ð1ó 2 b) ð1ó 1 [ ½2ó 1Þ c) ð1ó 1 [ ½1ó 2

d) ½1ó 2

What is the solution for j 12 x þ 5j > 1? a) ð1ó 8Þ [ ð12ó 1Þ b) ð8ó 12Þ c) ð1ó 12Þ [ ð8ó 1Þ

d) ð12ó 8Þ

Solve for x: j3x 1j ¼ 2. a) x ¼ 1 b) x ¼ 1 and x ¼ 13 1 and x ¼ 3

SOLUTIONS 1. b) 2. d)

3. c)

4. d)

5. a)

c) x ¼ 1 and x ¼ 1

6. b)

d) x ¼ 1

3

CHAPTER

The xy Coordinate Plane

The xy coordinate plane (or plane) is made from two number lines. The vertical number line is called the y-axis, and the horizontal number line is called the x-axis. The number lines cross at 0. This point is called the origin. Points on the plane can be located and identiﬁed by coordinates: ðxó yÞ. The ﬁrst number is called the x-coordinate. This number describes how far left or right to go from the origin to locate the point. A negative number tells us that we need to move to the left, and a positive number tells us that we need to move to the right. The second number is called the y-coordinate. This number describes how far up or down to go from the origin to locate the point. A negative number tells us that we need to move down, and a positive number tells us that we need to move up. ðþrightó þupÞ

ðleftó þupÞ ðþrightó downÞ

ðleftó downÞ

29 Copyright © 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click here for terms of use.

CHAPTER 3 The xy Coordinate Plane

30

EXAMPLES * (4, 1) Right 4, up 1 * ð1ó 5Þ Left 1, down 5 * (0, 2) No horizontal

* * *

ð2ó 5Þ Left 2, up 5 ð5ó 3Þ Right 5, down 3 ð3ó 0Þ Left 3, no vertical

movement, up 2

movement

Fig. 3-1.

PRACTICE Describe the horizontal and vertical movement and locate the point on the plane. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

ð4ó 5Þ ð1ó 3Þ ð1ó 4Þ ð2ó 2Þ ð6ó 4Þ ð0ó 3Þ ð4ó 0Þ ð0ó 0Þ

SOLUTIONS 1. ð4ó 5Þ Right 4, up 5

CHAPTER 3 The xy Coordinate Plane

Fig. 3-2.

2.

ð1ó 3Þ Left 1, down 3

Fig. 3-3.

3.

ð1ó 4Þ Right 1, down 4

Fig. 3-4.

31

CHAPTER 3 The xy Coordinate Plane

32 4.

ð2ó 2Þ Right 2, up 2

Fig. 3-5.

5.

ð6ó 4Þ Left 6, up 4

Fig. 3-6.

6.

ð0ó 3Þ No horizontal movement, up 3

Fig. 3-7.

CHAPTER 3 The xy Coordinate Plane 7.

33

ð4ó 0Þ Left 4, no vertical movement

Fig. 3-8.

8.

ð0ó 0Þ No horizontal movement, no vertical movement. These are the coordinates of the origin.

Fig. 3-9.

The Distance Between Two Points At times we need to ﬁnd the distance between two points. If the points are on the same vertical line (the x-coordinates are the same), the distance between the points is the absolute value of the diﬀerence between the y-coordinates. If the points are on the same horizontal line (the y-coordinates are the same), the distance between the points is the absolute value of the diﬀerence between the x-coordinates.

CHAPTER 3 The xy Coordinate Plane

34

EXAMPLES * The distance between ð1ó 4Þ and ð1ó 2Þ is j4 2j ¼ j2j ¼ 2.

Fig. 3-10. *

The distance between ð2ó 3Þ and ð2ó 4Þ is j 4 3j ¼ j 7j ¼ 7.

Fig. 3-11. *

The distance between j 5 þ 1j ¼ j 4j ¼ 4.

ð5ó 3Þ

Fig. 3-12.

and

ð1ó 3Þ

is

j 5 ð1Þj ¼

CHAPTER 3 The xy Coordinate Plane PRACTICE Find the distance between the two points. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

ð5ó 6Þ and ð1ó 6Þ ð4ó 3Þ and ð4ó 8Þ ð1ó 2Þ and ð1ó 9Þ ð3ó 1Þ and ð3ó 4Þ ð6ó 0Þ and ð2ó 0Þ

SOLUTIONS 1. j5 1j ¼ j4j ¼ 4 2. j3 8j ¼ j 5j ¼ 5 3. j2 9j ¼ j 7j ¼ 7 4. j1 ð4Þj ¼ j1 þ 4j ¼ j5j ¼ 5 5. j6 2j ¼ j4j ¼ 4 In the rest of this chapter, we will be working with formulas involving two points. We will call one of them Point 1 with coordinates ðx1 ó y1 Þ and the other Point 2 with coordinates ðx2 ó y2 Þ. Suppose we have two points that are not on the same vertical line or the same horizontal line. By using Pythagoras’ theorem in a clever way, we can ﬁnd the distance between any two points.

Fig. 3-13.

Draw a vertical line through one of the points and a horizontal line through the other. The point where these lines cross will have the x-coordinate of one of the points and the y-coordinate of the other.

35

36

CHAPTER 3 The xy Coordinate Plane

Fig. 3-14.

The three points form a right triangle. The length of the hypotenuse of this triangle is the distance between ðx1 ó y1 Þ and ðx2 ó y2 Þ. We can ﬁnd this length using Pythagoras’ theorem: a2 þ b2 ¼ c2 .

Fig. 3-15.

a ¼ distance between ðx1 ó y1 Þ and ðx2 ó y1 Þ ¼ jx2 x1 j; a2 ¼ jx2 x1 j2 ¼ ðx2 x1 Þ2 ; b ¼ distance between ðx2 ó y1 Þ and ðx2 ó y2 Þ ¼ jy2 y1 j; b2 ¼ 2 2 2 ó yﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ jy2 y1 j2 ¼ ðy2 y1 Þ2 ; c ¼ distance between ðx1p 1 Þ and ðx2 ó y2 Þ; c ¼ a ﬃ þ b or c2 ¼ ðx2 x1 Þ2 þ ðy2 y1 Þ2 . This means c ¼ ðx2 x1 Þ2 þ ðy2 y1 Þ2 . The formula, then, for the distance between two points ðx1 ó y1 Þ and ðx2 ó y2 Þ is pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ﬃ d ¼ ðx2 x1 Þ2 þ ðy2 y1 Þ2 .

CHAPTER 3 The xy Coordinate Plane EXAMPLES Use the distance formula to find the distance between the two points. *

ð1ó 3Þ and ð4ó 7Þ x1 ¼ 1ó y1 ¼ 3ó x2 ¼ 4ó y2 ¼ 7. qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ d ¼ ð4 1Þ2 þ ð7 3Þ2 ¼ 32 þ 42 ¼ 25 ¼ 5

*

ð2ó 5Þ and ð1ó 4Þ x1 ¼ 2ó y1 ¼ 5ó x2 ¼ 1ó y2 ¼ 4 qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ d ¼ ð1 ð2ÞÞ2 þ ð4 5Þ2 ¼ ð1 þ 2Þ2 þ ð4 5Þ2 qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ¼ 32 þ ð1Þ2 ¼ 10

*

ð0ó 7Þ and ð2ó 4Þ x1 ¼ 0ó y1 ¼ 7ó x2 ¼ 2ó y2 ¼ 4 qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ d ¼ ð2 0Þ2 þ ð4 ð7ÞÞ2 ¼ ð2Þ2 þ ð4 þ 7Þ2 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ ¼ 125 ¼ 5 5

*

ð12 ó 4Þ and ð2ó 13Þ x1 ¼ 12 ó y1 ¼ 4ó x2 ¼ 2ó y2 ¼ 13 sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2 1 2 1 4 1 2 1 12 2 d¼ 2 þ 4 ¼ þ 2 3 2 2 3 3 sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2 3 11 2 9 121 ¼ þ þ ¼ 2 3 4 9 rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 81 484 565 ¼ þ ¼ 36 36 36 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 565 565 ¼ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ¼ 6 36

This formula even works for two points on the same horizontal or vertical line. For example, we know the distance between ð3ó 8Þ and ð3ó 6Þ is 2. Let us see what happens in the formula. qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ d ¼ ð3 3Þ2 þ ð6 8Þ2 ¼ 02 þ ð2Þ2 ¼ 4 ¼ 2 PRACTICE Find the distance between the points. 1. 2.

ð1ó 4Þó ð3ó 3Þ ð6ó 4Þó ð2ó 5Þ

37

CHAPTER 3 The xy Coordinate Plane

38 3. 4. 5.

ð0ó 8Þó ð2ó 1Þ ð7ó 3Þó ð5ó 3Þ ð2ó 23Þó ð15 ó 14Þ

SOLUTIONS 1. 2.

qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ d ¼ ð3 ð1ÞÞ2 þ ð3 4Þ2 ¼ ð3 þ 1Þ2 þ ð1Þ2 ¼ 17

qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ d ¼ ð2 6Þ2 þ ð5 ð4ÞÞ2 ¼ ð8Þ2 þ ð5 þ 4Þ2 ¼ 65

3. d¼ 4. d¼ 5.

qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ð2 0Þ2 þ ð1 8Þ2 ¼ 22 þ ð7Þ2 ¼ 53

qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ð5 7Þ2 þ ð3 ð3ÞÞ2 ¼ ð2Þ2 þ ð3 þ 3Þ2 ¼ 2

sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2 1 1 2 2 1 10 2 3 8 2 d¼ þ 2 þ ¼ 5 4 3 5 5 12 12 sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2 9 5 2 81 25 ¼ þ ¼ þ 5 12 25 144 rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 11ó664 625 12ó289 12ó289 þ ¼ ¼ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ¼ 3600 3600 3600 3600 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 12ó289 ¼ 60

Sometimes we are asked to show that groups of points form shapes such as squares and right triangles. We can use the distance formula to show that the distance between the vertices of a square are equal or that the distances between the vertices of a right triangle follow Pythagoras’ theorem. EXAMPLES * Show that the points ð2ó 13 2 Þ, ð1ó 2Þ, and ð4ó 4Þ are the vertices of a right triangle. To use the distance formula on this problem, we need to show that if we square then add the lengths of the two legs (the sides that are not

CHAPTER 3 The xy Coordinate Plane the hypotenuse), this will equal the square of the hypotenuse. While not really necessary, we should plot the points to see which two sides are the legs and which side is the hypotenuse.

Fig. 3-16.

From the graph we can see that a is the distance from ð2ó 13 2 Þ to ð1ó 2Þ; b is the distance from ð1ó 2Þ to ð4ó 4Þ; and c is the distance from ð2ó 13 2Þ to ð4ó 4Þ. sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 13 2 81 117 2 a ¼ ð1 ð2ÞÞ þ 2 ¼ 9þ ¼ 2 4 4 qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ b ¼ ð4 1Þ2 þ ð4 2Þ2 ¼ 9 þ 4 ¼ 13 sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 13 2 25 169 2 c ¼ ð4 ð2ÞÞ þ 4 ¼ 36 þ ¼ 2 4 4 ! rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2 117 117 2 a ¼ ¼ 4 4 b2 ¼

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ2 13 ¼ 13

rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ!2 169 169 c2 ¼ ¼ 4 4

39

CHAPTER 3 The xy Coordinate Plane

40

Is it true that a2 þ b2 ¼ c2 ? a2 þ b2 ¼

*

117 117 52 169 þ 13 ¼ þ ¼ ¼ c2 4 4 4 4

Because a2 þ b2 ¼ c2 is a true statement, ð2ó 13 2 Þó ð1ó 2Þó and ð4ó 4Þ are the vertices of a right triangle. Show that ð2ó 5Þó ð6ó 3Þó and ð2ó 1Þ are the vertices of an isosceles triangle. Two sides of an isosceles triangle have the same length. If we plot the points, we should be able to tell which sides have equal length.

Fig. 3-17.

It appears that sides b and c have equal length, where b ¼ the distance between ð2ó 5Þ and ð6ó 3Þ and c ¼ the distance between ð2ó 1Þ and ð6ó 3Þ. qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ b ¼ ð6 2Þ2 þ ð3 5Þ2 ¼ 16 þ 4 ¼ 20 qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ c ¼ ð6 2Þ2 þ ð3 1Þ2 ¼ 16 þ 4 ¼ 20 Because b ¼ c, the points ð2ó 5Þó ð6ó 3Þó and ð2ó 1Þ are the vertices of an isosceles triangle. PRACTICE 1. Show that ð3ó 1Þó ð10ó 0Þó and ð9ó 7Þ are the vertices of an isosceles triangle. 2. Show that ð3ó 2Þó ð4ó 0Þó and ð1ó 9Þ are the vertices of a right triangle. 3. Show that ð21ó 4Þó ð4ó 3Þó ð9ó 9Þó and ð16ó 8Þ are the vertices of a square.

CHAPTER 3 The xy Coordinate Plane SOLUTIONS 1. It appears that sides b and c are equal.

Fig. 3-18.

b¼

qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ð10 3Þ2 þ ð0 1Þ2 ¼ 49 þ 1 ¼ 50

qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ c ¼ ð9 10Þ2 þ ð7 0Þ2 ¼ 1 þ 49 ¼ 50 Because b ¼ có ð3ó 1Þó ð10ó 0Þó and ð9ó 7Þ are the vertices of an isosceles triangle. 2. We want to show that a2 þ b2 ¼ c2 .

Fig. 3-19.

41

CHAPTER 3 The xy Coordinate Plane

42

qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ a ¼ ð1 ð3ÞÞ2 þ ð9 2Þ2 ¼ ð1 þ 3Þ2 þ 72 ¼

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 4 þ 49 ¼ 53

qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ b ¼ ð3 4Þ2 þ ð2 0Þ2 ¼ ð7Þ2 þ 22 ¼ c¼ ¼ a2 þ b2 ¼

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 49 þ 4 ¼ 53 qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ð1 4Þ2 þ ð9 0Þ2 ¼ ð5Þ2 þ 92 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 25 þ 81 ¼ 106

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ2 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ2 53 þ 53

¼ 106 ¼

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ2 106 ¼ c2

This means that ð3ó 2Þó ð4ó 0Þó and ð1ó 9Þ are the vertices of a right triangle. 3. We want to show that a ¼ b ¼ c ¼ d.

Fig. 3-20.

CHAPTER 3 The xy Coordinate Plane

43

qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ a ¼ ð16 ð21ÞÞ2 þ ð8 4Þ2 qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ¼ ð16 þ 21Þ2 þ ð12Þ2 ¼ 25 þ 144 ¼ 13 qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ b ¼ ð4 ð16ÞÞ2 þ ð3 ð8ÞÞ2 qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ¼ ð4 þ 16Þ2 þ ð3 þ 8Þ2 ¼ 144 þ 25 ¼ 13 qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ c ¼ ð9 ð4ÞÞ2 þ ð9 ð3ÞÞ2 qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ¼ ð9 þ 4Þ2 þ ð9 þ 3Þ2 ¼ 25 þ 144 ¼ 13 qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ d ¼ ð21 ð9ÞÞ2 þ ð4 9Þ2 qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ¼ ð21 þ 9Þ2 þ ð5Þ2 ¼ 144 þ 25 ¼ 13 Because a ¼ b ¼ c ¼ dó ð21ó 4Þó ð4ó 3Þó ð9ó 9Þ and ð16ó 8Þ are the vertices of a square.

The Midpoint Formula To ﬁnd the midpoint between two points ðx1 ó y1 Þ and ðx2 ó y2 Þ use the midpoint formula:

x þ x y þ y 1 2 2 ó 1 : 2 2 This formula is easy to remember if we think of ﬁnding the average of the x-values and the average of the y-values. As with the distance formula, it does not matter which point is called ðx1 ó y1 Þ and which is called ðx2 ó y2 Þ. EXAMPLES Find the midpoint between the given points. *

ð1ó 3Þ and ð4ó 7Þ

1þ4 3þ7 5 ó ó5 ¼ 2 2 2

CHAPTER 3 The xy Coordinate Plane

44 *

ð2ó 5Þ and ð1ó 4Þ

*

*

2 þ 1 5 þ 4 1 9 ó ¼ ó 2 2 2 2

ð0ó 7Þ and ð2ó 4Þ 0 þ ð2Þ 7 þ 4 3 ó ¼ 1ó 2 2 2 ð12 ó 4Þ and ð2ó 13Þ ð1=2Þ þ 2 4 þ ð1=3Þ 5=2 13=3 ó ó ¼ 2 2 2 2 5 13 5 1 13 1 2ó 2 ¼ ó ¼ 2 3 2 2 3 2 5 13 ¼ ó 4 6

PRACTICE Find the midpoint between the points. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

(3, 5) and (1, 2) (1, 4) and (3, 3) (6, 4) and (2, 5) (0, 8) and (2, 1) (7, 3) and (5, 3)

SOLUTIONS 1.

3þ1 5þ2 7 ¼ 2ó ó 2 2 2

2. 1 þ 3 4 þ 3 7 ó ¼ 1ó 2 2 2 3.

6 þ ð2Þ 4 þ ð5Þ 9 ó ¼ 2ó 2 2 2

CHAPTER 3 The xy Coordinate Plane

45

4.

0þ2 8þ1 9 ó ¼ 1ó 2 2 2

5.

7 þ 5 3 þ ð3Þ ó ¼ ð6ó 3Þ 2 2

Circles An equation with two variables can be graphed on the xy-plane. Think of a graph as a ‘‘picture’’ of all solutions to the equation. Every point on the graph is a solution to the equation and every solution to the equation is a point on the graph. For example, in the equation x þ y ¼ 5, any pair of numbers whose sum is 5 will be on the graph of the equation. Some of those pairs of numbers are (0, 5), (1, 4), (3, 2), (4, 1), (5, 0), (6, 1), (7, 2), ð4, 9), (10, 5), (4 12 ó 12), and ( 12 ó 5 12). Now let us plot them.

Fig. 3-21.

All of these points lie on a line. For this reason, equations like x þ y ¼ 5 are called linear equations. If we were to draw a line through these points, the sum of the coordinates for every point on the line would be 5.

CHAPTER 3 The xy Coordinate Plane

46

Graphing equations will be a major part of this book. We will learn how to choose points to plot so that we get a good idea of what an equation’s graph looks like with a minimum amount of work. Every point on a circle is the same distance from the center of the circle. That distance is called the radius. This fact along with the distance formula will allow us to discover a formula for the circle in the xy-plane. Call the center of the circle ðhó kÞ. That is, the x-coordinate of the circle is h and the y-coordinate is k. Call the radius of the circle r. A point ðxó yÞ is on the circle if its distance from ðhó kÞ is r. When we put this information in the distance formula, it becomes qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ðx hÞ2 þ ðy kÞ2 ¼ r: If we square both sides of this equation, we get ðx hÞ2 þ ðy kÞ2 ¼ r2 : This is the formula for a circle in the xy-plane with radius r and center ðhó kÞ. When we are given the center and radius of a circle, we only need to put these three numbers, hó kó r, in the formula to get an equation for that circle. EXAMPLES Find an equation of the circle with the given radius and center. *

Center ð1ó 4Þ, radius 3. Here h ¼ 1ó k ¼ 4ó r ¼ 3ó r2 ¼ 9 and ðx hÞ2 þ ðy kÞ2 ¼ r2 becomes ðx 1Þ2 þ ðy 4Þ2 ¼ 9

*

Center ð0ó 9Þ, radius 4. h ¼ 0ó k ¼ 9ó r ¼ 4ó r2 ¼ 16 ðx 0Þ2 þ ðy 9Þ2 ¼ 16 We want to simplify ðx 0Þ2 to x2 . x2 þ ðy 9Þ2 ¼ 16

*

Center ð3ó 2Þ, radius 12. h ¼ 3ó k ¼ 2ó r ¼ 12 ó r2 ¼ 14 ðx 3Þ2 þ ðy 2Þ2 ¼

1 4

CHAPTER 3 The xy Coordinate Plane *

Center ð2ó 1Þ, radius r ¼ 6 h ¼ 2ó k ¼ 1ó r ¼ 6ó r2 ¼ 36 ðx ð2ÞÞ2 þ ðy 1Þ2 ¼ 36 We want to simplify ðx ð2ÞÞ2 to ðx þ 2Þ2 . ðx þ 2Þ2 þ ðy 1Þ2 ¼ 36

PRACTICE Find an equation of the circle with the given center and radius. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Center Center Center Center Center Center Center

ð5ó 3Þ, radius 2 ð4ó 1Þ, radius 7 ð3ó 6Þ, radius 1 ð0ó 2Þ, radius 3 ð0ó 0Þ, radius 5 ð4ó 1Þ, radius 2 ð5ó 2Þ, radius 8

SOLUTIONS 1. h ¼ 5ó k ¼ 3ó r ¼ 2ó r2 ¼ 4 ðx 5Þ2 þ ðy 3Þ2 ¼ 4 2.

h ¼ 4ó k ¼ 1ó r ¼ 7ó r2 ¼ 49 ðx 4Þ2 þ ðy 1Þ2 ¼ 49

3.

h ¼ 3ó k ¼ 6ó r ¼ 1ó r2 ¼ 1 ðx 3Þ2 þ ðy 6Þ2 ¼ 1

4.

h ¼ 0ó k ¼ 2ó r ¼ 3ó r2 ¼ 9 ðx 0Þ2 þ ðy 2Þ2 ¼ 9 x2 þ ðy 2Þ2 ¼ 9

47

CHAPTER 3 The xy Coordinate Plane

48 5.

h ¼ 0ó k ¼ 0ó r ¼ 5ó r2 ¼ 25 ðx 0Þ2 þ ðy 0Þ2 ¼ 25 x2 þ y2 ¼ 25

6.

h ¼ 4ó k ¼ 1ó r ¼ 2ó r2 ¼ 4 ðx 4Þ2 þ ðy ð1ÞÞ2 ¼ 4 ðx 4Þ2 þ ðy þ 1Þ2 ¼ 4

7.

h ¼ 5ó k ¼ 2ó r ¼ 8ó r2 ¼ 64 ðx ð5ÞÞ2 þ ðy ð2ÞÞ2 ¼ 64 ðx þ 5Þ2 þ ðy þ 2Þ2 ¼ 64

When the equation of a circle is in the form ðx hÞ2 þ ðy kÞ2 ¼ r2 , we have a good idea of what it looks like. If h, k, and r are integers we can even graph the circle with practically no work. We can mark the center and go up, down, left, and right r units to get four points on the circle. Next draw a circle through these four points. Then we will erase the mark for the center because the center is not really on the circle. EXAMPLE Consider the equation ðx 2Þ2 þ ðy þ 1Þ2 ¼ 4. The center of the circle is at ð2ó 1Þ and the radius is 2.

Fig. 3-22.

CHAPTER 3 The xy Coordinate Plane

Fig. 3-23.

PRACTICE Identify the center and radius and graph the circle. 1. 2. 3. 4.

ðx 3Þ2 þ ðy 2Þ2 ¼ 9 ðx þ 1Þ2 þ ðy þ 3Þ2 ¼ 4 ðx 4Þ2 þ y2 ¼ 1 x2 þ y2 ¼ 16

SOLUTIONS 1. Center = ð3ó 2Þ, radius = 3

Fig. 3-24.

49

CHAPTER 3 The xy Coordinate Plane

50 2.

Center = ð1ó 3Þ, radius = 2

Fig. 3-25.

3.

Center = ð4ó 0Þ, radius = 1

Fig. 3-26.

4.

Center = ð0ó 0Þ, radius = 4

Fig. 3-27.

CHAPTER 3 The xy Coordinate Plane We can ﬁnd an equation of a circle without directly knowing its center and radius. When given the endpoints of a diameter (a line segment that stretches the full width of a circle), we can ﬁnd the center of the circle by ﬁnding the midpoint of the diameter. Once we know ðhó kÞ, we can use the coordinates of one of the points for x and y in the equation ðx hÞ2 þ ðy kÞ2 ¼ r2 to ﬁnd r2 . EXAMPLES * The endpoints of a diameter of a circle are ð2ó 4Þ and ð8ó 12Þ. Find an equation of the circle. The center of the circle can be found by ﬁnding the midpoint of ð2ó 4Þ and ð8ó 12Þ.

x þ x y þ y 2 þ 8 4 þ 12 2 2 ¼ ð5ó 8Þ ðhó kÞ ¼ 1 ó ó 1 ¼ 2 2 2 2 So far, we know that the equation is ðx 5Þ2 þ ðy 8Þ2 ¼ r2 . To ﬁnd r2 , we will use the endpoint ð2ó 4Þ. (The endpoint ð8ó 12Þ would also work.) We will substitute x ¼ 2 and y ¼ 4 in the equation and solve for r2 . ðx 5Þ2 þ ðy 8Þ2 ¼ r2 ð2 5Þ2 þ ð4 8Þ2 ¼ r2 ð3Þ2 þ ð4Þ2 ¼ r2 9 þ 16 ¼ r2 25 ¼ r2

*

An equation of the circle is ðx 5Þ2 þ ðy 8Þ2 ¼ 25. A circle has center ð4ó 3Þ and the point ð2ó 11Þ is on the circle. Find an equation of the circle. Because ð4ó 3Þ is the center, we already know the equation is ðx þ 4Þ2 þ ðy 3Þ2 ¼ r2 . Let x ¼ 2 and y ¼ 11 in this equation to ﬁnd r2 . ð2 þ 4Þ2 þ ð11 3Þ2 ¼ r2 62 þ 82 ¼ r2 100 ¼ r2 An equation for the circle is ðx þ 4Þ2 þ ðy 3Þ2 ¼ 100:

51

CHAPTER 3 The xy Coordinate Plane

52

PRACTICE Use the information given about the circle to find its equation. 1. 2. 3. 4.

A diameter to the circle has endpoints ð2ó 1Þ and ð4ó 9Þ. A diameter to the circle has endpoints ð0ó 4Þ and ð12ó 9Þ. The center of the circle has coordinates ð1ó 8Þ and the point ð13ó 13Þ is on the circle. The center of the circle is ð5ó 0Þ and ð5ó 6Þ is on the circle.

SOLUTIONS 1. The midpoint will be the center of the circle. 2 þ ð4Þ 1 þ 9 ó ¼ ð1ó 5Þ ðhó kÞ ¼ 2 2 So far, we know the equation is ðx þ 1Þ2 þ ðy 5Þ2 ¼ r2 . We could use either ð2ó 1Þ or ð4ó 9Þ in the equation to ﬁnd r2 . Here, ð2ó 1Þ will be used. ð2 þ 1Þ2 þ ð1 5Þ2 ¼ r2 9 þ 16 ¼ r2 25 ¼ r2 The equation is ðx þ 1Þ2 þ ðy 5Þ2 ¼ 25. 2. The midpoint will be the center of the circle. 0 þ ð12Þ 4 þ 9 13 ¼ 6ó ó ðhó kÞ ¼ 2 2 2 2 2 So far, we know the equation is ðx þ 6Þ2 þ ðy 13 2 Þ ¼ r . We will use 2 ð0ó 4Þ to ﬁnd r . 13 2 ¼ r2 ð0 þ 6Þ þ 4 2 2 5 2 6 þ ¼ r2 2 25 36 þ ¼ r2 4 169 ¼ r2 4 2 169 The equation is ðx þ 6Þ2 þ ðy 13 2Þ ¼ 4 .

CHAPTER 3 The xy Coordinate Plane 3.

The center of the circle is (1, 8) . This means that the circle equation begins as ðx 1Þ2 þ ðy 8Þ2 ¼ r2 . We will use ð13ó 13Þ to ﬁnd r2 . ð13 1Þ2 þ ð13 8Þ2 ¼ r2 144 þ 25 ¼ r2 169 ¼ r2

The equation is ðx 1Þ2 þ ðy 8Þ2 ¼ 169. 4. Because the center is ð5ó 0Þ, we know the equation begins as ðx 5Þ2 þ y2 ¼ r2 . We will use ð5ó 6Þ to ﬁnd r2 . ð5 5Þ2 þ 62 ¼ r2 100 þ 36 ¼ r2 136 ¼ r2 The equation is ðx 5Þ þ y2 ¼ 136. Equations of circles are not always written in the form ðx hÞ2 þ ðy kÞ2 ¼ r2 . For example, the equation ðx 2Þ2 þ ðy þ 3Þ2 ¼ 16 might be written in its expanded form. ðx 2Þ2 þ ðy þ 3Þ2 ¼ 16 ðx 2Þðx 2Þ þ ðy þ 3Þðy þ 3Þ ¼ 16 x2 4x þ 4 þ y2 þ 6y þ 9 ¼ 16

After using the FOIL method

x2 þ y2 4x þ 6y 3 ¼ 0 In the following, we will be given equations like the one above and use completing the square to rewrite them in the form ðx hÞ2 þ ðy kÞ2 ¼ r2 . EXAMPLES * x2 þ y2 12x þ 4y þ 36 ¼ 0 For the ﬁrst step, move the constant term (the number without a variable) to the right side of the equation, writing the left side with the x-terms together and the y-terms together. x2 12x þ y2 þ 4y ¼ 36

53

CHAPTER 3 The xy Coordinate Plane

54

Next, we will complete the square for the x-terms and the y-terms and will add both numbers to each side of the equation. x2 12x þ 36 þ y2 þ 4y þ 4 ¼ 36 þ 36 þ 4 In the last step, we will write the left side of the equation as the sum 2 2 of þ 36 ¼ ðx pﬃﬃﬃ Þ , we will use pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃtwo perfect 2squares. For x 12x 2 36 ¼ 6. For y þ 4y þ 4 ¼ ðy þ Þ , we will use 4 ¼ 2. ðx 6Þ2 þ ðy þ 2Þ2 ¼ 4

*

Now we can see that this equation is an equation of a circle which has center ð6ó 2Þ and radius 2. x2 þ y2 8x 4y ¼ 11 x2 8x þ þ y2 4y þ ¼ 11 þ 2 2 8 4 ¼ 16 and ¼4 2 2

þ

x2 8x þ 16 þ y2 4y þ 4 ¼ 11 þ 16 þ 4 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ¼ﬃﬃﬃðx Þ2 , we will use 16 ¼ 4. For y2 4y þ 4 ¼ For x2 8x þ 16 p ðy Þ2 , we use 4 ¼ 2. ðx 4Þ2 þ ðy 2Þ2 ¼ 9 *

x2 þ y2 2y 14 ¼ 0 Because x2 already is a perfect square, we only need to complete the square on the y-terms. x2 þ y2 2y þ ¼ 14 þ 2 2 ¼1 2 x2 þ y2 2y þ 1 ¼ 14 þ 1 pﬃﬃﬃ For y2 2y þ 1 ¼ ðy Þ2 we will use 1 ¼ 1 x2 þ ðy 1Þ2 ¼ 15

*

59 x2 þ y2 x þ 45 y 100 ¼0

It might be tempting to clear the fraction on this problem (that is, to multiply both sides of the equation by the least common denominator).

CHAPTER 3 The xy Coordinate Plane This will not work because the coeﬃcients of x2 and y2 must be 1 when completing the square. 1 4 4 59 1 4 þ þ x2 x þ þ y2 þ y þ ¼ 4 5 25 100 4 25 59 1 4 59 25 16 100 þ þ ¼ þ þ ¼ ¼1 100 4 25 100 100 100 100 1 2 2 2 þ yþ ¼1 x 2 5 PRACTICE Complete the square to find the center and radius of the circle. 1. 2. 3. 4.

x2 þ y2 14x 10y þ 68 ¼ 0 x2 þ y2 þ 4x 8y þ 11 ¼ 0 x2 þ y2 12x ¼ 21 x2 þ y2 32 x þ 6y 247 16 ¼ 0

SOLUTIONS 1. x2 14x þ

þ y2 10y þ

¼ 68 þ

þ

x2 14x þ 49 þ y2 10y þ 25 ¼ 68 þ 49 þ 25 ðx 7Þ2 þ ðy 5Þ2 ¼ 6 pﬃﬃﬃ The center is ð7ó 5Þ and the radius is 6. 2. x2 þ 4x þ þ y2 8y þ ¼ 11 þ þ x2 þ 4x þ 4 þ y2 8y þ 16 ¼ 11 þ 4 þ 16 ðx þ 2Þ2 þ ðy 4Þ2 ¼ 9

3.

The center is ð2ó 4Þ and the radius is 3. x2 12x þ þ y2 ¼ 21 þ x2 12x þ 36 þ y2 ¼ 21 þ 36 ðx 6Þ2 þ y2 ¼ 15 The center is ð6ó 0Þ and the radius is

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 15.

55

CHAPTER 3 The xy Coordinate Plane

56 4.

x2 32 x þ

þ y2 þ 6y þ

¼ 247 16 þ

þ

3 9 247 9 x2 x þ þ y2 þ 6y þ 9 ¼ þ þ9 2 16 16 16 247 9 247 9 144 400 þ þ9¼ þ þ ¼ ¼ 25 16 16 16 16 16 16 3 2 þðy þ 3Þ2 ¼ 25 x 4 The center is ð34 ó 3Þ and the radius is 5. Sometimes the coeﬃcient of x2 and y2 is not 1. In this case, we must divide both sides of the equation by this number before completing the square. It is worth mentioning that in equations of circles, x2 and y2 will always have the same coeﬃcient. If the coeﬃcients are diﬀerent, the graph of the equation will not be a circle. EXAMPLE 3x2 þ 3y2 30x 12y þ 84 ¼ 0 1 1 2 3x þ 3y2 30x 12y ¼ ð84Þ 3 3 x2 þ y2 10x 4y ¼ 28 x2 10x þ

þ y2 4y þ

¼ 28 þ

þ

x2 10x þ 25 þ y2 4y þ 4 ¼ 28 þ 25 þ 4 ðx 5Þ2 þ ðy 2Þ2 ¼ 1

Chapter 3 Review 1.

What 4Þ and ð2ó 9Þ? pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃis the distance between ð3ó pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ a) 24 b) 4 c) 24 d) 26

2.

What are the center and radius of the circle whose equation is x2 þ ðy þ 1Þ2 ¼ 5? a) The center is ð0ó 1Þ, and the radius is 5. pﬃﬃﬃ b) The center is ð0ó 1Þ, and the radius is 5. c) The center is ð0ó 1Þ, and the radius is 5. pﬃﬃﬃ d) The center is ð0ó 1Þ, and the radius is 5.

CHAPTER 3 The xy Coordinate Plane 3.

What are the center and radius of the circle whose equation is x2 þ y2 þ 6x 8y ¼ 75? pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ a) The center is ð3ó 4Þ, and the radius is 75. b) The center is ð3ó 4Þ, and the radius is 10. pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ c) The center is ð3ó 4Þ, and the radius is 75. d) The center is ð3ó 4Þ, and the radius is 10.

4.

TRUE OR FALSE: ð3ó 14Þ, ð10ó 3Þ, ð15ó 9Þ, ð2ó 2Þ are the vertices of a square. a) True b) False c) Cannot be determined

5.

What is the midpoint between the points ð3ó 2Þ and ð1ó 6Þ? b) ð2ó 2Þ c) ð1ó 4Þ d) ð 52 ó 52Þ a) ð 12 ó 72Þ

6.

What is an equation of the circle which has a diameter with endpoints ð6ó 1Þ and ð2ó 5Þ? bÞ ðx 6Þ2 þ ðy þ 1Þ2 ¼ 16 aÞ ðx 4Þ2 þ ðy þ 3Þ2 ¼ 8 2 2 cÞ ðx 2Þ þ ðy þ 5Þ ¼ 16 dÞ ðx 2Þ2 þ ðy 2Þ2 ¼ 17

SOLUTIONS 1. d) 2. d)

3. b)

4. a)

5. c)

6. a)

57

4

CHAPTER

Lines and Parabolas

The graph to an equation of the form Ax þ By ¼ C will be a line. An equation that can be put in this form is called a linear equation. We only need two points to graph a line. It does not matter which two points, but we will choose points that would be easy to graph. If A and B are each nonzero, we can pick two x-values at random. We will put them into the equation to compute the y-values. EXAMPLES * 2x þ 3y ¼ 6 We can choose any two numbers for x. Here we will use x ¼ 0 and x ¼ 6. 2ð0Þ þ 3y ¼ 6

2ð6Þ þ 3y ¼ 6

3y ¼ 6

12 þ 3y ¼ 0

y¼2

3y ¼ 6 y ¼ 2

58 Copyright © 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click here for terms of use.

CHAPTER 4 Lines and Parabolas

59

Plot ð0ó 2Þ and ð6ó 2Þ.

Fig. 4-1. *

4x y ¼ 7 We will use x ¼ 0 and x ¼ 2. 4ð0Þ y ¼ 7

4ð2Þ y ¼ 7

y ¼ 7

8y¼7

y ¼ 7

y ¼ 1 y¼1

Plot ð0ó 7Þ and ð2ó 1Þ.

Fig. 4-2.

PRACTICE Find the y-values for the given x-values and use the two points to plot the line. 1.

3x þ y ¼ 5ó x ¼ 0 and x ¼ 1

CHAPTER 4

60 2. 3. 4.

Lines and Parabolas

2x þ 4y ¼ 8ó x ¼ 0 and x ¼ 2 x 4y ¼ 12ó x ¼ 0 and x ¼ 4 3x þ 4y ¼ 6ó x ¼ 0 and x ¼ 4

SOLUTIONS 1. Put x ¼ 0 and x ¼ 1 in 3x þ y ¼ 5 to ﬁnd y. 3ð0Þ þ y ¼ 5

3ð1Þ þ y ¼ 5

y¼5

3þy¼5 y¼2

Plot ð0ó 5Þ and ð1ó 2Þ.

Fig. 4-3.

2.

Put x ¼ 0 and x ¼ 2 in 2x þ 4y ¼ 8 to ﬁnd y. 2ð0Þ þ 4y ¼ 8

2ð2Þ þ 4y ¼ 8

4y ¼ 8

4 þ 4y ¼ 8

y¼2

4y ¼ 12 y¼3

CHAPTER 4 Lines and Parabolas Plot ð0ó 2Þ and ð2ó 3Þ.

Fig. 4-4.

3.

Put x ¼ 0 and x ¼ 4 in x 4y ¼ 12 to ﬁnd y. 0 4y ¼ 12 y ¼ 3

4 4y ¼ 12 4y ¼ 8 y ¼ 2

Plot ð0ó 3Þ and ð4ó 2Þ

Fig. 4-5.

61

CHAPTER 4

62 4.

Lines and Parabolas

Put x ¼ 0 and x ¼ 4 in 3x þ 4y ¼ 6 to ﬁnd y. 3ð0Þ þ 4y ¼ 6 6 4 3 y¼ 2 y¼

3ð4Þ þ 4y ¼ 6 12 þ 4y ¼ 6 4y ¼ 6 þ 12 ¼ 6 y¼

Plot ð0ó 32Þ and ð4ó 32Þ.

6 3 ¼ 4 2

Fig. 4-6.

You might have noticed that x ¼ 0 was selected for one of the points in all of the previous examples and practice problems. This point was chosen for two reasons: one, computing y is easier if x ¼ 0; and two, it is an important point in its own right. A point on a graph whose x-coordinate is 0 is called a y-intercept. This is where the graph touches the y-axis. Many of the graphs in this book will have exactly one y-intercept. Some graphs have more than one y-intercept and some have none. See the ﬁgures below.

Fig. 4-7.

CHAPTER 4 Lines and Parabolas

Fig. 4-8.

The y-coordinate is 0 for points on the graph that touch the x-axis. This point is called the x-intercept. Some of the graphs in this book will have exactly one x-intercept, some will have more than one, and still others will not have any.

Fig. 4-9.

Fig. 4-10.

63

CHAPTER 4

64

Lines and Parabolas

Fig. 4-11.

One way to ﬁnd the intercepts is by looking at the graph. Rather than say ðaó 0Þ is an x-intercept, we say for short that a is an x-intercept. The x-intercept in Fig. 4-9 is 1 and the y-intercept is 1. The x-intercepts in Fig. 4-11 are 2ó 1, and 3. The y-intercept is 6. PRACTICE Find the x- and y-intercepts on the graphs. 1.

Fig. 4-12.

The x-intercept(s) is/are ___ The y-intercept(s) is/are ___

CHAPTER 4 Lines and Parabolas 2.

Fig. 4-13.

The x-intercept(s) is/are ___ The y-intercept(s) is/are ___ 3.

Fig. 4-14.

The x-intercept(s) is/are ___ The y-intercept(s) is/are ___ SOLUTIONS 1. The x-intercept is 2, and the y-intercept is 3. 2. The x-intercepts are 1 and 3, and the y-intercept is 3. 3. The x-intercepts are 3 and 3, and the y-intercepts are 3 and 3.

65

CHAPTER 4

66

Lines and Parabolas

Intercepts can be found without looking at the graph. We can ﬁnd the intercepts algebraically (if an equation has intercepts), by substituting 0 for one of the variables and solving for the other variable. To ﬁnd the x-intercept, let y ¼ 0 and solve for x. To ﬁnd the y-intercept, let x ¼ 0 and solve for y. EXAMPLES * 2x þ 3y ¼ 6

*

y¼0

x¼0

2x þ 3ð0Þ ¼ 6

2ð0Þ þ 3y ¼ 6

2x ¼ 6

3y ¼ 6

x¼3

y¼2

The x-intercept is 3, and the y-intercept is 2. y ¼ x2 x 2 y¼0 x2 x 2 ¼ 0 ðx 2Þðx þ 1Þ ¼ 0

x¼0 y ¼ 02 0 2 y ¼ 2

x 2 ¼ 0 and x þ 1 ¼ 0 x¼2

*

and x ¼ 1

The x-intercepts are 2 and 1, and the y-intercept is 2. x2 þ y2 ¼ 16 y¼0

x¼0

x2 þ 02 ¼ 16

02 þ y2 ¼ 16

x2 ¼ 16

y2 ¼ 16

x ¼ 4

y ¼ 4

The x-intercepts are 4 and 4, and the y-intercepts are 4 and 4.

CHAPTER 4 Lines and Parabolas *

67

y ¼ ðx þ 8Þ=ðx 2Þ The only way a fraction can be zero is if the numerator is zero. Here the numerator is x þ 8, so we will solve x þ 8 ¼ 0 to ﬁnd the x-intercept. y¼0 xþ8¼0 x ¼ 8

x¼0 y¼

0þ8 02

y ¼ 4

The x-intercept is 8, and the y-intercept is 4. PRACTICE Find the x- and y-intercepts algebraically. 1. 2. 3. 4.

x 2y ¼ 4 y ¼ 3x 12 y ¼ x2 þ 3x 4 xþ6 y¼ x þ 12

SOLUTIONS 1. x 2y ¼ 4 x 2ð0Þ ¼ 4

0 2y ¼ 4

x¼4

2y ¼ 4 y ¼ 2

2.

The x-intercept is 4, and the y-intercept is 2. y ¼ 3x 12 3x 12 ¼ 0 3x ¼ 12

y ¼ 3ð0Þ 12 y ¼ 12

x¼4 The x-intercept is 4, and the y-intercept is 12.

CHAPTER 4

68 3.

y ¼ x2 þ 3x 4 x2 þ 3x 4 ¼ 0

y ¼ 02 þ 3ð0Þ 4

ðx þ 4Þðx 1Þ ¼ 0 xþ4¼0

y ¼ 4

and x 1 ¼ 0

x ¼ 4

4.

Lines and Parabolas

and x ¼ 1

The x-intercepts are 4 and 1, and the y-intercept is 4. y ¼ ðx þ 6Þ=ðx þ 12Þ When ﬁnding the x-intercept, we only need to solve x þ 6 ¼ 0 because the only way a fraction can be zero is if its numerator is zero. xþ6¼0 x ¼ 6

y¼

0þ6 0 þ 12

y¼

6 1 ¼ 12 2

The x-intercept is 6, and the y-intercept is 12. We can tell whether or not a graph has intercepts by looking at it. What happens if we do not have the graph? A graph will not have an x-intercept if when we let y ¼ 0 in its equation we do not get a real number solution. A graph will not have a y-intercept if when we let x ¼ 0 in its equation we do not get a real number solution. EXAMPLES

Fig. 4-15.

CHAPTER 4 Lines and Parabolas

69

The graph of y ¼ x2 þ 4 in Fig. 4-15 does not have any x-intercepts. Let us see what happens if we try to find the x-intercepts algebraically. x2 þ 4 ¼ 0 x2 ¼ 4 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ x ¼ 4

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 4 is not a real number, so the equation x2 þ 4 ¼ 0 does not have any real solution.

Fig. 4-16.

The graph of y ¼ 1=x in Fig. 4-16 does not have any intercepts at all. y¼0

x¼0

1 1 ¼0 ¼y x 0 As was mentioned earlier, a fraction can equal zero only if the numerator is zero. The equation 1=x ¼ 0 has no solution because the fraction is zero but the numerator, 1, is never zero. This shows that the graph of y ¼ 1=x has no x-intercept. The equation 1=0 ¼ y has no solution because 1=0 is not a number. This shows that the graph of y ¼ 1=x has no y-intercept, either.

The Slope of a Line Another important part of a line is its slope. The slope is a measure of a line’s tilt. Some lines have steep slopes and others have more gradual slopes. A line that tilts upward will have a diﬀerent slope than one that tilts downward.

70

CHAPTER 4

Lines and Parabolas

A line has a steep slope if a small horizontal change results in a large vertical change.

Fig. 4-17.

A line has a more gradual slope if a large horizontal change results in a small vertical change.

Fig. 4-18.

The slope of a line is measured by a number. This number is a quotient (a fraction) where the vertical change is divided by the horizontal change. In Fig. 4-17, to move from one point to the other, we had a vertical change of down 4 and a horizontal change of 1. This means that the slope of the line 4x þ y ¼ 8 is 4 1 . In Fig. 4-18, to move from one point to the other, we moved up 1 and to the right 5. The slope to the line x 5y ¼ 10 is 15. One of the convenient things about the slope of a line is that it does not matter which two points we use—the quotient of the vertical change to the horizontal change will be the same. Suppose we use two other points on the line 4x þ y ¼ 8. If we moved from ð4ó 24Þ to ð2ó 0Þ, then we would go down

CHAPTER 4 Lines and Parabolas 4 24 (a change of 24) and to the right 6. This quotient is 24 6 ¼ 1 , the same as with the two points in Fig. 4-17. This idea leads us to the slope formula. This formula is important and is worth memorizing. If ðx1 ó y1 Þ and ðx2 ó y2 Þ are two points on a line, then the slope, m, of the line is the number

m¼

y2 y1 vertical change : ¼ x2 x1 horizontal change

EXAMPLES Find the slope of the line using the given points. *

2x þ 3y ¼ 6 ð0ó 2Þ and ð3ó 0Þ Here ðx1 ó y1 Þ ¼ ð0ó 2Þ and ðx2 ó y2 Þ ¼ ð3ó 0Þ. m¼

0 ð2Þ 2 2 ¼ ¼ 3 0 3 3

It does not matter which point we call ðx1 ó y1 Þ and which we call ðx2 ó y2 Þ. We will compute m with ðx1 ó y1 Þ ¼ ð3ó 0Þ and ðx2 ó y2 Þ ¼ ð0ó 2Þ. m¼ *

3x y ¼ 4

ð1ó 1Þ and ð2ó 10Þ m¼

*

2 0 2 2 ¼ ¼ 0 ð3Þ 3 3

10 ð1Þ 9 3 ¼ ¼ ¼3 2 1 3 1

Normally, when the denominator is 1, we write the slope as an integer. x 2y ¼ 2 ð4ó 3Þ and ð2ó 0Þ m¼

03 3 1 ¼ ¼ 2 4 6 2

PRACTICE Find the slope of the line using the given points. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

2x þ 3y ¼ 12 ð0ó 4Þ and ð3ó 6Þ 2x y ¼ 1 ð0ó 1Þ and ð1ó 1Þ xy¼4 ð3ó 1Þ and ð2ó 2Þ x þ 2y ¼ 6 ð2ó 2Þ and ð4ó 5Þ 3x 5y ¼ 10 ð10ó 4Þ and ð5ó 1Þ

71

CHAPTER 4

72

Lines and Parabolas

SOLUTIONS 1. m¼

6 ð4Þ 2 2 ¼ ¼ 30 3 3

2. m¼

1 ð1Þ 2 ¼ ¼2 10 1

3. m¼

2 ð1Þ 1 ¼ ¼1 23 1

m¼

52 3 1 ¼ ¼ 4 2 6 2

4.

5. m¼

14 3 3 ¼ ¼ 5 10 5 5

Horizontal and Vertical Lines The y-values of a horizontal line are the same number. The equation of a horizontal line is in the form y ¼ number.

Fig. 4-19.

CHAPTER 4 Lines and Parabolas What would the slope of a horizontal line be? No matter which two points we choose, their y-values will be the same. This means that y1 and y2 will be equal, so y2 y1 ¼ 0. m¼

y2 y1 0 ¼ ¼0 x2 x1 x2 x1

The slope of any horizontal line is 0. The x-values of a vertical line are the same number. The equation of a vertical line is in the form x ¼ number.

Fig. 4-20.

Because all of the x-values on a vertical line are the same, x2 and x1 are the same. This means that the denominator of the slope of a vertical line is 0, so the slope is undeﬁned. m¼

y2 y1 y2 y1 ¼ x2 x1 0

In addition to saying that the slope of a vertical line is undeﬁned, we also say it does not exist. To say that the slope of a line does not exist is not the same as saying that the slope is 0. The slope of horizontal line is 0; the slope of a vertical line does not exist. PRACTICE Graph each line. State whether the slope is zero or does not exist. 1. 2. 3.

x¼1 y¼4 x ¼ 32

73

CHAPTER 4

74 SOLUTIONS 1.

Fig. 4-21.

2.

Fig. 4-22.

3.

Fig. 4-23.

Lines and Parabolas

CHAPTER 4 Lines and Parabolas

75

Two points on a line not only allow us to graph the line, they also give us enough information to ﬁnd an equation for the line. First, we need to use the slope formula to ﬁnd the slope of the line. Second, we need to use the slope and one of the points in the point–slope formula. y y1 ¼ mðx x1 Þ This formula comes directly from the slope formula. All that was done to the slope formula was to replace ðx2 ó y2 Þ with ðxó yÞ and to clear the fraction. m¼

y y1 x x1

ðx x1 Þm ¼ ðx x1 Þ

y y1 x x1

ðx x1 Þm ¼ y y1 y y1 ¼ mðx x1 Þ In the following examples and practice problems, we will be putting linear equations in the general form Ax þ By ¼ C, where Aó Bó and C are integers and A is not negative. EXAMPLES Find the equation of the line containing the given points. *

ð3ó 5Þ and ð6ó 13Þ First ﬁnd the slope of the line containing these points. m¼

13 5 18 ¼ ¼2 6 3 9

We can use either ð3ó 5Þ or ð6ó 13Þ as ðx1 ó y1 Þ in the point–slope formula. If we use ð3ó 5Þ, y y1 ¼ mðx x1 Þ becomes y 5 ¼ 2ðx 3Þ Now we will put this equation in the general form. y 5 ¼ 2ðx 3Þ y 5 ¼ 2x 6

We need x and y on the same side.

2x þ y ¼ 1 ð2x þ yÞ ¼ ð1Þ 2x y ¼ 1

A needs to be positive.

CHAPTER 4

76

Lines and Parabolas

To see that it does not matter which point we choose for ðx1 ó y1 Þ, we will ﬁnd this equation using ð6ó 13Þ. y ð13Þ ¼ 2ðx ð6ÞÞ y þ 13 ¼ 2x þ 12 2x þ y ¼ 1 2x y ¼ 1 *

ð4ó 0Þ and ð0ó 4Þ (These are the intercepts.) m¼

40 4 ¼ ¼1 0 ð4Þ 4

Use ð4ó 0Þ as ðx1 ó y1 Þ. y 0 ¼ 1ðx ð4ÞÞ y¼xþ4 x þ y ¼ 4 x y ¼ 4 *

ð3ó 2Þ and ð6ó 1Þ m¼

1 ð2Þ 3 1 ¼ ¼ 6 ð3Þ 9 3

Use ð3ó 2Þ as ðx1 ó y1 Þ. 1 y ð2Þ ¼ ðx ð3ÞÞ 3 1 y þ 2 ¼ ðx þ 3Þ 3 1 3 ðx þ 3Þ 3ðy þ 2Þ ¼ 3 3y þ 6 ¼ x þ 3 x þ 3y ¼ 3 x 3y ¼ 3

Multiply by the lowest common denominator

CHAPTER 4 Lines and Parabolas *

ð4ó 6Þ and ð3ó 6Þ The y-values are the same, making this a horizontal line. The equation for this line is y ¼ 6—no work is necessary. The method used above will still work on horizontal lines, though.

m¼

66 0 ¼ ¼0 3 4 7

y 6 ¼ 0ðx 4Þ y6¼0 *

or y ¼ 6

ð2ó 0Þ and ð2ó 5Þ This line is a vertical line because the x-values are the same. The equation for this line is x ¼ 2. No work is necessary (or even possible).

PRACTICE Find an equation of the line containing the given points. Put the equation in the general form Ax þ By ¼ C, where Aó B, and C are integers and A is not negative, or in the form x ¼ number or y ¼ number. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

ð1ó 2Þ and ð5ó 2Þ ð2ó 7Þ and ð1ó 5Þ ð4ó 6Þ and ð4ó 2Þ ð5ó 1Þ and ð10ó 10Þ ð1ó 5Þ and ð4ó 2Þ ð4ó 8Þ and ð1ó 8Þ ð1ó 32Þ and ð2ó 32Þ ð2ó 6Þ and ð13 ó 1Þ

SOLUTIONS 1. m¼

2 2 4 ¼ ¼ 1 51 4

y 2 ¼ 1ðx 1Þ y 2 ¼ x þ 1 xþy¼3

77

CHAPTER 4

78

Lines and Parabolas

2. m¼

5 ð7Þ 12 ¼ ¼ 4 1 2 3

y ð7Þ ¼ 4ðx 2Þ y þ 7 ¼ 4x þ 8 4x þ y ¼ 1 3.

The x-values are the same, making this a vertical line. The equation is x ¼ 4.

4. m¼

10 ð1Þ 9 3 ¼ ¼ 10 5 15 5

3 y ð1Þ ¼ ðx 5Þ 5 3 5ðy þ 1Þ ¼ 5 ðx 5Þ 5 5y þ 5 ¼ 3ðx 5Þ 5y þ 5 ¼ 3x 15 3x þ 5y ¼ 20 3x 5y ¼ 20 5. m¼

2 5 3 ¼ ¼ 1 41 3

y 5 ¼ 1ðx 1Þ y 5 ¼ x þ 1 xþy¼6

CHAPTER 4 Lines and Parabolas 6.

Because the y-values are the same, this line is horizontal. The equation is y = 8.

7. m¼

ð3=2Þ ð3=2Þ ð6=2Þ 3 ¼ ¼ ¼ 1 2 ð1Þ 3 3

3 y ¼ 1ðx ð1ÞÞ 2 3 y ¼ ðx þ 1Þ 2 3 y ¼ x 1 2 3 xþy¼ 1 2 1 xþy¼ 2 1 2ðx þ yÞ ¼ 2 We want C to be an integer: 2 2x þ 2y ¼ 1 8. m¼

16 5 ¼ ð1=3Þ 2 ð1=3Þ ð6=3Þ ¼

5 5 ¼ 5 ð5=3Þ 3

¼ 5

3 5

¼3 y 6 ¼ 3ðx 2Þ y 6 ¼ 3x 6 3x þ y ¼ 0 3x y ¼ 0

79

CHAPTER 4

80

Lines and Parabolas

The Slope–Intercept Form of the Line Now we are ready to learn a new form of the line. Remember when a circle is in the form ðx hÞ2 þ ðy kÞ2 ¼ r2 we know the circle’s center and radius. There is a form of the line which gives the same kind of information. This form is called the slope–intercept form of the line. When an equation is in this form, we know the line’s slope and y-intercept. To discover this form, we will examine a practice problem from an earlier practice set. Two points on the line are ð0ó 4Þ (this is the y-intercept) and ð3ó 6Þ. The slope of the line is 23 and the general form of the equation is 2x þ 3y ¼ 12. Solve this equation for y (this means to isolate y on one side of the equation). 2x þ 3y ¼ 12 3y ¼ 2x 12 3y 2x 12 ¼ 3 3 3 2 y¼ x4 3 The coeﬃcient of x is 23, which is the slope; and the constant term is 4, the y-intercept. This will happen every time a linear equation is solved for y. This is why y ¼ mx þ b is called the slope–intercept form of the line. Because a vertical line has no y term and no slope, there is no slope–intercept form for a vertical line. EXAMPLES * y ¼ 3x þ 4. The slope is 3. The y-intercept is 4. * y ¼ x 2. The slope is 1. The y-intercept is 2. * y ¼ 12. This equation could be rewritten as y ¼ 0x 12. The slope is 0. The y-intercept is 12. * y ¼ x. This equation could be rewritten as y ¼ 1x þ 0. The slope is 1. The y-intercept is 0. PRACTICE Identify the slope and y-intercept. 1. 2. 3.

y ¼ 2x þ 6 y ¼ 34 x 5 y ¼ x þ 23

CHAPTER 4 Lines and Parabolas 4. 5.

81

y ¼ 4x y ¼ 10

SOLUTIONS 1. The slope is 2, and the y-intercept is 6. 2. The slope is 34, and the y-intercept is 5. 3. The slope is 1, and the y-intercept is 23. 4. The equation can be rewritten as y ¼ 4x þ 0. The slope is 4, and the y-intercept is 0. 5. The equation can be rewritten as y ¼ 0x þ 10. The slope is 0, and the y-intercept is 10.

Graphing a Line Using the Slope and y-Intercept We can graph a line using the slope and any point on the line. In particular, we can graph a line using the slope and y-intercept. Remember what information the slope is giving: the vertical change over the horizontal change. We will begin by plotting the y-intercept. Then we will use the slope to get another point on the line. Finally, we will draw a line through these two points. EXAMPLES * y ¼ 23 x þ 1 Plot (0, 1).

Fig. 4-24.

CHAPTER 4

82

Lines and Parabolas

The slope is 23. From the point already plotted, go up 2 units and to the right 3 units.

Fig. 4-25.

Fig. 4-26. *

y ¼ 35 x 2 First plot ð0ó 2Þ. Next, go up 3 units and to the right 5 units.

Fig. 4-27.

CHAPTER 4 Lines and Parabolas *

y ¼ 3x þ 1 ¼ 31 x þ 1 Plot ð0ó 1Þ then go up 3 units and to the right 1 unit.

Fig. 4-28.

*

5 y ¼ 52 x ¼ 52 x þ 0 ¼ 5 2 x þ 0 ¼ 2 x þ 0 Plot ð0ó 0Þ. Either go down 5 units then to the right 2 units or go up 5 units then to the left 2 units.

Fig. 4-29.

83

CHAPTER 4

84 *

Lines and Parabolas

y ¼ 2 ¼ 0x þ 2 Plot ð0ó 2Þ. Go to the left or right any distance; do not move up or down.

Fig. 4-30.

Parallel and Perpendicular Lines Two lines are parallel if they have the same slope or if each slope is undeﬁned. EXAMPLES *

Fig. 4-31.

CHAPTER 4 Lines and Parabolas *

Fig. 4-32. *

Fig. 4-33. *

Fig. 4-34.

85

CHAPTER 4

86

Lines and Parabolas

Two lines are perpendicular (that is, they form a 90 angle where they cross each other) if their slopes are negative reciprocals of each other (or one is vertical and the other is horizontal). Two numbers are negative reciprocals of each other if * *

one is positive and the other negative; and inverting one gets the other.

EXAMPLES * The negative * The negative * The negative * The negative * The negative * The negative

reciprocal reciprocal reciprocal reciprocal reciprocal reciprocal

of 23 is 32. of 45 is 54. of 2 is 12. of 58 is 85. of 14 is 4. of 1 is 1.

PRACTICE Find the negative reciprocal for the given number. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

2 7

43 1 5

3 1

SOLUTIONS 1. 72 2. 34 3. 5 4. 13 5. 1 EXAMPLES We can determine whether two lines are parallel, perpendicular, or neither parallel nor perpendicular, by putting their equations in the form y ¼ mx þ b. If m is the same for each line (or both are vertical), the lines are parallel. If one m is the negative reciprocal of the other (or one is vertical and the other horizontal), the lines are perpendicular. Otherwise, the lines are neither parallel nor perpendicular.

CHAPTER 4 Lines and Parabolas

Fig. 4-35.

Fig. 4-36.

Fig. 4-37.

87

CHAPTER 4

88

Lines and Parabolas

EXAMPLES Determine if the lines are parallel, perpendicular, or neither. *

2x y ¼ 4 2x y ¼ 5 First, solve for y in each equation. 2x y ¼ 4 y ¼ 2x þ 4 y ¼ 2x 4

*

2x y ¼ 5 y ¼ 2x 5 y ¼ 2x þ 5

Each slope is 2 so the lines are parallel. 4x þ y ¼ 6 8x þ 2y ¼ 4 4x þ y ¼ 6 y ¼ 4x þ 6

8x þ 2y ¼ 4 2y ¼ 8x þ 4 y ¼ 4x þ 2

*

Each slope is 4 so the lines are parallel. x 3y ¼ 6 3x þ y ¼ 2 x 3y ¼ 6 3y ¼ x 6

3x þ y ¼ 2 y ¼ 3x þ 2

x 6 3 3 1 y¼ xþ2 3 y¼

*

The slopes are negative reciprocals of each other, so the lines are perpendicular. 3x 4y ¼ 4 4x þ 3y ¼ 9 3x 4y ¼ 4 4y ¼ 3x þ 4 3 y¼ x1 4

4x þ 3y ¼ 9 3y ¼ 4x þ 9 4 y¼ þ3 3

The slopes are not equal and they are not negative reciprocals, so the lines are neither parallel nor perpendicular.

CHAPTER 4 Lines and Parabolas *

89

x¼4 y ¼ 2 The ﬁrst line is vertical and the second line is horizontal. These lines are perpendicular.

PRACTICE Determine if the lines are parallel, perpendicular, or neither. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

3x 8y ¼ 8 and 3x 8y ¼ 16 3x 4y ¼ 8 and 4x 3y ¼ 3 3x 5y ¼ 10 and 5x þ 3y ¼ 3 y ¼ 6 and y ¼ 4 3x 3y ¼ 2 and 4x þ 4y ¼ 1 2x y ¼ 4 and 6x 3y ¼ 9 x ¼ 1 and y ¼ 1

SOLUTIONS 1. Parallel. 3x 8y ¼ 8 8y ¼ 3x þ 8 3 y¼ x1 8 2.

4y ¼ 3x 8 3 y¼ xþ2 4

4x 3y ¼ 3 3y ¼ 4x þ 3 4 y¼ x1 3

Perpendicular. 3x 5y ¼ 10 5y ¼ 3x 10 3 y¼ xþ2 5

4.

8y ¼ 3x 16 3 y¼ xþ2 8

Neither. 3x 4y ¼ 8

3.

3x 8y ¼ 16

5x þ 3y ¼ 3 3y ¼ 5x 3 5 y¼ x1 3

Both lines are horizontal, so they are parallel.

CHAPTER 4

90 5.

Perpendicular (1 and 1 are negative reciprocals). 3x 3y ¼ 2

4x þ 4y ¼ 1

3y ¼ 3x þ 2 2 y ¼ 1x 3 2 y¼x 3 6.

4y ¼ 4x þ 1 1 y ¼ 1x þ 4 1 y ¼ x þ 4

Parallel. 2x y ¼ 4

7.

Lines and Parabolas

6x 3y ¼ 9

y ¼ 2x þ 4

3y ¼ 6x þ 9

y ¼ 2x 4

y ¼ 2x 3

One line is vertical and the other is horizontal, so these lines are perpendicular.

There is another way to ﬁnd an equation of a line when we know the slope and a point that is a little faster than using the point–slope form (y y1 ¼ mðx x1 Þ). We can put the slope and the point we know into the slope–intercept form (y ¼ mx þ b). The only unknown would then be b. EXAMPLES * The slope is 4 and the point ð1ó 2Þ is on the line. Because m ¼ 4, y ¼ mx þ b becomes y ¼ 4x þ b. We can ﬁnd b by letting x ¼ 1 and y ¼ 2 in y ¼ 4x þ b. 2 ¼ 4ð1Þ þ b 2 ¼ 4 þ b 6 ¼ b *

The equation containing ð1ó 2Þ with slope 4 is y ¼ 4x 6. The slope is 2 and the x-intercept is 3. To say that the x-intercept is 3 is the same as saying ð3ó 0Þ is a point on the line. y ¼ 2x þ b 0 ¼ 2ð3Þ þ b 6 ¼ b y ¼ 2x 6

CHAPTER 4 Lines and Parabolas PRACTICE Find the equation of the line. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

The The The The The

slope slope slope slope slope

is is is is is

3 and ð1ó 8Þ is on the line. 1 2 and ð2ó 5Þ is on the line. 49 and ð18ó 8Þ is on the line. 5 and the x-intercept is 1. 2 and the y-intercept is 6.

SOLUTIONS 1. m ¼ 3ó x ¼ 1ó y ¼ 8 y ¼ mx þ b 8 ¼ 3ð1Þ þ b 5 ¼ b y ¼ 3x 5 2.

m ¼ 12 ó x ¼ 2ó y ¼ 5 y ¼ mx þ b 1 5 ¼ ð2Þ þ b 2 5¼1þb 4¼b 1 y¼ xþ4 2

3.

m ¼ 49 ó x ¼ 18ó y ¼ 8 y ¼ mx þ b 4 8 ¼ ð18Þ þ b 9 8 ¼ 8 þ b 0¼b 4 y¼ x 9

91

CHAPTER 4

92 4.

Lines and Parabolas

m ¼ 5. To say that the x-intercept is 1 is another way of saying ð1ó 0Þ is on the line, so x ¼ 1ó y ¼ 0. y ¼ mx þ b 0 ¼ 5ð1Þ þ b 5¼b y ¼ 5x þ 5

5.

The y-intercept is 6 and m ¼ 2. There is nothing we need to do but write down the equation: y ¼ 2x þ 6.

The relationship between many pairs of variables can be described by linear equations. These variables are called linearly related. For example, if one is paid $12 per hour, the daily pay (before deductions) would be described by the equation p ¼ 12h, where p represents the daily pay, and h represents the number of hours worked for the day. The slope of this line is 12 and the p-intercept (this is like the y-intercept) is 0. We will ﬁrst use linear equations to answer such questions as, ‘‘If you were paid $60, how many hours did you work?’’ Later we will use two pairs of numbers to ﬁnd a linear equation. EXAMPLES * An electric company bills y dollars for x kilowatt hours used each month. The equation for each family’s electric bill is y ¼ 0:06x þ 20. If a family’s electric bill one month was $68, how many kilowatt hours were used? The information given in the problem is y ¼ 68 for y ¼ 0:06x þ 20. Substitute y ¼ 68 in the equation and solve for x, the number of kilowatt hours used. y ¼ 0:06x þ 20 68 ¼ 0:06x þ 20 48 ¼ 0:06x 48 ¼x 0:06 800 ¼ x The family used 800 kilowatt hours of electricity.

CHAPTER 4 Lines and Parabolas *

The relationship between degrees Celsius and Fahrenheit is F ¼ 95 C þ 32. (a) If the temperature in Fahrenheit is 86 degrees, what is the temperature in Celsius? (b) If the temperature is 20 degrees Celsius, what is the temperature on the Fahrenheit scale? (a)

Substitute F ¼ 86 in F ¼ 95 C þ 32 and solve for C. 9 F ¼ C þ 32 5 9 86 ¼ C þ 32 5 9 54 ¼ C 5 5 54 ¼ C 9 30 ¼ C

(b)

The temperature is 30 degrees Celsius. Substitute C ¼ 20 and compute F. 9 F ¼ ð20Þ þ 32 5 F ¼ 36 þ 32 ¼ 4

*

The temperature is 4 degrees Fahrenheit. For the years 1990–1999, enrollment at a small college is approximated by the equation y ¼ 75x þ 1100, where y represents the number of students enrolled and x represents the number of years after 1990. Find the approximate enrollment for the years 1990, 1996, and 1999. In what year was enrollment about 1475? Because x represents the number of years after 1990, x ¼ 0 is the year 1990; x ¼ 6 is the year 1996; and x ¼ 9 is the year 1999. (Because the equation is only good for the years 1990–1999, the only values of x we can use are x ¼ 0ó 1ó 2ó . . . ó 9.) We want to ﬁnd y for x ¼ 0ó x ¼ 6ó x ¼ 9. When x ¼ 0, y ¼ 75ð0Þ þ 1100. Enrollment for 1990 was about 1100.

93

CHAPTER 4

94

Lines and Parabolas

When x ¼ 6, y ¼ 75ð6Þ þ 1100 ¼ 1550. Enrollment for 1996 was about 1550. When x ¼ 9, y ¼ 75ð9Þ þ 1100 ¼ 1775. Enrollment for 1999 was about 1775. For the question ‘‘In what year was enrollment about 1475?’’ let y ¼ 1475 and solve for x. 1475 ¼ 75x þ 1100 375 ¼ 75x 5¼x Enrollment was about 1475 in the year 1990 þ 5 = 1995. PRACTICE 1. A saleswoman’s salary is given by the equation y ¼ 0:08x þ 15ó000, where y is her annual salary and x is her annual sales level. (a) If her annual sales level was $190,000, what was her annual salary? (b) If her annual salary was $25,080, what was her annual sales level? 2.

The relationship between degrees Celsius and degrees Fahrenheit is given by the equation C ¼ 59 ðF 32Þ. (a) What is the temperature on the Celsius scale when it is 113 degrees Fahrenheit? (b) What is the temperature on the Fahrenheit scale when it is 35 degrees Celsius?

3.

A package delivery company added vans to its ﬂeet at one of its centers between the years 1995 and 2002. The number of vans in the center’s ﬂeet is given by the equation y ¼ 10x þ 90, where y is the number of vans and x is the number of years after 1995. (a) How many vans were in the ﬂeet for the years 1995, 1999, and 2002? (b) In what year did the center have 110 vans?

SOLUTIONS 1. (a) Her annual sales level was $190,000. Let x ¼ 190ó000 in the equation y ¼ 0:08x þ 15ó000 and compute y. y ¼ 0:08ð190ó000Þ þ 15ó000 y ¼ 15ó200 þ 15ó000 ¼ 30ó200 Her annual salary was $30,200.

CHAPTER 4 Lines and Parabolas (b)

Her annual salary was $25,080. Let y ¼ 25ó080 in the equation and solve for x. 25ó080 ¼ 0:08x þ 15ó000 10ó080 ¼ 0:08x 10ó080 ¼x 0:08 126ó000 ¼ x

2.

(a)

Her annual sales level was $126,000. Substitute F ¼ 113 in C ¼ 59 ðF 32Þ. 5 C ¼ ð113 32Þ 9 5 C ¼ ð81Þ ¼ 45 9

(b)

The temperature is 45 degrees Celsius. Substitute C ¼ 35 in the equation and solve for F. 5 35 ¼ ðF 32Þ 9 5 9ð35Þ ¼ 9 ðF 32Þ 9 315 ¼ 5ðF 32Þ 315 ¼ 5F 160 475 ¼ 5F 95 ¼ F

3.

The temperature is 95 degrees Fahrenheit. (a) The year 1995 is 0 years after 1995, so x ¼ 0. Substitute x ¼ 0 in the equation y ¼ 10x þ 90 and compute y. y ¼ 10ð0Þ þ 90 y ¼ 90 The center had 90 vans in its ﬂeet in the year 1995.

95

96

CHAPTER 4

Lines and Parabolas

The year 1999 is 4 years after 1995, so x ¼ 4. y ¼ 10ð4Þ þ 90 y ¼ 40 þ 90 ¼ 130 The center had 130 vans in its ﬂeet in the year 1999. The year 2002 is 7 years after 1995, so x ¼ 7. y ¼ 10ð7Þ þ 90 y ¼ 70 þ 90 ¼ 160 The center had 160 vans in its ﬂeet in the year 2002. (b) Let y ¼ 110 in the equation and solve for x. 110 ¼ 10x þ 90 20 ¼ 10x 2¼x There were 110 vans in the ﬂeet when x ¼ 2, that is, in the year 1995+2=1997. In the last problems in this section, we will be given enough information to ﬁnd a linear equation. In the ﬁrst problem set, we will be given enough information to ﬁnd two points on the line. In the second problem set, we will be given enough information to ﬁnd a point and the slope. EXAMPLES * A company pays its entry-level sales representatives a commission that is a percentage of their monthly sales plus a certain base salary. This month, the sales representative from City A earned $5000 from sales of $35,000. The sales representative from City B earned $5300 on sales of $37,500. What percentage of monthly sales does the company pay in commission? What is its base salary? Salaries that are based on commission (with or without a base salary) are based on a linear equation. If y is the amount paid, m is the commission percentage, and x is the sales level, then the equation is y ¼ mx (without a base salary) and y ¼ mx þ b (with base salary b). What do the ordered pairs ðxó yÞ mean for this problem? The x-coordinate is a sales representative’s sales level, and the y-coordinate is his pay amount. With this in mind, we can view the sentence, ‘‘The sales representative from City A earned $5000 from sales of $35,000’’ as the ordered pair ð35ó000ó 5000Þ on the line y ¼ mx þ b. The other sales representative’s pay amount of $5300 on sales of

CHAPTER 4 Lines and Parabolas $37,500 becomes the point ð37ó500ó 5300Þ. Now that we have two points on a line, we can ﬁnd the equation of the line containing the points. m¼

5300 5000 300 ¼ ¼ 0:12 37ó500 35ó000 2500

Using m ¼ 0:12 and ð35ó000ó 5000Þ in y y1 ¼ mðx x1 Þ, we get y 5000 ¼ 0:12ðx 35ó000Þ y 5000 ¼ 0:12x 4200 y ¼ 0:12x þ 800:

*

The commission rate is 12% of sales and the monthly base rate is $800. The manager of a grocery store notices that sales of bananas are proportionate to sales of milk. On one Friday, 400 pounds of bananas are sold and 1700 gallons of milk are sold. On the following Friday, 360 pounds of bananas are sold and 1540 gallons of milk are sold. Find an equation that gives the number of gallons of milk sold in terms of the number of pounds of bananas sold. We will ﬁnd a linear equation in the form y ¼ mx þ b. For some problems, it does not matter which quantity x represents and which y represents. In this problem, it does matter because of the sentence, ‘‘Find an equation that gives the number of gallons of milk sold in terms of the number of pounds of bananas sold.’’ The equation y ¼ mx þ b gives y in terms of x. This means that y will need to represent the number of gallons of milk and x will represent the number of pounds of bananas. The ordered pairs will be (bananas, milk). Our points, then, are ð360ó 1540Þ and ð400ó 1700Þ. m¼

1700 1540 160 ¼ ¼4 400 360 40

Using m ¼ 4 and ð400ó 1700Þ in y y1 ¼ mðx x1 Þ, we get y 1700 ¼ 4ðx 400Þ y 1700 ¼ 4x 1600 y ¼ 4x þ 100

97

CHAPTER 4

98

Lines and Parabolas

What does the slope mean in these two problems? In the ﬁrst equation, y ¼ 0:12x þ 800, the slope tells us how a sales representative’s pay increases for each one-dollar increase in sales.

m¼

$0:12 increase in pay ¼ $1:00 increase in sales

In the second equation, y ¼ 4x þ 100, the slope tells us that each pound of bananas sold results in four gallons of milk sold. m¼4¼

4 4 gallons of milk ¼ 1 1 pound of bananas

PRACTICE 1. A marketing director notices that the sales level for a certain product and amount spent on television advertising are linearly related. When $6000 is spent on television advertising, sales for the product are $255,000, and when $8000 is spent on television advertising, sales for the product are $305,000. Find an equation that gives the sales level for the product in terms of the amount spent on television advertising. 2. Show that the formula C ¼ 59 ðF 32Þ gives the degrees Celsius in terms of degrees Fahrenheit. Use the fact that water freezes at 0 C and 32 F and boils at 100 C and 212 F. 3. A car rental company charges a daily fee plus a mileage fee. A businesswoman’s bill for one day was $42.55 after driving 55 miles. The bill for the next day was $36.40 after driving 40 miles. How much did it cost for each mile? What was the daily fee? SOLUTIONS 1. Because we want the sales level in terms of the amount spent on television advertising, we will let y represent the sales level and x represent the amount spent on advertising. Our points are ð6000ó 255ó000Þ and ð8000ó 305ó000Þ.

m¼

305ó000 255ó000 50ó000 ¼ ¼ 25 8000 6000 2000

CHAPTER 4 Lines and Parabolas y 255ó000 ¼ 25ðx 6000Þ y 255ó000 ¼ 25x 150ó000 y ¼ 25x þ 105ó000 2.

(Every dollar in advertising results in $25 in sales:Þ

We will treat C like y and F like x. Our points will have the form (degrees Fahrenheit, degrees Celsius), that is, ð32ó 0Þ and ð212ó 100Þ. m¼

100 0 100 5 ¼ ¼ 212 32 180 9

5 C 0 ¼ ðF 32Þ 9 5 C ¼ ðF 32Þ 9 3.

In the equation y ¼ mx þ b, we will let x represent the number of miles driven and y represent the daily cost. The ordered pair ðxó yÞ is (miles, cost). The points are ð55ó 42:55Þ and ð40ó 36:40Þ. m¼

36:40 42:55 6:15 ¼ ¼ 0:41 40 55 15

y 36:40 ¼ 0:41ðx 40Þ y 36:40 ¼ 0:41x 16:40 y ¼ 0:41x þ 20 The daily fee is $20 and each mile costs $0.41. In these last problems, we will be given one pair of numbers, which will be a point on the line, and information on the rate of change. The rate of change is the slope. EXAMPLES * A utilities company charges 4 12 cents per kilowatt hour for electricity plus a monthly base charge. Find an equation that gives the monthly costs in terms of the number of kilowatt hours of electricity used if the bill for one month for a certain family is $62.55 for 1050 kilowatt hours of electricity used. In the equation y ¼ mx þ b (where y is the cost and x is the number of kilowatt hours used), the slope is the cost per kilowatt

99

CHAPTER 4

100

Lines and Parabolas

hour of electricity used. This means that m ¼ 0:045, and a point is ð1050ó 62:55Þ. We could use either y y1 ¼ mðx x1 Þ (as before) or y ¼ mx þ b. We will use y ¼ mx þ b with y ¼ 62:55, m ¼ 0:045 and x ¼ 1050. 62:55 ¼ 0:045ð1050Þ þ b 15:30 ¼ b

*

The equation is y ¼ 0:045x þ 15:30. A recipe calls for two cups of biscuit mix and 23 cups of milk. Find a linear equation that gives the amount of milk in terms of the amount of biscuit mix. Because we need to give the milk in terms of the biscuit mix, we will let y represent the number of cups of milk and x represent the number of cups of biscuit mix. The ordered pair ðxó yÞ is (biscuit mix, milk). Also, the slope is ðchange in yÞ=ðchange in xÞ which is ðchange in milkÞ=ðchange in mixÞ. We will use the fact that if we increase the number of cups of biscuit mix by two cups, we need to increase the number of cups of milk by 23, giving us a slope of 2=3 2 2 1 1 ¼ 2¼ ¼ : 2 3 3 2 3

*

So far we have y ¼ 13 x þ b. We need more information to ﬁnd b. Although another point is not explicitly given, we can ﬁgure one out—when no biscuit mix is used, no milk is used. In other words, ð0ó 0Þ is a point on the line. This means that b, the y-intercept, is 0. The equation is y ¼ 13 x. The dosage for a certain cattle drug is 4.5 cm3 per 100 pounds of body weight. Find an equation that gives the amount of the drug in terms of a cow’s weight. We want the amount of the drug in terms of a cow’s weight, so we will let y represent the number of cubic centimeters of the drug and x represent a cow’s weight in pounds. What is the slope of our line? m¼

change in drug amount 4:5 ¼ ¼ 0:045 change in weight 100

This means that 0.045 cm3 of the drug is needed for each pound of a cow’s weight. Again, ð0ó 0Þ is a point on the line, so b ¼ 0. The equation is y ¼ 0:045x.

CHAPTER 4 Lines and Parabolas PRACTICE 1. Each unit of a product costs $1.75 to make. The total cost to produce 20,000 units one week was $41,000. Find an equation that gives the total cost in terms of the number of units produced. 2. The manager of a movie theater believes that for every 200 tickets sold, 15 buckets of popcorn are sold. Find an equation that gives the amount of buckets of popcorn sold in terms of the number of tickets sold. 3. An oﬃce manager notices that the oﬃce copier uses one container of toner for every 25 reams of paper. Find an equation that gives the amount of toner used in terms of the amount of paper used. 4. A garden hose is used to ﬁll a tall rectangular tank. The water level rises six inches every 20 minutes. If the water level was already eight inches before the water was turned on, ﬁnd an equation that gives the water level in terms of the time the hose is used. SOLUTIONS 1. Let y represent the total cost and x the number of units produced. This means that ð20ó000ó 41ó000Þ is a point on the line. Each unit costs $1.75 to produce, so the slope is 1.75. We will let x ¼ 20ó000, y ¼ 41ó000, and m ¼ 1:75 in y ¼ mx þ b. 41ó000 ¼ 1:75ð20ó000Þ þ b 6000 ¼ b

2.

The equation is y ¼ 1:75x þ 6000. ($6000 represents ﬁxed costs, costs such as rent, loan payments, salaries, etc.) Let y represent the number of buckets of popcorn sold and x represent the number of tickets sold. The slope is m¼

3.

change in popcorn sales 15 ¼ ¼ 0:075: change in tickets sold 200

Because 0 buckets of popcorn are sold when 0 tickets are sold, ð0ó 0Þ is on the line and b, the y-intercept, is 0. The equation is y ¼ 0:075x. Let y represent the number of toner containers used and x the number of reams of paper used. The slope is m¼

change in toner used 1 ¼ : change in paper used 25

101

CHAPTER 4

102

4.

Lines and Parabolas

The point ð0ó 0Þ is on the graph, so b, the y-intercept, is 0. The equation 1 is y ¼ 25 x. Let y represent the water level in inches and x the time in minutes that the hose is used. When the time is 0 minutes, the water level is 8 inches, giving us the point ð0ó 8Þ. This means that b, the y-intercept, is 8. The slope is m¼

6 inches ¼ 0:3: 20 minutes

The equation is y ¼ 0:3x þ 8.

Parabolas The graph of any quadratic equation (y ¼ ax2 þ bx þ c) will look like one of the graphs below.

Fig. 4-38.

Fig. 4-39.

CHAPTER 4 Lines and Parabolas These graphs are called parabolas. Parabolas occur in nature. To see a parabola, toss a small object up and watch its path—it will be part of a parabola. The graph of every parabola has a vertex, the point where the graph turns around. For a parabola that opens up, the vertex is the lowest point. The vertex is the highest point for a graph that opens down. When a quadratic equation is in the form y ¼ aðx hÞ2 þ k, the vertex is the point ðhó kÞ. EXAMPLES * y ¼ 2ðx 4Þ2 þ 5 a ¼ 2ó h ¼ 4ó k ¼ 5. The vertex is ð4ó 5Þ. * y ¼ ðx 2Þ2 1 a ¼ 1ó h ¼ 2ó k ¼ 1. The vertex is ð2ó 1Þ. * y ¼ 3ðx 1Þ2 þ 2 a ¼ 3ó h ¼ 1ó k ¼ 2. The vertex is ð1ó 2Þ. * y ¼ 12 ðx þ 4Þ2 þ 1 a ¼ 12 ó h ¼ 4ó k ¼ 1. The vertex is ð4ó 1Þ. * y ¼ 2x2 4 ¼ 2ðx 0Þ2 4 a ¼ 2ó h ¼ 0ó k ¼ 4. The vertex is ð0ó 4Þ. * y ¼ ðx 8Þ2 ¼ ðx 8Þ2 þ 0 a ¼ 1ó h ¼ 8ó k ¼ 0. The vertex is ð8ó 0Þ. PRACTICE Identify a and the vertex. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

y ¼ ðx 2Þ2 þ 4 y ¼ 10ðx þ 1Þ2 2 y ¼ 12 ðx þ 5Þ2 þ 4 y ¼ ðx þ 6Þ2 y ¼ x2

SOLUTIONS 1. a ¼ 1. The vertex is ð2ó 4Þ. 2. a ¼ 10. The vertex is ð1ó 2Þ. 3. a ¼ 12. The vertex is ð5ó 4Þ. 4. a ¼ 1. The vertex is ð6ó 0Þ. 5. a ¼ 1. The vertex is ð0ó 0Þ. When graphing parabolas, we will begin with the vertex. We will graph two points to the left and to the right of the vertex. One pair of points should be fairly close to the vertex to show the curving around the vertex. Another pair should be further away to show how steep the ends are. What do ‘‘fairly close’’ and ‘‘a little further away’’ mean? There is no standard answer. For

103

104

CHAPTER 4

Lines and Parabolas

some parabolas, one unit is ‘‘close’’ but for others, one unit is ‘‘far away.’’ It all depends on a. A good rule of thumb is to plot two points a units to the left and to the right of the vertex and two other points that are 2a units to the left and right of the vertex. The sign on a is also important. When a is positive, the parabola opens up (see Fig. 4-40). When a is negative, the parabola opens down (see Fig. 4-41).

Fig. 4-40.

Fig. 4-41.

We will start the T-table (Table 4-1) with ﬁve x-values. Because parabolas are symmetric (the left half is a mirror-image of the right half), the y-values Table 4-1 x

y

h 2a ha h hþa h þ 2a

k vertex

CHAPTER 4 Lines and Parabolas for h a and h þ a will be the same; and the y-values for h 2a and h þ 2a will be the same. This can save some computation. EXAMPLES * y ¼ 2ðx 4Þ2 8 * a ¼ 2ó h ¼ 4ó k ¼ 8 (Table 4-2). Table 4-2 x

y

0 2 4

8 vertex

6 8

h 2a ¼ 4 2ð2Þ ¼ 0 ha¼42¼2 hþa¼4þ2¼6 h þ 2a ¼ 4 þ 2ð2Þ ¼ 8 Compute the y-values (Table 4-3). Table 4-3 x

y

0

24

2

0

4

8

6

0

8

24

105

CHAPTER 4

106

Lines and Parabolas

x¼0

y ¼ 2ð0 4Þ2 8 ¼ 24

x¼2

y ¼ 2ð2 4Þ2 8 ¼ 0

x¼6

y ¼ 2ð6 4Þ2 8 ¼ 0

x¼8

y ¼ 2ð8 4Þ2 8 ¼ 24

Fig. 4-42.

*

2ðx 1Þ2 þ 5 a ¼ 2ó h ¼ 1ó k ¼ 5 h 2a ¼ 1 2ð2Þ ¼ 5 h a ¼ 1 ð2Þ ¼ 3 h þ a ¼ 1 þ ð2Þ ¼ 1 h þ 2a ¼ 1 þ 2ð2Þ ¼ 3 Compute the y-values (Table 4-4). x¼5

y ¼ 2ð5 1Þ2 þ 5 ¼ 27

x¼3

y ¼ 2ð3 1Þ2 þ 5 ¼ 3

x ¼ 1

y ¼ 2ð1 1Þ2 þ 5 ¼ 3

x ¼ 3

y ¼ 2ð3 1Þ2 þ 5 ¼ 27

CHAPTER 4 Lines and Parabolas Table 4-4 x

y 5

27

3

3

1

5

1

3

3

27

Fig. 4-43. *

y ¼ 12 ðx þ 4Þ2 þ 1 a ¼ 12 ó h ¼ 4ó k ¼ 1 1 ¼ 5 2 1 1 h a ¼ 4 ¼ 4 2 2 1 1 h þ a ¼ 4 þ ¼ 3 2 2 1 h þ 2a ¼ 4 þ 2 ¼ 3 2 h 2a ¼ 4 2

107

CHAPTER 4

108

Lines and Parabolas

Compute the y-values (Table 4-5). x ¼ 5 x ¼ 4

1 2

x ¼ 3

1 2

x ¼ 3

1 1 y ¼ ð5 þ 4Þ2 þ1 ¼ 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 4 þ 4 þ1 ¼ 1 y¼ 2 2 8 2 1 1 1 3 þ 4 þ1 ¼ 1 y¼ 2 2 8 1 1 y ¼ ð3 þ 4Þ2 þ1 ¼ 1 2 2 Table 4-5 x

y

5

1 12

4 12

1 18

4

1

3 12

1 18

3

1 18

Fig. 4-44.

CHAPTER 4 Lines and Parabolas PRACTICE Graph the quadratic equations. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

y ¼ ðx 2Þ2 þ 4 y ¼ ðx 3Þ2 1 y ¼ 12 ðx þ 5Þ2 þ 4 y ¼ ðx þ 6Þ2 y ¼ x2 (Square x then take the negative. For example 32 ¼ 9.)

SOLUTIONS 1. a ¼ 1ó h ¼ 2ó k ¼ 4 (Table 4-6).

Table 4-6 x

y

4

0

3

3

2

4

1

3

0

0

Fig. 4-45.

109

CHAPTER 4

110 2.

a ¼ 1ó h ¼ 3ó k ¼ 1 (Table 4-7). Table 4-7 x

y

1

3

2

0

3

1

4

0

5

3

Fig. 4-46.

3.

a ¼ 12 ó h ¼ 5ó k ¼ 4 (Table 4-8). Table 4-8 x

y

6

4 12

5 12

4 18

5

4

4 12

4 18

4

4 12

Lines and Parabolas

CHAPTER 4 Lines and Parabolas

Fig. 4-47.

4.

a ¼ 1ó h ¼ 6ó k ¼ 0 (Table 4-9). Table 4-9 x

y

8

4

7

1

6

0

5

1

4

4

Fig. 4-48.

111

CHAPTER 4

112 5.

Lines and Parabolas

a ¼ 1ó h ¼ 0ó k ¼ 0 (Table 4-10). Table 4-10 x

y 2

4

1

1

0

0

1

1

2

4

Fig. 4-49.

It might seem that y ¼ aðx hÞ2 þ k should either be y ¼ aðx þ hÞ2 þ k or y ¼ aðx hÞ2 k. The reason that the signs in front of h and k are diﬀerent is that k (the y-coordinate of the vertex) is on the same side as x. If k were on the same side as y, then the signs on h and k would be the same: y k ¼ aðx hÞ2 . Quadratic equations are normally written in the form y ¼ ax2 þ bx þ c, not y ¼ aðx hÞ2 þ k. As with circle equations, to put an equation in the ﬁrst form into one that is in the second form we will need to complete the square. Completing the square on these equations can be more of a problem. 1. 2.

Factor a from the x2 and x terms. Complete the square on the x2 and x terms.

CHAPTER 4 Lines and Parabolas 3. 4.

Compute the constant that needs to be added to c. This step is the diﬃcult part. Write the expression in the parentheses as a perfect square.

EXAMPLES * y ¼ x2 6x þ 1 Because a ¼ 1, Step 1 is not necessary. Complete the square on x2 6x. y ¼ ðx2 6x þ 9Þ þ 1 þ ? We need to balance the equation so that it is the same as the original equation. To balance ‘‘þ9’’, add ‘‘9’’ to 1. y ¼ ðx2 6x þ 9Þ þ 1 þ ð9Þ y ¼ ðx2 6x þ 9Þ 8 y ¼ ðx 3Þ2 8 *

y ¼ x2 þ 8x þ 5 Because a ¼ 1, Step 1 is not necessary. Complete the square on x2 þ 8x. y ¼ ðx2 þ 8x þ 16Þ þ 5 þ ? To balance the ‘‘þ16’’ in the parentheses, add ‘‘16’’ to 5. y ¼ ðx2 þ 8x þ 16Þ þ 5 þ ð16Þ y ¼ ðx2 þ 8x þ 16Þ 11 y ¼ ðx þ 4Þ2 11

*

y ¼ 2x2 þ 16x 1 Factor 2 from 2x2 þ 16x. We must do this step before completing the square. y ¼ 2ðx2 þ 8xÞ 1 y ¼ 2ðx2 þ 8x þ 16Þ 1 þ ? Adding ‘‘16’’ to 1 might seem to be the next step. This would not get an equivalent equation. We will simplify y ¼ 2ðx2 þ 8x þ 16Þ 1 to see what eﬀect adding 16 in the parentheses has on the equation. y ¼ 2ðx2 þ 8x þ 16Þ 1 ¼ 2x2 þ 16x þ 32 1

113

CHAPTER 4

114

Lines and Parabolas

By putting ‘‘þ16’’ in the parentheses, we are really adding 2ð16Þ ¼ 32. To balance the equation, we need to add ‘‘32’’ to 1. y ¼ 2ðx2 þ 8x þ 16Þ 1 32 y ¼ 2ðx2 þ 8x þ 16Þ 33 y ¼ 2ðx þ 4Þ2 33 When factoring fractions (or other unusual quantities) from algebraic expressions, write each term to be factored as the numerator of a fraction. The quantity to be factored will be the denominator of the fraction. Simplify this fraction. The simpliﬁed fraction is what goes inside the parentheses. EXAMPLES * Factor

1 4

from 2x 3. 2x 1 ¼ 2x ¼ 2x 4 ¼ 8x 1=4 4 3 1 ¼ 3 ¼ 3 4 ¼ 12 1=4 4 1 2x 3 ¼ ð8x 12Þ 4

*

Factor 53 from 6x2 2x þ 1. 6x2 5 3 18x2 18 ¼ 6x2 ¼ 6x2 ¼ ¼ x2 3 5 5 5=3 5 2x 5 3 6x 6 ¼ 2x ¼ 2x ¼ ¼ x 5=3 3 5 5 5 1 5 3 3 ¼1 ¼1 ¼ 5=3 3 5 5 5 18 6 3 2 2 6x 2x þ 1 ¼ x þ x 3 5 5 5

Now we can complete the square on y ¼ ax2 þ bx þ c when a is a fraction. EXAMPLES Put the following equations in the form y ¼ aðx hÞ2 þ k. *

y ¼ 12 x2 þ 3x 4

CHAPTER 4 Lines and Parabolas First we will factor

1 2

from 12 x2 þ 3x.

ð1=2Þx2 1 cancels ¼ x2 2 1=2 3x 1 ¼ 3x ¼ 3x 2 ¼ 6x 1=2 2 1 2 y ¼ ðx þ 6xÞ 4 2 Now we can complete the square. 1 y ¼ ðx2 þ 6x þ 9Þ 4 þ ? 2 By putting ‘‘þ9’’ in the parentheses, we are really adding 12 ð9Þ ¼ 92. To balance the equation, add 92 to 4. 1 2 9 y ¼ ðx þ 6x þ 9Þ 4 þ 2 2 1 17 y ¼ ðx2 þ 6x þ 9Þ 2 2 1 17 y ¼ ðx þ 3Þ2 2 2 *

y ¼ 3x2 þ 12x þ 2 First we will factor 3 from 3x2 þ 12x. 3x2 ¼ x2 3 12x ¼ 4x 3 y ¼ 3ðx2 4xÞ þ 2 We are ready to complete the square. y ¼ 3ðx2 4x þ 4Þ þ 2 þ ? By putting ‘‘þ4’’ in the parentheses, we are really adding 3ð4Þ ¼ 12. Balance this by adding 12 to 2. y ¼ 3ðx2 4x þ 4Þ þ 2 þ 12 y ¼ 3ðx2 4x þ 4Þ þ 14 y ¼ 3ðx 2Þ2 þ 14

115

CHAPTER 4

116

Lines and Parabolas

PRACTICE Put the quadratic equations in the form y ¼ aðx hÞ2 þ k. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

y ¼ x2 10x þ 6 y ¼ x2 4x þ 3 y ¼ 5x2 þ 10x þ 6 y ¼ 3x2 þ 12x 4 y ¼ 2x2 þ 4x þ 3 y ¼ 23 x2 þ 4x 2

SOLUTIONS 1. y ¼ ðx2 10x þ 25Þ þ 6 þ ð25Þ y ¼ ðx2 10x þ 25Þ 19 y ¼ ðx 5Þ2 19 2. y ¼ x2 4x þ 3 y ¼ ðx2 þ 4xÞ þ 3 y ¼ ðx2 þ 4x þ 4Þ þ 3 þ ? By putting ‘‘þ4’’ in the parentheses, we are adding ð4Þ ¼ 4. We will balance this by adding 4 to 3. y ¼ ðx2 þ 4x þ 4Þ þ 3 þ 4 y ¼ ðx2 þ 4x þ 4Þ þ 7 y ¼ ðx þ 2Þ2 þ 7 3. y ¼ 5x2 þ 10x þ 6 y ¼ 5ðx2 þ 2xÞ þ 6 y ¼ 5ðx2 þ 2x þ 1Þ þ 6 þ ?

CHAPTER 4 Lines and Parabolas By putting ‘‘þ1’’ in the parentheses, we are adding 5ð1Þ ¼ 5. Balance this by adding 5 to 6. y ¼ 5ðx2 þ 2x þ 1Þ þ 6 þ ð5Þ y ¼ 5ðx2 þ 2x þ 1Þ þ 1 y ¼ 5ðx þ 1Þ2 þ 1 4. y ¼ 3x2 þ 12x 4 y ¼ 3ðx2 þ 4xÞ 4 y ¼ 3ðx2 þ 4x þ 4Þ 4 þ ? By putting ‘‘þ4’’ inside the parentheses, we are adding 3ð4Þ ¼ 12. Balance this by adding 12 to 4. y ¼ 3ðx2 þ 4x þ 4Þ 4 þ ð12Þ y ¼ 3ðx2 þ 4x þ 4Þ 16 y ¼ 3ðx þ 2Þ2 16 5. y ¼ 2x2 þ 4x þ 3 y ¼ 2ðx2 2xÞ þ 3 y ¼ 2ðx2 2x þ 1Þ þ 3 þ ? By putting ‘‘þ1’’ inside the parentheses, we are adding 2ð1Þ ¼ 2. Balance this by adding 2 to 3. y ¼ 2ðx2 2x þ 1Þ þ 3 þ 2 y ¼ 2ðx2 2x þ 1Þ þ 5 y ¼ 2ðx 1Þ2 þ 5 6. 2 y ¼ x2 þ 4x 2 3

117

CHAPTER 4

118 Factor

2 3

Lines and Parabolas

from 23 x2 þ 4x. ð2=3Þx2 ¼ x2 2=3 4x 2 3 ¼ 4x ¼ 4x ¼ 6x 2=3 3 2 2 y ¼ ðx2 þ 6xÞ 2 3 2 y ¼ ðx2 þ 6x þ 9Þ 2 þ ? 3

By putting ‘‘þ9’’ in the parentheses, we are adding 23 ð9Þ ¼ 6. Balance this by adding 6 to 2. 2 y ¼ ðx2 þ 6x þ 9Þ 2 þ ð6Þ 3 2 y ¼ ðx2 þ 6x þ 9Þ 8 3 2 y ¼ ðx þ 3Þ2 8 3 There is a shortcut for ﬁnding the vertex of a parabola without having to put the equation in the form y ¼ aðx hÞ2 þ k. The shortcut involves a formula for h. We can compute k by putting x ¼ h in the equation. The shortcut for h comes from completing the square on y ¼ ax2 þ bx þ c. y ¼ ax2 þ bx þ c Factor a from ax2 þ bx. ax2 ¼ x2 a bx b ¼ x a a b y ¼ a x2 þ x þ c a

CHAPTER 4 Lines and Parabolas

119

Complete the square by adding ð1=2 b=aÞ2 ¼ b2 =4a2 . Putting this in the parentheses is adding aðb2 =4a2 Þ ¼ b2 =4a. Subtract this from c. ! 2 b b b2 y ¼ a x2 þ x þ 2 þ c a 4a 4a 2 b b2 þc y¼a xþ 2a 4a

h¼

b 2a

k¼c

b2 4a

It is usually easier to compute k by letting x ¼ h in the equation rather than using the above formula for k. EXAMPLES Find the vertex using h ¼ b=2a. *

y ¼ x2 þ 6x þ 4 a¼1

b¼6

h¼

b 6 ¼ ¼ 3 2a 2ð1Þ

k ¼ ð3Þ2 þ 6ð3Þ þ 4 ¼ 5

*

The vertex is ð3ó 5Þ. y ¼ 2x2 12x 7 a¼2

b ¼ 12

h¼

b ð12Þ ¼ ¼3 2a 2ð2Þ

k ¼ 2ð3Þ2 12ð3Þ 7 ¼ 25 *

The vertex is ð3ó 25Þ. y ¼ x2 þ 2x 4 b¼2

a ¼ 1ó

h¼

b 2 ¼ ¼1 2a 2ð1Þ

k ¼ ð1Þ2 þ 2ð1Þ 4 ¼ 3 The vertex is ð1ó 3Þ.

CHAPTER 4

120

Lines and Parabolas

PRACTICE Find the vertex using h ¼ b=2a. 1. 2. 3. 4.

y ¼ x2 þ 6x þ 5 y ¼ 12 x2 3x þ 4 y ¼ 4x2 6x þ 8 y ¼ x2 5x þ 3

SOLUTIONS 1. a ¼ 1ó b ¼ 6 h¼

b 6 ¼ ¼ 3 2a 2ð1Þ

k ¼ ð3Þ2 þ 6ð3Þ þ 5 ¼ 4 The vertex is ð3ó 4Þ. a ¼ 12 ó b ¼ 3 b ð3Þ 3 h¼ ¼ ¼ ¼3 2a 2 1=2 1 1 1 k ¼ ð3Þ2 3ð3Þ þ 4 ¼ 2 2 1 The vertex is ð3ó 2Þ. 3. a ¼ 4ó b ¼ 6 b ð6Þ 3 ¼ ¼ h¼ 2a 2ð4Þ 4 2 3 3 k¼4 þ8 6 4 4 9 9 23 þ8¼ ¼4 16 2 4 2.

The vertex is ð34 ó 23 4 Þ. 4. a ¼ 1ó b ¼ 5 b ð5Þ 5 ¼ ¼ 2a 2ð1Þ 2 2 5 5 k¼ 5 þ3 2 2 25 25 37 þ þ3¼ ¼ 4 2 4 h¼

The vertex is ð 52 ó

37 4 Þ.

CHAPTER 4 Lines and Parabolas

121

Chapter 4 Review 1.

Find the slope of the line containing the points ð1; 4Þ and ð3; 2Þ. d) 12 a) 2 b) 2 c) 12

2.

What is the vertex for y ¼ 2ðx 1Þ2 þ 3? a) ð2; 3Þ b) ð2; 3Þ c) ð1; 3Þ d) ð1; 3Þ

3.

What is the slope and y-intercept for the line y ¼ 25 x þ 4? a) The slope is 25, and the y-intercept is 4. b) The slope is 25, and the y-intercept is 4. c) The slope is 4, and the y-intercept is 25. d) The slope is 4, and the y-intercept is 25.

4.

Rewrite y ¼ 2x2 8x þ 5 in the form y ¼ aðx hÞ2 þ k. b) y ¼ 2ðx 2Þ2 þ 9 a) y ¼ 2ðx 4Þ2 11 c) y ¼ 2ðx 2Þ2 3 d) y ¼ 2ðx 4Þ2 þ 21

5.

Are the lines 2x 3y ¼ 9 and 2x þ 3y ¼ 6 parallel, perpendicular, or neither? a) Parallel b) Perpendicular c) Neither d) Cannot be determined

6.

What are the intercepts for y ¼ x2 2x 8? a) The x-intercept is 8, there is no y-intercept. b) The x-intercept is 4, and the y-intercept is 8. c) The x-intercepts are 4 and 2, and the y-intercept is 8. d) The x-intercepts are 4 and 2, and the y-intercept is 8.

7.

For y ¼ 34 ðx2 8x þ Þ þ 3 þ , what numbers should be put in the blanks to write the equivalent equation in the form y ¼ aðx hÞ2 þ k? a) Put 16 in the ﬁrst blank and 12 in the second blank. b) Put 16 in the ﬁrst blank and 12 in the second blank. c) Put 16 in the ﬁrst blank and 16 in the second blank. d) Put 16 in the ﬁrst blank and 16 in the second blank.

8.

Suppose the slope of a line is 23. What is the slope of a line that is perpendicular to it? a) 32 b) 32 c) 23 d) 23

CHAPTER 4

122 9. 10.

Lines and Parabolas

Find an equation of the line containing the points ð5; 1Þ and ð6; 8Þ. a) 7x y ¼ 34 b) 7x þ y ¼ 36 c) x 7y ¼ 2 d) x 7y ¼ 50 What is the vertex for y ¼ 3x2 þ 12x 4? a) ð2; 16Þ b) ð2; 32Þ c) ð4; 4Þ

d) ð4; 60Þ

11.

The equation y ¼ 0:05x þ 10 is a formula for a power company’s monthly charge for its service, where y is the monthly bill and x is the number of kilowatt hours of electricity used. How many kilowatts of electricity are used for a monthly bill to be $47.50? a) 700 b) 750 c) 800 d) 850

12.

The parabola in Fig. 4-50 is the graph of which equation? b) y ¼ ðx 1Þ2 2 a) y ¼ ðx 1Þ2 þ 2 c) y ¼ ðx þ 1Þ2 þ 2 d) y ¼ ðx þ 1Þ2 2

Fig. 4-50.

13.

Which of the following lines is perpendicular to the line x ¼ 2? a) x ¼ 12 b) y ¼ 2 c) x ¼ 2 d) y ¼ 12 x

14.

A gravy mix calls for two cups of water for each 34 cups of mix. Find an equation that gives the amount of water in terms of the amount of mix. a) y ¼ 83 x b) y ¼ 38 x c) y ¼ 32 x d) y ¼ 23 x

CHAPTER 4 Lines and Parabolas 15.

What is the equation of the line in Fig. 4-51? b) y ¼ 23 x þ 2 c) y ¼ 12 x þ 2 a) y ¼ 12 x þ 2 2 d) y ¼ 3 x þ 2

Fig. 4-51.

SOLUTIONS

1. c) 8. b) 14. a)

2. c) 3. b) 9. a) 10. a) 15. a)

4. c) 5. c) 6. d) 7. a) 11. b) 12. d) 13. b)

123

5

CHAPTER

Nonlinear Inequalities

There are times in algebra and other mathematics courses where we might need to know where a graph is above and/or below the x-axis.

Fig. 5-1.

124 Copyright © 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click here for terms of use.

CHAPTER 5 Nonlinear Inequalities For what x-values is this graph above the x-axis? Below the x-axis?

Fig. 5-2.

The graph is above the x-axis to the left of x ¼ 3 and between x ¼ 0 and x ¼ 5 (see the solid part of the graph). The graph is below the x-axis between x ¼ 3 and x ¼ 0 and to the right of x ¼ 5 (see the dashed part of the graph). When answering questions about graphs, we usually need to answer the question in interval notation. For example, to represent ‘‘to the left of x ¼ 3,’’ we write ð1ó 3Þ. To represent ‘‘between x ¼ 0 and x ¼ 5ó ’’ we write ð0ó 5Þ. EXAMPLES Determine where the following graphs are above the x-axis and where they are below the x-axis. *

Fig. 5-3.

125

CHAPTER 5

126

Nonlinear Inequalities

The graph is above the x-axis on ð1ó 12Þ (to the left of x ¼ 12) and on ð3ó 1Þ (to the right of x ¼ 3). The graph is below the x-axis on ð 12 ó 3Þ (between x ¼ 12 and x ¼ 3). *

Fig. 5-4.

The graph is above the x-axis on ð2ó 1Þ (to the right of x ¼ 2) and below the x-axis on ð1ó 2Þ (to the left of x ¼ 2). *

Fig. 5-5.

The graph is above the x-axis on ð3ó 1Þ (between x ¼ 3 and x ¼ 1) and on ð4ó 1Þ (to the right of x ¼ 4). The graph is below the x-axis on ð1ó 3Þ (to the left of x ¼ 3) and on ð1ó 4Þ (between x ¼ 1 and x ¼ 4).

CHAPTER 5 Nonlinear Inequalities *

Fig. 5-6.

The graph is never above the x-axis. The graph is below the x-axis on ð1ó 1Þ (this is interval notation for ‘‘all real numbers’’). PRACTICE Give the intervals of x where the graph is above the x-axis and below the x-axis. 1.

Fig. 5-7.

127

CHAPTER 5

128 2.

Fig. 5-8.

3.

Fig. 5-9.

4.

Fig. 5-10.

Nonlinear Inequalities

CHAPTER 5 Nonlinear Inequalities

129

SOLUTIONS 1. The graph is above the x-axis on ð3ó 1Þ. The graph is below the x-axis on ð1ó 3Þ and ð1ó 1Þ. 2. The graph is above the x-axis on ð3ó 1Þ and below the x-axis on ð1ó 3Þ. 3. The graph is above the x-axis on ð1ó 0Þ and ð2ó 1Þ. The graph is below the x-axis on ð1ó 1Þ and ð0ó 2Þ. 4. The graph is above the x-axis on ð1ó 1Þ (everywhere). The graph is never below the x-axis.

Solving Nonlinear Inequalities Solving linear inequalities is much like solving linear equations (except when multiplying or dividing by a negative number, we need to reverse the inequality symbol). Nonlinear inequalities are solved with a diﬀerent method. In order for this method to make sense, we need to look at the graphs of some nonlinear equations. Let us look at Fig. 5-5 again. The graph is above the x-axis when the y-values are positive. The graph is below the x-axis when the y-values are negative. Between any two consecutive x-intercepts (where the graph touches the x-axis) y-values are either all positive or they are all negative. To the left of the smallest x-intercept, either all the y-values are positive or they are all negative. To the right of the largest x-intercept, the y-values are either all positive or all negative. We will use these facts to solve nonlinear inequalities. For the graph in Fig. 5-5, the y-values are all negative to the left of x ¼ 3, the smallest x-intercept. The y-values are all positive between x-intercepts 3 and 1. The y-values are negative between x-intercepts 1 and 4 and are again positive to the right of x ¼ 4, the largest x-intercept. Here is an example of a nonlinear inequality. x2 2x 3 > 0

This inequality is asking the question, ‘‘For what values of x are the y-values for y ¼ x2 2x 3 positive?’’ The graph of y ¼ x2 2x 3 is shown in Fig. 5-11.

130

CHAPTER 5

Nonlinear Inequalities

Fig. 5-11.

We can see from the graph that x2 2x 3 is positive for ð1ó 1Þ (to the left of x ¼ 1) and for ð3ó 1Þ (to the right of x ¼ 3). According to the graph, the solution to x2 2x 3 > 0 is ð1ó 1Þ [ ð3ó 1Þ. Graphs are not usually used to solve nonlinear inequalities—algebra is. To use algebra to solve nonlinear inequalities, we ﬁrst need to ﬁnd the x-intercepts. Then we need to see if the y-values are positive or negative around the x-intercepts. We need to test one y-value to the left of the smallest x-intercept, one y-value between each pair of consecutive x-intercepts, and one y-value to the right of the largest x-intercept. We will ﬁnd the x-intercepts for y ¼ x2 2x 3 by setting y ¼ 0 and solving for x. 0 ¼ x2 2x 3 0 ¼ ðx 3Þðx þ 1Þ x3¼0 x¼3

xþ1¼0 x ¼ 1

The two x-intercepts are 1 and 3. Are the y-values to the left of x ¼ 1 positive or negative? We can answer this question by choosing any x-value smaller than 1. We will use x ¼ 2 here. Is the y-value for x ¼ 2 positive or negative? If it is positive, all y-values to the left of x ¼ 1 are positive. If it is negative, all y-values to the left of x ¼ 1 are negative. y ¼ ð2Þ2 2ð2Þ 3 ¼ þ5 This y-value is positive. All y-values to the left of x ¼ 1 are positive.

CHAPTER 5 Nonlinear Inequalities Are the y-values positive or negative between x ¼ 1 and x ¼ 3? We only need to check one y-value. We can choose any x-value between x ¼ 1 and x ¼ 3. We will use x ¼ 0 here. y ¼ 02 2ð0Þ 3 ¼ 3 The y-value for x ¼ 0 is negative. All the y-values between x ¼ 1 and x ¼ 3 are negative. Are the y-values positive or negative to the right of x ¼ 3? We can choose any x-value larger than 3. We will use x ¼ 4 here. y ¼ 42 2ð4Þ 3 ¼ þ5 The y-value for x ¼ 4 is positive. All y-values to the right of x ¼ 3 are positive. Values of x which have positive y-values are either smaller than 1 or larger than 3. The solution for the inequality x2 2x 3 > 0 is ð1ó 1Þ [ ð3ó 1Þ. Using a sign graph will help us to keep track of x-intervals having positive y-values and those having negative y-values. First we will draw the number line. Next we will compute the x-intercepts then put the x-intercepts on the sign graph. Then we will write a plus sign over the interval(s) having positive y-values and a minus sign over the interval(s) having negative y-values. The sign graph for the inequality x2 2x 3 > 0 looks like this.

Fig. 5-12.

Here are the steps for solving these kinds of nonlinear inequalities. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Get a zero on one side of the inequality. Find the x-intercepts. Mark the x-intercepts on a sign graph. Choose an x-value in each interval to test whether the y-value is positive or negative. Mark each interval with a plus sign or a minus sign, depending on whether the y-value for the interval is positive or negative.

131

CHAPTER 5

132 6. 7.

Nonlinear Inequalities

Look at the inequality to decide if the solution is the plus interval(s) or the minus interval(s). Write the solution in interval notation.

EXAMPLES * x2 þ 2x 8 < 0 Step 1 is not necessary because one side of the inequality is already 0. We will ﬁnd the x-intercept(s) for y ¼ x2 þ 2x 8 by setting y equal to 0 and solving for x. 0 ¼ x2 þ 2x 8 0 ¼ ðx þ 4Þðx 2Þ xþ4¼0 x ¼ 4

x2¼0 x¼2

Next we will put the x-intercepts on the sign graph.

Fig. 5-13.

We will use x ¼ 5 for the point to the left of x ¼ 4; x ¼ 0 for the point between x ¼ 4 and x ¼ 2; and x ¼ 3 for the point the right of x ¼ 2. For x ¼ 5, y ¼ ð5Þ2 þ 2ð5Þ 8 ¼ þ7. We need to put a plus sign on the sign graph to the left of 4.

Fig. 5-14.

For x ¼ 0, y ¼ 02 þ 2ð0Þ 8 ¼ 8. We need to put a minus sign on the sign graph between x ¼ 4 and x ¼ 2.

Fig. 5-15.

CHAPTER 5 Nonlinear Inequalities

133

For x ¼ 3, y ¼ 32 þ 2ð3Þ 8 ¼ þ7. We need to put a plus sign on the sign graph to the right of x ¼ 2.

Fig. 5-16.

*

The inequality reads ‘‘< 0’’ which means we want the negative y-values. The solution is the interval of numbers between x ¼ 4 and x ¼ 2: ð4ó 2Þ. x3 þ x2 2x 0 We will ﬁnd the x-intercepts by factoring y ¼ x3 þ x2 2x and setting each factor equal to 0. x3 þ x2 2x ¼ xðx2 þ x 2Þ ¼ xðx þ 2Þðx 1Þ x¼0

xþ2¼0 x ¼ 2

x1¼0 x¼1

Now we can put the x-intercepts on the graph.

Fig. 5-17.

We will use x ¼ 3 for the point to the left of x ¼ 2; x ¼ 1 for the point between x ¼ 2 and x ¼ 0; x ¼ 0:5 for the point between x ¼ 0 and x ¼ 1; and x ¼ 2 for the point to the right of x ¼ 1. For x ¼ 3, y ¼ ð3Þ3 þ ð3Þ2 2ð3Þ ¼ 12. A minus sign goes to the left of x ¼ 2. For x ¼ 1, y ¼ ð1Þ3 þ ð1Þ2 2ð1Þ ¼ þ2. A plus sign goes between x ¼ 2 and x ¼ 0.

CHAPTER 5

134

Nonlinear Inequalities

For x ¼ 0:5, y ¼ ð0:5Þ3 þ ð0:5Þ2 2ð0:5Þ ¼ 0:625. A minus sign goes between x ¼ 0 and x ¼ 1. For x ¼ 2, y ¼ 23 þ 22 2ð2Þ ¼ þ8. A plus sign goes to the right of x ¼ 1.

Fig. 5-18.

*

The inequality is ‘‘ 0’’ which means we want the positive intervals. The solution is ½2ó 0 [ ½1ó 1Þ. It seems that the signs always alternate between plus and minus signs. Signs on the sign graphs do not always alternate. ðx 3Þ2 ðx þ 2Þðx þ 1Þ < 0 ðx 3Þ2 ¼ 0 x3¼0

xþ2¼0 x ¼ 2

xþ1¼0 x ¼ 1

x¼3 For x ¼ 3, y ¼ ð3 3Þ2 ð3 þ 2Þð3 þ 1Þ ¼ þ72. We will put a plus sign to the left of x ¼ 2. For x ¼ 1:5, y ¼ ð1:5 3Þ2 ð1:5 þ 2Þð1:5 þ 1Þ ¼ 5:0625. We will put a minus sign between x ¼ 1 and x ¼ 2. For x ¼ 0, y ¼ ð0 3Þ2 ð0 þ 2Þð0 þ 1Þ ¼ þ18. We will put a plus sign between x ¼ 1 and x ¼ 3. For x ¼ 4, y ¼ ð4 3Þ2 ð4 þ 2Þð4 þ 1Þ ¼ þ30. We will put a plus sign to the right of x ¼ 3.

Fig. 5-19.

The inequality is ‘‘< 0’’ which means we want the minus interval. The solution is ð2ó 1Þ.

CHAPTER 5 Nonlinear Inequalities *

x2 þ 5x þ 9 < 3 We need to subtract 3 from each side of the inequality so that 0 is on one side. x2 þ 5x þ 6 < 0 x2 þ 5x þ 6 ¼ ðx þ 2Þðx þ 3Þ xþ2¼0

xþ3¼0

x ¼ 2

x ¼ 3

For x ¼ 4, y ¼ ð4 þ 2Þð4 þ 3Þ ¼ þ2. For x ¼ 2:5, y ¼ ð2:5 þ 2Þð2:5 þ 3Þ ¼ 0:25. For x ¼ 0, y ¼ ð0 þ 2Þð0 þ 3Þ=+6.

Fig. 5-20.

*

The solution is ð3ó 2Þ. x2 þ 1 > 0 The equality x2 þ 1 ¼ 0 has no solution, so the graph of y ¼ x2 þ 1 has no x-intercept. This means that either all y-values are positive or they are all negative. We need to check only one y-value. Choose any x-value. We will use x ¼ 0. For x ¼ 0, y ¼ 02 þ 1 ¼ þ1. Because this y-value is positive, all y-values are positive. The solution is ð1ó 1Þ.

PRACTICE Solve the inequalities. Give solutions in interval notation. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

x2 þ 3x 4 < 0 x2 x þ 6 14 x3 2x2 4x þ 8 > 0. Hint: factor by grouping. x4 13x2 þ 36 0. Hint: x4 13x2 þ 36 ¼ ðx2 4Þðx2 9Þ ¼ ðx 2Þðx þ 2Þðx 3Þðx þ 3Þ x2 þ 9 0

135

CHAPTER 5

136

Nonlinear Inequalities

SOLUTIONS 1. x2 þ 3x 4 ¼ ðx þ 4Þðx 1Þ xþ4¼0 x ¼ 4

x1¼0 x¼1

For x ¼ 5, y ¼ ð5 þ 4Þð5 1Þ ¼ 6. For x ¼ 0, y ¼ ð0 þ 4Þð0 1Þ ¼ 4. For x ¼ 2, y ¼ ð2 þ 4Þð2 1Þ ¼ 6.

Fig. 5-21.

2.

The solution is ð4ó 1Þ. First we need to add 14 to both sides of the inequality to get x2 xþ 20 0. Then x2 x þ 20 ¼ ðx2 þ x 20Þ ¼ ðx þ 5Þðx 4Þ: ðx þ 5Þ ¼ 0

x4¼0

x 5 ¼ 0

x¼4

x ¼ 5 x ¼ 5 For x ¼ 6, y ¼ ð6 þ 5Þð6 4Þ ¼ 10. For x ¼ 0, y ¼ ð0 þ 5Þð0 4Þ ¼ 20. For x ¼ 5, y ¼ ð5 þ 5Þð5 4Þ ¼ 10.

Fig. 5-22.

The solution is ½5ó 4.

CHAPTER 5 Nonlinear Inequalities

137

3. x3 2x2 4x þ 8 ¼ x2 ðx 2Þ 4ðx 2Þ ¼ ðx2 4Þðx 2Þ ¼ ðx 2Þðx þ 2Þðx 2Þ ¼ ðx 2Þ2 ðx þ 2Þ ðx 2Þ2 ¼ 0

xþ2¼0 x ¼ 2

x2¼0 x¼2

For x ¼ 3, y ¼ ð3 2Þ2 ð3 þ 2Þ ¼ 25. For x ¼ 0, y ¼ ð0 2Þ2 ð0 þ 2Þ ¼ þ8. For x ¼ 3, y ¼ ð3 2Þ2 ð3 þ 2Þ ¼ þ5.

Fig. 5-23.

4.

The solution is ð2ó 2Þ [ ð2ó 1Þ. The solution is not ð2ó 1Þ because that would imply x ¼ 2 is part of the solution (23 2ð2Þ2 4ð2Þ þ 8 ¼ 0, not ‘‘>0’’). Because the inequality is strict (not allowing equality), x ¼ 2 is not part of the solution. If the inequality had been ‘‘0’’, then x ¼ 2 would be part of the solution and the solution would be ½2ó1Þ. x4 13x2 þ 36 ¼ ðx2 4Þðx2 9Þ ¼ ðx 2Þðx þ 2Þðx 3Þðx þ 3Þ x2¼0 x¼2

xþ2¼0 x ¼ 2

x3¼0 x¼3

xþ3¼0 x ¼ 3

For x ¼ 4, y ¼ ð4 2Þð4 þ 2Þð4 3Þð4 þ 3Þ ¼ þ84. For x ¼ 2:5, y ¼ ð2:5 2Þð2:5 þ 2Þð2:5 3Þð2:5 þ 3Þ ¼ 6:1875.

CHAPTER 5

138

Nonlinear Inequalities

For x ¼ 0, y ¼ ð0 2Þð0 þ 2Þð0 3Þð0 þ 3Þ ¼ þ36. For x ¼ 2:5, y ¼ ð2:5 2Þð2:5 þ 2Þð2:5 3Þð2:5 þ 3Þ ¼ 6:1875. For x ¼ 4, y ¼ ð4 2Þð4 þ 2Þð4 3Þð4 þ 3Þ ¼ þ84.

Fig. 5-24.

5.

The solution is ð1ó 3 [ ½2ó 2 [ ½3ó 1Þ. The equation x2 þ 9 ¼ 0 has no solution. This means that the graph of y ¼ x2 þ 9 has no x-intercepts, so either all y-values are positive or they are all negative. We need to check only one y-value. Let x ¼ 0. 02 þ 9 ¼ 9 This y-value is positive, so all y-values are positive. Because the inequality is ‘‘ 0’’, we want negative y-values. There is no solution.

Graphs of equations that have variables in denominators usually have separate parts.

Fig. 5-25.

The graph of y ¼ 1=x comes in two parts, one to the left of the y-axis and one to the right of the y-axis.

CHAPTER 5 Nonlinear Inequalities For every x-value that makes the denominator zero, the graph will have a break. In y ¼ 1=x, if we let x ¼ 0, there is a zero in the denominator. To the right of the break at x ¼ 0, the y-values are positive and to the left, they are negative. A break in the graph acts like an x-intercept—the y-values can change from positive to negative (or from negative to positive). EXAMPLE The graph shown in Fig. 5-26 is the graph of the equation y¼

xþ2 : x1

Fig. 5-26.

This graph has both an x-intercept (at x ¼ 2) and a break (at x ¼ 1). The y-values are positive to the left of the x-intercept and to the right of the break. The y-values are negative between the x-intercept and the break. Solving inequalities with variables in a denominator is much like solving earlier inequalities. 1. 2. 3.

Get zero on one side of the inequality. (Sometimes this step is not necessary.) Rewrite the nonzero side of the inequality as one fraction. (Sometimes this step is not necessary.) Find the x-intercept(s) by setting the numerator equal to zero and solving for x. If the numerator does not have a variable, there will be no x-intercept. Put any x-intercepts on the sign graph.

139

CHAPTER 5

140 4.

5.

6.

Nonlinear Inequalities

Find the break(s) in the graph by setting the denominator equal to zero and solving for x. Put this x-value or values on the sign graph. If there is no x-value that makes the denominator equal to zero, then there is no break in the graph. Test an x-value in each interval on the sign graph. If the y-value is positive, put a plus sign over the interval. If the y-value is negative, put a minus sign over the interval. Look at the inequality to decide if you want the ‘‘plus’’ interval(s) or the ‘‘minus’’ interval(s). Be careful to exclude from the solution any x-value that causes a zero in a denominator.

EXAMPLES * ð2x 6Þ=ðx þ 4Þ > 0 Step 1 and Step 2 are not necessary. For Step 3, set the numerator equal to zero to ﬁnd the x-intercept(s). 2x 6 ¼ 0 2x ¼ 6 x¼3 We need to put x ¼ 3 on the sign graph. For Step 4, we will set the denominator equal to zero to ﬁnd any break in the graph. xþ4¼0 x ¼ 4 We will put x ¼ 4 on the sign graph. For Step 5, test an x-value smaller than 4 (we will use x ¼ 5), between 4 and 3 (we will use x ¼ 0), and larger than 3 (we will use x ¼ 4).

x ¼ 5

y¼

2ð5Þ 6 ¼ 16 5 þ 4

x¼0

y¼

2ð0Þ 6 3 ¼ 0þ4 2

x¼4

y¼

2ð4Þ 6 1 ¼ 4þ4 4

CHAPTER 5 Nonlinear Inequalities

Fig. 5-27.

*

The solution is ð1ó 4Þ [ ð3ó 1Þ. ð5x þ 8Þ=ðx2 þ 1Þ < 0 We will set the numerator equal to zero to ﬁnd the x-intercepts. 5x þ 8 ¼ 0 5x ¼ 8 8 x¼ 5 We need to put x ¼ 85 on the sign graph. We will set the denominator equal to zero to ﬁnd the breaks in the graph. x2 þ 1 ¼ 0 This equation has no solution, so there are no breaks in the graph. We will test x ¼ 2 for the point to the left of x ¼ 85 and x ¼ 0 for the point to the right of x ¼ 85. x ¼ 2

y¼

5ð2Þ þ 8 2 ¼ 2 5 ð2Þ þ 1

x¼0

y¼

5ð0Þ þ 8 ¼8 02 þ 1

Fig. 5-28.

*

The solution is ð1ó 85Þ. ð3 2xÞ=ðx þ 4Þ > 2 One side of the inequality needs to be zero. We need to subtract 2 from each side. 3 2x 2>0 xþ4

141

CHAPTER 5

142

Nonlinear Inequalities

Now we can write the left side as one fraction. 3 2x 3 2x xþ4 2¼ 2 xþ4 xþ4 xþ4 ¼

3 2x 2ðx þ 4Þ xþ4 xþ4

¼

3 2x 2ðx þ 4Þ xþ4

¼

3 2x 2x 8 xþ4

¼

4x 5 xþ4

The inequality can be rewritten. 4x 5 >0 xþ4 xþ4¼0

4x 5 ¼ 0 4x ¼ 5 x¼

x ¼ 4 5 4

Put x ¼ 54 and x ¼ 4 on the sign graph. We will test x ¼ 5 for the point to the left of x ¼ 4, x ¼ 2 for the point between x ¼ 4 and x ¼ 54, and x ¼ 0 for the point to the right of 54. x ¼ 5

y¼

4ð5Þ 5 ¼ 15 5 þ 4

x ¼ 2

y¼

4ð2Þ 5 3 ¼ 2 þ 4 2

x¼0

y¼

4ð0Þ 5 5 ¼ 0þ4 4

Fig. 5-29.

CHAPTER 5 Nonlinear Inequalities

*

The solution is ð4ó 1 14Þ. ðx2 þ 6x þ 8Þ=ðx 3Þ 0 x2 þ 6x þ 8 ¼ 0 ðx þ 2Þðx þ 4Þ ¼ 0 xþ2¼0

xþ4¼0

x ¼ 2

x ¼ 4

x3¼0 x¼3 Put x ¼ 2, x ¼ 4, and x ¼ 3 on the sign graph. Test an x-value smaller than 4 (we will use x ¼ 5), between 2 and 4 (we will use x ¼ 3), between 2 and 3 (we will use x ¼ 0), and larger than 3 (we will use x ¼ 4). x ¼ 5

y¼

ð5Þ2 þ 6ð5Þ þ 8 3 ¼ 5 3 8

x ¼ 3

y¼

ð3Þ2 þ 6ð3Þ þ 8 1 ¼ 3 3 6

x¼0

y¼

02 þ 6ð0Þ þ 8 8 ¼ 03 3

x¼4

y¼

42 þ 6ð4Þ þ 8 ¼ 48 43

Fig. 5-30.

The solution is not ð1ó 4 [ ½2ó 3. By using a square bracket around 3, we are implying that x ¼ 3 is a solution, but x ¼ 3 leads to a zero in the denominator. Use a parenthesis around 3 to indicate that x ¼ 3 is not part of the solution. The solution is ð1ó 4 [ ½2ó 3Þ.

143

CHAPTER 5

144

Nonlinear Inequalities

PRACTICE Solve the inequalities, giving the solutions in interval notation. 1. 2. 3.

xþ5 >0 x2 2x 8 0 a) (6, 3) c) (6, 1) [ (3, 1) x2 þ 1 > 0 a) (1, 1) [ (1, 1)

b) (1, 6) [ (3, 1) d) (1, 6) [ (1, 3) b) (1, 1)

c) (1,1)

d) No solution

c) (3, 2)

d) No solution

2

ðx þ 4Þ ðx 1Þ < 0 a) (1, 4) [ (1, 1) c) (1, 4) [ (4, 1)

b) (1, 1) d) (1, 4)

ðx 3Þ=ðx þ 2Þ < 0 a) (2, 3) b) (1, 2) [ (1, 3)

CHAPTER 5 Nonlinear Inequalities 6.

ðx 6Þ=ðx2 þ 6x þ 8Þ 0 a) [4, 2] [ [6, 1) b) (4, 2) [ (6,1) c) (4, 2) [ [6, 1) d) [4,1) [ [6, 1)

7.

ð2x 6Þ=ðx þ 1Þ < 2 a) (1, 3) b) (1, 1)

SOLUTIONS 1. b) 2. a)

3. b)

4. c)

c) (1, 1) 5. a)

147

d) (1, 1) [ (1, 3) 6. c)

7. c)

6

CHAPTER

Functions

A function is a special type of relationship where the value of one variable depends on the value of one or more other variables. Functions occur all around us. For example, a person’s weight depends on many variables— age, sex, height, food intake, activity level, and so on. An hourly worker’s pay depends on the number of hours worked. College algebra students are mostly concerned with one variable depending on another. Normally, y depends on x. An example of an equation where y depends on x is the linear equation y ¼ mx þ b. For quadratic equations of the form y ¼ ax2 þ bx þ c, y is also a function of x. We call x the independent variable and y the dependent variable. Technically, a function is a relation between two sets, A and B, where every element in A is assigned exactly one element in B. What this means for x and y is that for every x-value, there is exactly one y-value. In the function y ¼ x2 þ 2x þ 3, once an x-value is chosen, exactly one y-value follows. If x ¼ 2, then y ¼ 22 þ 2ð2Þ þ 3 ¼ 11. No matter what we put in for x, there is exactly one y-value for that particular value of x. What kind of equations are not functions? Equations that have at least one x-value that has more than one y-value. For example, in the equation

148 Copyright © 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click here for terms of use.

CHAPTER 6 Functions

149

x2 þ y2 ¼ 9, y is not a function of x. If we let x ¼ 0, then we get y2 ¼ 9, so y ¼ 3 or y ¼ 3. So x ¼ 0 has two y-values, 3 and 3. When asked to determine whether or not an equation ‘‘gives y as a function of x,’’ solve the equation for y. Then decide if there can be any x-value that has more than one y-value. EXAMPLES Determine if y is a function of x. *

y3 þ x2 3x ¼ 7 Solve for y. y3 ¼ x2 þ 3x þ 7 ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ p 3 y ¼ x2 þ 3x þ 7

*

(We only need for even roots.)

Each x-value has only one y-value, so y is a function of x. ðx þ 1Þ2 þ ðy 8Þ2 ¼ 9 We solve this equation for y. ðx þ 1Þ2 þ ðy 8Þ2 ¼ 9 ðy 8Þ2 ¼ 9 ðx þ 1Þ2 qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ y 8 ¼ 9 ðx þ 1Þ2 qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ y ¼ 8 9 ðx þ 1Þ2 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ Most x-values have two y-values, y ¼ 8 þ 9 ðx þ 1Þ2 and y ¼ ﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 8 9 ðx þ 1Þ2 . This means that y is not a function of x.

PRACTICE Determine if y is a function of x. 1. 2. 3.

x2 þ ðy 3Þ2 ¼ 16 x2 2y ¼ 4 jyj ¼ x

SOLUTIONS 1. x2 þ ðy 3Þ2 ¼ 16 ðy 3Þ2 ¼ 16 x2 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ y 3 ¼ 16 x2 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ y ¼ 3 16 x2

CHAPTER 6 Functions

150

Therefore y is not paﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃfunction of x. To see this, let x ¼ 0: y ¼ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 3 16 02 ¼ 3 16 or y ¼ 3 þ 4 ¼ 7, and y ¼ 3 4 ¼ 1. 2. x2 2y ¼ 4 2y ¼ 4 x2 4 x2 y¼ 2 3.

Therefore y is a function of x. In the equation jyj ¼ x, y is not a function of x because every positive x-value has two y-values. For example, if x ¼ 3, jyj ¼ 3 has the solutions y ¼ 3 and y ¼ 3.

Domain and Range When y is a function of x, the domain of a function is the collection of all possible values for x. The range is the collection of all y-values. When asked to ﬁnd the domain of a function, think in terms of what can and cannot be done. For now, keep in mind that we cannot divide by 0 and we cannot take an even root of a negative number. For example, in the function y ¼ 1=x we cannot let x ¼ 0, so 0 is not in the domain of this function. The domain is the set of all nonzero real numbers. We might also say that the domain is x 6¼ 0. When asked to ﬁnd the domain of a function that has x in one or more denominators, we need to set each denominator (that has x in it) equal to zero and solve for x. The domain will not include these numbers. EXAMPLES Find the domain for the following functions. Give the domain in interval notation. *

y ¼ 2x=ðx 4Þ Because the denominator has an x in it, we will set it equal to zero and solve for x. The solution to x 4 ¼ 0 is x ¼ 4. The domain is all real numbers except 4. The interval notation is ð1ó 4Þ [ ð4ó 1Þ.

CHAPTER 6 Functions *

151

y ¼ ð2x þ 5Þ=ðx2 x 6Þ ¼ ð2x þ 5Þ=ðx 3Þðx þ 2Þ x3¼0

xþ2¼0

x¼3

x ¼ 2

The domain is all real numbers except 2 and 3. The interval notation for x 6¼ 2ó 3 is ð1ó 2Þ [ ð2ó 3Þ [ ð3ó 1Þ. *

*

y ¼ ðx2 þ x 8Þ=ðx2 þ 1Þ Because x2 þ 1 ¼ 0 has no real solution, we can let x be any real number. This means that the domain is all real numbers. The interval notation for all real numbers is ð1ó 1Þ. y ¼ ð3=ðx2 4ÞÞ þ 5 x2 4 ¼ 0 x2 ¼ 4 x ¼ 2 The domain is all real numbers except 2 and 2: ð1ó 2Þ [ ð2ó 2Þ [ ð2ó 1Þ.

PRACTICE Find the domain for the following functions. Give your solutions in interval notation. 1. 2. 3. 4.

x2 3x þ 5 xþ6 4 y¼ 2 þ 12x x þ 2x 8 6x y¼ 2 4x þ 1 1 x y ¼ 3x 6 þ þ x xþ5 y¼

SOLUTIONS 1. The solution to x þ 6 ¼ 0 is x ¼ 6. The domain is all real numbers except 6: ð1ó 6Þ [ ð6ó 1Þ.

CHAPTER 6 Functions

152 2.

Solve x2 þ 2x 8 ¼ 0 x2 þ 2x 8 ¼ ðx þ 4Þðx 2Þ xþ4¼0

x2¼0 x¼2

x ¼ 4

3

The domain is all real numbers except 4 and 2: ð1ó 4Þ [ ð4ó 2Þ [ ð2ó 1Þ. Solve 4x2 þ 1 ¼ 0 4x2 þ 1 ¼ 0 1 4 rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 1 x¼ 4

x2 ¼

4

! rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 1 is not a real number 4

There are no real solutions to 4x2 þ 1 ¼ 0, so the domain is all real numbers: ð1ó 1Þ. Solve x ¼ 0 and x þ 5 ¼ 0 x¼0

xþ5¼0 x ¼ 5

The domain is all real numbers except 0 and 5: ð1ó 5Þ [ ð5ó 0Þ [ ð0ó 1Þ. Functions that have a variable under an even root also might have limited domains. We can ﬁnd the domain of these functions by setting the expression under the root sign greater than or equal to zero and solving the inequality. EXAMPLES Find the domain. Give your answers in interval notation. pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ * y¼ x6 x60 x6 *

The domain is x 6: ½6ó 1Þ. pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ y ¼ 16 4x 16 4x 0 4x 16 x4 The domain is x 4: ð1ó 4.

CHAPTER 6 Functions *

y¼

153

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ p 4 x2 3x 4

x2 3x 4 0

becomes ðx 4Þðx þ 1Þ 0

x4¼0 x¼4

xþ1¼0 x ¼ 1

Fig. 6-1.

*

Because the inequality is ‘‘,’’ we want the þ intervals. The domain is ‘‘x p1 or x 4’’: ð1ó 1 [ ½4ó 1Þ. ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 4 2 y¼ x þ3 x2 þ 3 0

*

The inequality x2 þ 3 0 is true for all real numbers (since x2 0 for all x), making the domain all real numbers: ð1ó 1Þ. pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ y ¼ 3 5x 4 Because we can take odd roots of negative numbers, the domain for this function is all real numbers: ð1ó 1Þ.

PRACTICE Find the domain, expressing the answer in interval notation. pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 1. y ¼ 6x 8 ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ p 5 2. y ¼ p 4x þ 9 ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2 þ 5x þ 6 3. y ¼ px ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 6 2 4. y ¼ x þ 1 SOLUTIONS 1. 6x 8 0 8 4 x ¼ 6 3 2. 3.

The domain is x 43: ½43 ó 1Þ. Because the ﬁfth root is odd, the domain is all real numbers: ð1ó 1Þ. x2 þ 5x þ 6 0 becomes ðx þ 2Þðx þ 3Þ 0

CHAPTER 6 Functions

154 xþ2¼0 x ¼ 2

xþ3¼0 x ¼ 3

The sign graph is shown in Fig. 6-2.

Fig. 6-2.

4.

The domain is ð1ó 3 [ ½2ó 1Þ. Because x2 þ 1 0 is true for all real numbers, the domain is all real numbers: ð1ó 1Þ.

Some functions are combinations of diﬀerent kinds of functions. The domain of a combination of two or more kinds of functions is the set of all x-values that are possible for each part. The function pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ xþ4 y¼ xþ3 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ is made up of the parts x þ 4 and 1=ðx þ 3Þ. For x þ 4, we need x 4. For 1=ðx þ 3Þ, we need x 6¼ 3.

Fig. 6-3.

As we can see from the shaded region in Fig. 6-3, the domain for the function is ½4ó 3Þ [ ð3ó 1Þ. EXAMPLE Find the domain for the function. ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ p 4 * y ¼ x= x 7 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ Because 4 x 7 is in the denominator, 4 x 7 cannot be zero. Because x 7 is under an even root, it cannot be negative. Putting these two together means that x 7 > 0 (instead of x 7 0). The domain of this function is x > 7: ð7ó 1Þ. PRACTICE Find the domain for the functions. Give your solutions in interval notation. pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2x þ 5 1. y ¼ x6

CHAPTER 6 Functions 2. 3. 4.

1 y ¼ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 3 2x p ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 4 x2 y¼ 2 x x 12 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ y ¼ x2 þ 3x 18 þ

155

1 x5

SOLUTIONS 1. 2x þ 5 0

and

x

x 6 6¼ 0

5 2

x 6¼ 6

Fig. 6-4.

2.

The domain is ½ 52 ó 6Þ [ ð6ó 1Þ. 3 2x > 0 3 x< 2

3.

The domain is ð1ó 32Þ. x20

x2 x 12 6¼ 0

and

x2

ðx 4Þðx þ 3Þ 6¼ 0 x 4 6¼ 0 x 6¼ 4

x þ 3 6¼ 0 and x 6¼ 3

Fig. 6-5.

The domain is ½2ó 4Þ [ ð4ó 1Þ. (Because x 2, x ¼ 3 is not in the domain, anyway.) 4. x2 þ 3x 18 0 ðx þ 6Þðx 3Þ 0

and x 5 6¼ 0 x 6¼ 5

CHAPTER 6 Functions

156

Fig. 6-6.

The domain is ð1ó 6 [ ½3ó 5Þ [ ð5ó 1Þ.

Evaluating Functions Functions are often given letter names. The most common name is ‘‘f ðxÞ.’’ Instead of writing y ¼ 2x þ 1, we write f ðxÞ ¼ 2x þ 1. Usually y and f ðxÞ are the same. The notation ‘‘f ðxÞ’’ means ‘‘the function f evaluated at x.’’ Evaluating a function at a quantity means to substitute the quantity for x. If the function is f ðxÞ ¼ 2x þ 1, then to evaluate the function at 3 means to ﬁnd the y-value for x ¼ 3. Sometimes you might be asked to ‘‘ﬁnd f at 3,’’ ‘‘evaluate f ð3Þ,’’or ‘‘let x ¼ 3 in the equation.’’ EXAMPLES Evaluate the functions at the given values. *

Find f ð1Þ, f ð2Þ, and f ð0Þ for f ðxÞ ¼ 3x2 þ 4. We need to substitute the number in the parentheses for x. f ð1Þ ¼ 3ð1Þ2 þ 4 ¼ 3ð1Þ þ 4 ¼ 7 f ð2Þ ¼ 3ð2Þ2 þ 4 ¼ 3ð4Þ þ 4 ¼ 16 f ð0Þ ¼ 3ð0Þ2 þ 4 ¼ 3ð0Þ þ 4 ¼ 4

*

Find f ð4Þ, f ð10Þ, and f ð1Þ for f ðxÞ ¼ ð6x þ 5Þ=ðx2 þ 2Þ. f ð4Þ ¼

6ð4Þ þ 5 24 þ 5 19 ¼ ¼ 16 þ 2 18 ð4Þ2 þ 2

f ð10Þ ¼

6ð10Þ þ 5 60 þ 5 65 ¼ ¼ 2 100 þ 2 102 10 þ 2

f ð1Þ ¼

6ð1Þ þ 5 6 þ 5 11 ¼ ¼ 1þ2 3 12 þ 2

CHAPTER 6 Functions *

157

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ Find gð0Þ, gð1Þ, and gð6Þ for gðtÞ ¼ 3 t. (Treat the variable t like the variable x.) pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ gð0Þ ¼ 3 0 ¼ 3 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ gð1Þ ¼ 3 1 ¼ 2 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ gð6Þ ¼ 3 ð6Þ ¼ 9 ¼ 3

Functions that have no variable (other than y, f ðxÞ, or gðtÞ, etc.) are called constant functions. The y-values do not change. No matter what x is, the y-value (or functional value) stays the same. EXAMPLE * Evaluate f ðxÞ ¼ 10 at x ¼ 3, x ¼ 8, and x ¼ p. No matter what x is, f ðxÞ ¼ 10. f ð3Þ ¼ 10

f ð8Þ ¼ 10

f ðpÞ ¼ 10

PRACTICE 1. Find f ð4Þ, f ð6Þ, and f ð0Þ for f ðxÞ ¼ 3x 2. pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2. Find f ð10Þ, f ð6Þ, and f ðp23 Þ for f ðxÞ ¼ 17. 3. Find hð0Þ, hð5Þ, and hð2Þ for hðtÞ ¼ ð2t þ 4Þ=ðt2 7Þ. pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 4. Find f ð0Þ and f ð 12Þ for f ðxÞ ¼ 2x þ 1. SOLUTIONS 1. f ð4Þ ¼ 3ð4Þ 2 ¼ 10 f ð6Þ ¼ 3ð6Þ 2 ¼ 20 f ð0Þ ¼ 3ð0Þ 2 ¼ 2 2. pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 17 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ f ð6Þ ¼ 17 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ f ðp23 Þ ¼ 17

f ð10Þ ¼

CHAPTER 6 Functions

158 3.

2ð0Þ þ 4 4 ¼ 2 7 0 7 2ð5Þ þ 4 14 7 ¼ hð5Þ ¼ 2 ¼ 18 9 5 7 2ð2Þ þ 4 0 hð2Þ ¼ ¼0 ¼ 2 ð2Þ 7 3 hð0Þ ¼

4. pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ f ð0Þ ¼ 2ð0Þ þ 1 ¼ 1 ¼ 1 sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ 1 1 f ¼ 2 þ1¼ 0¼0 2 2

Piecewise Functions Piecewise-deﬁned functions come in two parts. One part is an interval for x, the other part is the formula for computing y. EXAMPLES x 4ó if x < 1; * f ðxÞ ¼ 2x þ 5 if x 1 This function is telling us that for x-values smaller than 1, the y-values are computed using x 4. For x-values greater than or equal to 1, the y-values are computed using 2x þ 5. When asked to evaluate f ðnumberÞ, we ﬁrst need to decide what interval of x the number is in, then compute the y-value using the formula to the left of the interval. We will evaluate this function at x ¼ 6, x ¼ 0, x ¼ 2, and x ¼ 10. f ð6Þ: Does x ¼ 6 belong to the interval x < 1 or to x 1? Since 6 1, we will use 2x þ 5 to compute y. f ð6Þ ¼ 2ð6Þ þ 5 ¼ 17 f ð0Þ: Does x ¼ 0 belong to the interval x < 1 or to x 1? Since 0 < 1, we will use x 4 to compute y. f ð0Þ ¼ 0 4 ¼ 4

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159

f ð2Þ: Does x ¼ 2 belong to the interval x < 1 or to x 1? Since 2 < 1, we will use x 4 to compute y. f ð2Þ ¼ 2 4 ¼ 6 f ð10Þ: Does x ¼ 10 belong to the interval x < 1 or to x 1? Since 10 1, we will use 2x þ 5 to compute y. f ð10Þ ¼ 2ð10Þ þ 5 ¼ 25 *

Evaluate f ð4Þ, f ð0Þ, f ð6Þ, and f ð2Þ. 8 2 if x < 2; > <x f ðxÞ ¼ 4x þ 8 if 2 x < 3; > : 16 if x 3 f ð4Þ: Since x ¼ 4 belongs to the interval x < 2, we will use x2 to compute y. f ð4Þ ¼ ð4Þ2 ¼ 16 f ð0Þ: Since x ¼ 0 belongs to the interval 2 x < 3, we will use 4x þ 8 to compute y. f ð0Þ ¼ 4ð0Þ þ 8 ¼ 8 f ð6Þ: Since x ¼ 6 belongs to the interval x 3, the y-value is 16. f ð6Þ ¼ 16 f ð2Þ: Since x ¼ 2 belongs to the interval 2 x < 3, we will use 4x þ 8 to compute y. f ð2Þ ¼ 4ð2Þ þ 8 ¼ 0

PRACTICE 1. Find f ð0Þó f ð1Þó f ð7Þ, and f ð6Þ. 2 x 2x if x < 4; f ðxÞ ¼ xþ5 if x 4 2.

Find f ð4Þó f ð3Þó f ð1Þ, and f ð1Þ. 8 2 > < 3x þ 2x if x 1; f ðxÞ ¼ x þ 4 if 1 < x 1; > : 6x if x > 1

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160 3.

Find f ð3Þó f ð2Þ, and f ð0Þ. f ðxÞ ¼

4.

0 if x < 0; 1 if x 0

Find f ð3Þó f ð0Þó f ð4Þó f ð2Þ, and f ð1Þ. 8 if x < 1; < 2 f ðxÞ ¼ 3x 4 if 1 x < 3; : 2 x 2x þ 2 if x 3

SOLUTIONS 1. f ð0Þ ¼ 0 þ 5 ¼ 5

f ð1Þ ¼ 1 þ 5 ¼ 4

f ð7Þ ¼ 7 þ 5 ¼ 12

f ð6Þ ¼ ð6Þ2 2ð2Þ ¼ 40

2. f ð4Þ ¼ 3ð4Þ2 þ 2ð4Þ ¼ 40

f ð3Þ ¼ 6ð3Þ ¼ 18

f ð1Þ ¼ 3ð1Þ2 þ 2ð1Þ ¼ 1

f ð1Þ ¼ 1 þ 4 ¼ 5

3. f ð3Þ ¼ 1

f ð2Þ ¼ 0

f ð0Þ ¼ 1

4. f ð3Þ ¼ 32 2ð3Þ þ 2 ¼ 5 f ð4Þ ¼ 2

f ð0Þ ¼ 2 f ð2Þ ¼ 3ð2Þ 4 ¼ 2

f ð1Þ ¼ 3ð1Þ 4 ¼ 1

More Evaluating Functions Functions can be evaluated at quantities other than numbers, even at other functions. Keep in mind that evaluating a function means to substitute whatever is in the parentheses for the variable, even if what is in the parentheses is another variable. The function f ðxÞ ¼ 2x þ 1 says, ‘‘Double the quantity in

CHAPTER 6 Functions the parentheses, then add 1.’’ Suppose we are asked to ﬁnd f ðbÞ. We need to substitute b for x in the equation, that is, double b then add 1. f ðbÞ ¼ 2b þ 1 Similarly f ðv2 Þ ¼ 2v2 þ 1 and f ða þ bÞ ¼ 2ða þ bÞ þ 1 ¼ 2a þ 2b þ 1. EXAMPLES * Find f ðaÞó f ð2aÞ, and f ða þ 1Þ for f ðxÞ ¼ x2 þ 3x þ 2. f ðaÞ ¼ a2 þ 3a þ 2 f ð2aÞ ¼ ð2aÞ2 þ 3ð2aÞ þ 2 ¼ 4a2 þ 6a þ 2 f ða þ 1Þ ¼ ða þ 1Þ2 þ 3ða þ 1Þ þ 2 ¼ ða þ 1Þða þ 1Þ þ 3ða þ 1Þ þ 2 ¼ a2 þ 2a þ 1 þ 3a þ 3 þ 2 ¼ a2 þ 5a þ 6 *

Find f ðuÞó f ð3uÞó f ðu vÞ, and f ðu2 Þ for f ðxÞ ¼ ð6x 1Þ=ðx2 þ 3Þ. 6u 1 u2 þ 3 6ð3uÞ 1 18u 1 f ð3uÞ ¼ ¼ ð3uÞ2 þ 3 9u2 þ 3 f ðuÞ ¼

f ðu vÞ ¼ f ðu2 Þ ¼ *

6ðu vÞ 1 6u 6v 1 6u 6v 1 ¼ ¼ 2 2 ðu vÞ þ 3 ðu vÞðu vÞ þ 3 u 2uv þ v2 þ 3 6u2 1 6u2 1 ¼ u4 þ 3 ðu2 Þ2 þ 3

Find f ðaÞó f ða þ hÞó f ð1=aÞ, and f ðxÞ for f ðxÞ ¼ 1=ðx 1Þ 1 a1 1 1 f ða þ hÞ ¼ ¼ ða þ hÞ 1 a þ h 1 1 1 1 1 ¼ ¼ ¼ f a ð1=aÞ 1 ð1=aÞ ða=aÞ ð1 aÞ=a f ðaÞ ¼

1a a a ¼1 ¼ a 1a 1a 1 1 1 f ðxÞ ¼ or ¼ x 1 ðx þ 1Þ xþ1 ¼1

161

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162 *

Find gðuÞó gðu2 þ vÞ, and gð3u 1Þ for gðtÞ ¼ 12. Because g is a constant function, gðtÞ ¼ 12 no matter what is in the parentheses. gðuÞ ¼ 12 2

gðu þ vÞ ¼ 12 gð3u 1Þ ¼ 12 PRACTICE 1. Find f ðaÞó f ð2aÞó f ða2 Þ, and f ða þ hÞ for f ðxÞ ¼ 3x 8. 2. Find gðaÞó gða þ 1Þó gðaÞ, and gða þ hÞ for gðtÞ ¼ 7. 3. Find f ðuÞó f ðuvÞó f ðaÞ, and f ða þ hÞ for f ðxÞ ¼ 2x2 x þ 1. 4. Find f ðtÞó f ðaÞó f ða þ hÞ, and f ð1=aÞ for f ðtÞ ¼ ð3 tÞ=t. 5. Find f ðxÞó f ð1=xÞó f ðaÞ, and f ða þ hÞ for f ðxÞ ¼ ð4 xÞ=ð1 2xÞ. SOLUTIONS 1. f ðaÞ ¼ 3a 8 f ð2aÞ ¼ 3ð2aÞ 8 ¼ 6a 8 f ða2 Þ ¼ 3a2 8 f ða þ hÞ ¼ 3ða þ hÞ 8 ¼ 3a þ 3h 8 2. gðaÞ ¼ 7 gða þ 1Þ ¼ 7 gðaÞ ¼ 7 gða þ hÞ ¼ 7 3. f ðuÞ ¼ 2u2 u þ 1 f ðuvÞ ¼ 2ðuvÞ2 uv þ 1 ¼ 2u2 v2 uv þ 1 f ðaÞ ¼ 2a2 a þ 1 f ða þ hÞ ¼ 2ða þ hÞ2 ða þ hÞ þ 1 ¼ 2ða þ hÞða þ hÞ ða þ hÞ þ 1 ¼ 2ða2 þ 2ah þ h2 Þ a h þ 1 ¼ 2a2 þ 4ah þ 2h2 a h þ 1

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163

4. 3 ðtÞ 3 þ t 3þt ¼ or t t t 3a f ðaÞ ¼ a 3 ða þ hÞ 3 a h ¼ f ða þ hÞ ¼ aþh aþh 1 3 1=a ð3a=aÞ ð1=aÞ ¼ f ¼ a 1=a 1=a f ðtÞ ¼

¼

ð3a 1Þ=a 3a 1 1 3a 1 a ¼ ¼ ¼ 3a 1 1=a a a a 1

5. f ðxÞ ¼ f

4 ðxÞ 4þx ¼ 1 2ðxÞ 1 þ 2x

1 4 ð1=xÞ ð4x=xÞ ð1=xÞ ð4x 1Þ=x ¼ ¼ ¼ x 1 2ð1=xÞ 1 ð2=xÞ ðx=xÞ ð2=xÞ ¼

ð4x 1Þ=x 4x 1 x 2 4x 1 x 4x 1 ¼ ¼ ¼ ðx 2Þ=x x x x x2 x2

4a 1 2a 4 ða þ hÞ 4ah f ða þ hÞ ¼ ¼ 1 2ða þ hÞ 1 2a 2h f ðaÞ ¼

Newton’s Quotient A very important expression in mathematics is Newton’s quotient, sometimes written as f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞ ó h where f is some function. In fact, Newton’s quotient is the basis for differential calculus. Algebra students work with Newton’s quotient so that

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164

when (and if ) they study calculus, they do not struggle with complicated algebra. Evaluating Newton’s quotient is really not much more than function evaluation. First, we need to ﬁnd f ðaÞ and f ða þ hÞ for the function given to us. Second, we need to perform the subtraction f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞ and simplify. Third, we need to divide this by h and simplify. The previous practice problems gave us experience in evaluating f ðaÞ and f ða þ hÞ. Now we will practice ﬁnding f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞ. EXAMPLES Find f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞ for the functions. *

f ðxÞ ¼ 3x þ 5. f ðaÞ ¼ 3a þ 5

and f ða þ hÞ ¼ 3ða þ hÞ þ 5 ¼ 3a þ 3h þ 5

f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞ ¼ 3a þ 3h þ 5 ð3a þ 5Þ ¼ 3a þ 3h þ 5 3a 5 ¼ 3h *

f ðtÞ ¼ t2 þ 1 f ðaÞ ¼ a2 þ 1

and f ða þ hÞ ¼ ða þ hÞ2 þ 1 ¼ a2 þ 2ah þ h2 þ 1

f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞ ¼ a2 þ 2ah þ h2 þ 1 ða2 þ 1Þ ¼ a2 þ 2ah þ h2 þ 1 a2 1 ¼ 2ah þ h2 *

f ðxÞ ¼ 6 f ðaÞ ¼ 6

and f ða þ hÞ ¼ 6

f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞ ¼ 6 6 ¼ 0 *

f ðtÞ ¼

1 tþ3 f ðaÞ ¼

1 aþ3

and f ða þ hÞ ¼

1 aþhþ3

CHAPTER 6 Functions f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞ ¼

165

1 1 aþhþ3 aþ3

¼

aþ3 1 aþhþ3 1 aþ3 aþhþ3 aþhþ3 aþ3

¼

a þ 3 ða þ h þ 3Þ ða þ h þ 3Þða þ 3Þ

¼

aþ3ah3 h ¼ ða þ h þ 3Þða þ 3Þ ða þ h þ 3Þða þ 3Þ

PRACTICE Find f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞ for the functions. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

f ðxÞ ¼ 3x 4 f ðxÞ ¼ x2 þ 5 f ðxÞ ¼ x2 3x 6 f ðtÞ ¼ 19 f ðtÞ ¼ 1=t

SOLUTIONS 1. f ða þ hÞ ¼ 3ða þ hÞ 4

and f ðaÞ ¼ 3a 4

f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞ ¼ 3ða þ hÞ 4 ð3a 4Þ ¼ 3a þ 3h 4 3a þ 4 ¼ 3h 2.

f ða þ hÞ ¼ ða þ hÞ2 þ 5 and f ðaÞ ¼ a2 þ 5 f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞ ¼ ða þ hÞ2 þ 5 ða2 þ 5Þ ¼ a2 þ 2ah þ h2 þ 5 a2 5 ¼ 2ah þ h2

3.

f ða þ hÞ ¼ ða þ hÞ2 3ða þ hÞ 6 and f ðaÞ ¼ a2 3a 6 f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞ ¼ ða þ hÞ2 3ða þ hÞ 6 ða2 3a 6Þ ¼ a2 þ 2ah þ h2 3a 3h 6 a2 þ 3a þ 6 ¼ 2ah þ h2 3h

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166 4.

f ða þ hÞ ¼ 19 and f ðaÞ ¼ 19 f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞ ¼ 19 ð19Þ ¼ 19 þ 19 ¼ 0

5.

1 a 1 1 f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞ ¼ aþh a

f ða þ hÞ ¼

1 aþh

and f ðaÞ ¼

a 1 aþh 1 ¼ a aþh aþh a ¼

a aþh a ða þ hÞ ¼ aða þ hÞ aða þ hÞ aða þ hÞ

¼

aah h ¼ aða þ hÞ aða þ hÞ

The only steps remaining in evaluating Newton’s quotient is to divide the diﬀerence f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞ by h. The following examples and practice problems are from the previous section. EXAMPLES Evaluate ð f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞÞ=h for the functions. *

f ðxÞ ¼ 3x þ 5. We found that f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞ ¼ 3h. f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞ 3h ¼ ¼3 h h

*

f ðtÞ ¼ t2 þ 1. We found that f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞ ¼ 2ah þ h2 . f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞ 2ah þ h2 ¼ ¼ 2a þ h h h

*

f ðxÞ ¼ 6. We found that f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞ ¼ 0. f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞ 0 ¼ ¼0 h h

CHAPTER 6 Functions *

f ðtÞ ¼ 1=ðt þ 3Þ We found that f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞ ¼ h=ðða þ h þ 3Þða þ 3ÞÞ. f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞ h=ðða þ h þ 3Þða þ 3ÞÞ ¼ h h h h 1 h¼ ¼ ða þ h þ 3Þða þ 3Þ ða þ h þ 3Þða þ 3Þ h ¼

1 ða þ h þ 3Þða þ 3Þ

PRACTICE Evaluate ð f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞÞ=h for the functions. The first five functions are the same as in the previous practice problems. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

f ðxÞ ¼ 3x 4 f ðxÞ ¼ x2 þ 5 f ðxÞ ¼ x2 3x 6 f ðtÞ ¼ 19 f ðtÞ ¼ 1=t f ðxÞ ¼ 3x2 5x þ 2

SOLUTIONS 1. We found that f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞ ¼ 3h. f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞ 3h ¼ ¼3 h h 2.

We found that f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞ ¼ 2ah þ h2 . f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞ 2ah þ h2 hð2a þ hÞ ¼ ¼ 2a þ h ¼ h h h

3.

We found that f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞ ¼ 2ah þ h2 3h. f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞ 2ah þ h2 3h hð2a þ h 3Þ ¼ ¼ ¼ 2a þ h 3 h h h

4.

We found that f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞ ¼ 0. f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞ 0 ¼ ¼0 h h

167

CHAPTER 6 Functions

168 5.

We found that f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞ ¼ h=ðaða þ hÞÞ f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞ h=ðaða þ hÞÞ h ¼ ¼ h h h aða þ hÞ h 1 1 ¼ ¼ aða þ hÞ h aða þ hÞ

6. f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞ 3ða þ hÞ2 5ða þ hÞ þ 2 ð3a2 5a þ 2Þ ¼ h h 3a2 þ 6ah þ 3h2 5a 5h þ 2 3a2 þ 5a 2 ¼ h ¼

6ah þ 3h2 5h hð6a þ 3h 5Þ ¼ h h

¼ 6a þ 3h 5 Newton’s quotient is really nothing more than the slope of the line containing the two points ðaó f ðaÞÞ and ða þ hó f ða þ hÞÞ. Remember the slope formula for the line containing the points ðx1 ó y1 Þ and ðx2 ó y2 Þ is m¼

y2 y1 : x2 x1

In Newton’s quotient, x1 ¼ aó y1 ¼ f ðaÞó x2 ¼ a þ hó y2 ¼ f ða þ hÞ. m¼

y2 y1 f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞ f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞ ¼ ¼ aþha h x2 x1

Functions and Their Graphs Reading graphs, sketching graphs by hand, and sketching graphs using graphing calculators are all important in today’s algebra courses. We will concentrate on reading graphs in this section. A graph can give us a great deal of information about its equation. First, it can tell us if the graph is the graph of a function. Remember, if y is a function of x, then each x-value has exactly one y-value. What if we have a graph where an x-value has two or more y-values? A vertical line through that particular x-value would touch the graph in more than one point.

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169

For example, a vertical line would touch the graph at both ð4ó 2Þ and ð4ó 2) in Fig. 6-7.

Fig. 6-7.

We can tell whether or not a graph is the graph of a function if any vertical line touches the graph in more than one point. If a vertical line touches the graph in more than one point, then the graph is not the graph of a function. If every vertical line touches the graph in one point or not at all, then the graph is the graph of a function. This is called the vertical line test. The graphs in Figs. 6-8 and 6-9 are graphs of functions.

Fig. 6-8.

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170

Fig. 6-9.

PRACTICE Use the vertical line test to determine which of the graphs below are graphs of functions. 1.

Fig. 6-10.

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171

2.

Fig. 6-11.

3.

Fig. 6-12.

4.

Fig. 6-13.

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172 5.

Fig. 6-14.

SOLUTIONS 1. Yes 2. No 3. Yes 4. No 5. Yes Graphs are also useful in evaluating functions. Remember that points on the graph are pairs of numbers, x (the distance left or right of the origin), and y (the distance above or below the origin). Normally, y and f ðxÞ are the same. The point ð1ó 1Þ on the graph in Fig. 6-15 means that f ð1Þ ¼ 1. The point ð2ó 4Þ on the graph means that f ð2Þ ¼ 4. What is f ð0Þ? In other words, when x ¼ 0, what is y? Because the point ð0ó 0Þ is on the graph, f ð0Þ ¼ 0.

Fig. 6-15.

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173

EXAMPLES Refer to Fig. 6-16 for the following.

Fig. 6-16. *

*

*

Find f ð3Þ. Another way of saying, ‘‘Find f ð3Þ’’ is saying, ‘‘What is the y-value for the point on the graph for x ¼ 3?’’ The point ð3ó 2Þ is on the graph, so f ð3Þ ¼ 2. Find f ð2Þ. We need to look for the point on the graph where x ¼ 2. The point ð2ó 0Þ is on the graph, so f ð2Þ ¼ 0. Find f ð0Þ. We need to look for the point on the graph where x ¼ 0. The point ð0ó 3Þ is on the graph, so f ð0Þ ¼ 3.

PRACTICE Refer to Fig. 6-17 for the following.

Fig. 6-17.

CHAPTER 6 Functions

174 1. 2. 3. 4.

Find Find Find Find

f ð0Þ f ð3Þ f ð2Þ f ð3Þ

SOLUTIONS 1. The point 2. The point 3. The point 4. The point

ð0ó 2Þ is on the graph, so f ð0Þ ¼ 2. ð3ó 4Þ is on the graph, so f ð3Þ ¼ 4. ð2ó 1Þ is on the graph, so f ð2Þ ¼ 1. ð3ó 0Þ is on the graph, so f ð3Þ ¼ 0.

FINDING THE DOMAIN AND RANGE The graph of a function can tell us what its domain and range are. Remember that the domain of a function is the set of x-values that can be used in the function. We can ﬁnd the domain by seeing how far left and right the graph goes. The range of a function is the set of y-values. We can ﬁnd the range by seeing how far up and down the graph goes. EXAMPLES Find the domain and range. Give your answers in interval notation. *

Fig. 6-18.

The domain is ð1ó 1Þ. The range is ½2ó 1Þ because the smallest y-value is 2 and there is no largest y-value.

CHAPTER 6 Functions

175

*

Fig. 6-19.

Because the entire graph is to the right of the y-axis (where x ¼ 0), the domain is ð0ó 1Þ. The range is ð1ó 1Þ. *

Fig. 6-20.

The domain is ð1ó 1Þ. The range consists of one number, y ¼ 1. The range is f1g. *

Fig. 6-21.

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176

The solid dot at ð5ó 3Þ means that this point is part of the function, so x ¼ 5 is in the domain and y ¼ 3 is in the range. The open dot at ð4ó 3Þ means that the domain goes up to x ¼ 4 but does not include it, and that the range goes down to y ¼ 3 but does not include it. The domain is ½5ó 4Þ, and the range is ð3ó 3. PRACTICE Find the domain and range. Give your answers in interval notation. 1.

Fig. 6-22.

2.

Fig. 6-23.

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177

3.

Fig. 6-24.

4.

Fig. 6-25.

CHAPTER 6 Functions

178 5.

Fig. 6-26.

SOLUTIONS 1. The domain 2. The domain 3. The domain 4. The domain 5. The domain

is is is is is

ð1ó 1Þ. The range is ð1ó 1. ½2ó 1Þ. The range is ½0ó 1Þ. ½4ó 5. The range is f5g. ð5ó 10. The range is ½10ó 15. ð1ó 0Þ [ ð0ó 1Þ. The range is ð0ó 1Þ.

INCREASING INTERVALS AND DECREASING INTERVALS Graphs can tell us where functions are going up (if anywhere) and where they are going down (if anywhere). Many functions go up in some places and down in others. A few functions do not go up or down. A function is said to be increasing on an interval if, as we move from left to right in the interval, the y-values are going up. A function is said to be decreasing on an interval if, as we move from left to right in the interval, the y-values are going down. A function is constant on an interval if, as we move from left to right in the interval, the y-values do not change. As an example, consider the graph in Fig. 6-27. If we are anywhere to the left of x ¼ 1 and move to the right, the graph is going down. We say the function is decreasing on the interval ð1ó 1Þ. If we are anywhere between x ¼ 1 and x ¼ 0 and move to the right, the graph is going up. We say the function is increasing on

CHAPTER 6 Functions

179

Fig. 6-27.

the interval ð1ó 0Þ. If we are anywhere between x ¼ 0 and x ¼ 1 and move to the right, the graph is going back down. We say the function is decreasing on the interval ð0ó 1Þ. Finally, if we are anywhere to the right of x ¼ 1 and move to the right, the function is going back up. We say the function is increasing on the interval ð1ó 1Þ. EXAMPLES Determine where the functions are increasing, decreasing, or constant. *

Fig. 6-28.

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180

This function is increasing to the left of x ¼ 1, ð1ó 1Þ. It is decreasing to the right of x ¼ 1, ð1ó 1Þ. *

Fig. 6-29.

No matter where we are on this graph, as we move to the right, the graph is going up, so this function is increasing everywhere, ð1ó 1Þ. *

Fig. 6-30.

This function is decreasing on all of its domain, ð1ó 0Þ.

CHAPTER 6 Functions

181

*

Fig. 6-31.

This function is decreasing on ð4ó 2Þ (between x ¼ 4 and x ¼ 2), increasing on ð2ó 1Þ (between x ¼ 2 and x ¼ 1), constant on ð1ó 2Þ (between x ¼ 1 and x ¼ 2), and decreasing on ð2ó 4Þ (between x ¼ 2 and x ¼ 4). PRACTICE Determine where the functions are increasing, decreasing, or constant. 1.

Fig. 6-32.

CHAPTER 6 Functions

182 2.

Fig. 6-33.

3.

Fig. 6-34.

4.

Fig. 6-35.

CHAPTER 6 Functions

183

SOLUTIONS 1. The increasing intervals are ð1ó 1Þ and ð1ó 1Þ. The decreasing interval is ð1ó 1Þ. 2. The function is increasing everywhere, ð1ó 1Þ. 3. The constant interval is ð6ó 1Þ. The increasing intervals are ð1ó 0Þ and ð2ó 4Þ. The decreasing interval is ð0ó 2Þ. 4. The increasing interval is ð1ó 1Þ. The decreasing interval is ð1ó 1Þ.

PIECEWISE FUNCTIONS The graph of a piecewise-deﬁned function comes in pieces. A piece might be part of a line, parabola, or some other shape. The important point is in determining which piece of which function is needed. For example, the following function comes in two pieces. The ﬁrst piece is part of the line y ¼ x þ 1, and the second piece is part of the line y ¼ 2x. ( f ðxÞ ¼

xþ1

if x < 0

2x

if x 0

Because ‘‘x < 0’’ is written to the right of ‘‘x þ 1’’, the part of the line y ¼ x þ 1 we need is to the left of x ¼ 0.

Fig. 6-36.

Because ‘‘x 0’’ is written to the right of ‘‘2x,’’ the part of the line y ¼ 2x we need is to the right of x ¼ 0.

CHAPTER 6 Functions

184

Fig. 6-37.

The graph of the function is shown in Fig. 6-38.

Fig. 6-38.

When sketching the graph of a piecewise function, the endpoint of each interval must be graphed. When plotting the endpoints, we will use an open dot ‘‘ ’’ for the inequalities ‘‘x < number’’ and ‘‘x > number.’’ We will use a closed dot ‘‘ ’’ for the inequalities ‘‘x number’’ and ‘‘x number.’’ In the above example, there are two pieces, each with one endpoint. For the piece y ¼ x þ 1, the endpoint is x ¼ 0. Let x ¼ 0 to get y ¼ 0 þ 1 ¼ 1. Even though the point ð0ó 1Þ is not part of the graph (because x < 0), we need to represent this point on the graph with an open dot to show that the graph goes all the way up to that point. For the piece y ¼ 2x, the endpoint is also x ¼ 0. We need to represent this point, ð0ó 0Þ, with a closed dot to show that this point does belong to the graph (because x 0).

CHAPTER 6 Functions

185

EXAMPLES Sketch the graph of the piecewise functions. n 2x 3 if x 1 * f ðxÞ ¼ 2 if x > 1 This graph comes in two pieces. One piece is part of the line y ¼ 2x 3, and the other piece is part of the horizontal line y ¼ 2. We will start by making a table of values (Table 6-1), part of the table for y ¼ 2x 3 and the other part for y ¼ 2. Because each piece is a line, we only need to plot two points for each piece. One of these points must be x ¼ 1, the endpoint for each piece. The other x-value for the piece y ¼ 2x 3 can be anything to the left of x ¼ 1. We will use x ¼ 1. The other x-value for the piece y ¼ 2 can be anything to the right of x ¼ 1. We will use x ¼ 3. Table 6-1 x

f ðxÞ

1

1

y ¼ 2ð1Þ 3 ¼ 1

1

5

y ¼ 2ð1Þ 3 ¼ 5

1

2

y ¼ 2

3

2

y ¼ 2

Fig. 6-39.

CHAPTER 6 Functions

186

We will use a solid dot when plotting the point ð1ó 1Þ because the inequality for y ¼ 2x 3 is ‘‘x 1.’’ We will use an open dot for the point ð1ó 2Þ because the inequality for y ¼ 2 is ‘‘x > 1.’’ Now we will draw a line starting at ð1ó 1Þ through ð1ó 5Þ and another line starting at ð1ó 2Þ through ð3ó 2Þ.

Fig. 6-40.

*

f ðxÞ ¼

1x 2x

if x < 2 if x 2

Each piece of this function is part of a line, so we need to plot two points for each piece. For the piece y ¼ 1 x, we need to plot the point for x ¼ 2 (because it is an endpoint) and any point to the left of x ¼ 2. We will plot a point for x ¼ 2. For the piece y ¼ 2x, we need to plot the point for x ¼ 2 (because it is an endpoint) and any point to the right of x ¼ 2. We will plot a point for x ¼ 3 (Table 6-2). Table 6-2

x

f ðxÞ

2

1

2

3

y ¼ 1 ð2Þ ¼ 3

2

4

y ¼ 2ð2Þ ¼ 4

3

6

y ¼ 2ð3Þ ¼ 6

y ¼ 1 2 ¼ 1

CHAPTER 6 Functions

187

Fig. 6-41.

PRACTICE Sketch the graphs. 1.

f ðxÞ ¼

2.

1 2x

þ1 x2

if x 0 if x > 0

n

3 if x 2 2x 5 if x > 2 x if x < 0 f ðxÞ ¼ x if x 0

f ðxÞ ¼ 3.

This is another way of writing the function f ðxÞ ¼ jxj. SOLUTIONS 1.

Fig. 6-42.

CHAPTER 6 Functions

188 2.

Fig. 6-43.

3.

Fig. 6-44.

One or both pieces of the functions in the following will be parts of quadratic functions. Our knowledge of the graphs of quadratic functions will help to graph these piecewise functions. At ﬁrst, it might be easier to sketch the graph of the entire quadratic function then erase the part that we do not need.

CHAPTER 6 Functions EXAMPLES ( *

f ðxÞ ¼

189

x2 2x þ 1

if x 1

2x

if x < 1

We only need the part of the graph of y ¼ x2 2x þ 1 to the right of x ¼ 1.

Fig. 6-45.

We need the part of the line y ¼ 2 x to the left of x ¼ 1.

Fig. 6-46.

( *

f ðxÞ ¼

12 x2 þ x þ 1

if x 2

x2

if x > 2

We need the part of the graph of y ¼ 12 x2 þ x þ 1 to the left of x ¼ 2.

CHAPTER 6 Functions

190

Fig. 6-47.

We need the part of the graph of y ¼ x2 to the right of x ¼ 2.

Fig. 6-48.

Fig. 6-49.

CHAPTER 6 Functions

191

PRACTICE Sketch the graphs. 1. ( f ðxÞ ¼

x2 þ 1

if x 0

3

if x < 0

2. ( gðxÞ ¼

x2 þ 4x 2

if x < 1

4x 5

if x 1

3. f ðxÞ ¼

xþ1 2

x þ1

SOLUTIONS 1.

Fig. 6-50.

if x 2 if x > 2

CHAPTER 6 Functions

192 2.

Fig. 6-51.

3.

Fig. 6-52.

Piecewise functions can come in any number of pieces. The same rules apply. The endpoints of each piece must be plotted. If the function comes in three pieces, both endpoints of the middle piece must be plotted. The next example comes in three pieces. The two outside pieces are parts of lines, and the middle piece is part of a parabola.

CHAPTER 6 Functions EXAMPLE *

193

(

x þ 2 if x 2 x2 þ 2 if 2 < x < 2 xþ2 if x 2 For the piece y ¼ x þ 2, we only need to plot two points, the endpoint x ¼ 2 and a point to the left of x ¼ 2. The piece y ¼ x2 þ 2 is a parabola between x ¼ 2 and x ¼ 2.

f ðxÞ ¼

Fig. 6-53.

The last piece, y ¼ x þ 2, is another line. We need to plot two points, the endpoint x ¼ 2 and a point to the right of x ¼ 2.

Fig. 6-54.

CHAPTER 6 Functions

194 PRACTICE Sketch the graphs. 1.

2.

8 <x f ðxÞ ¼ 4 : x

if x < 2 if 2 x < 1 if x 1

8 1 0

d) 7 and 10

3.

What is the domain for f ðxÞ ¼ ðx 5Þ=ðx þ 6Þ ? a) ð1ó 6Þ [ ð6ó 1Þ b) ½6ó 1Þ c) ð6ó 1Þ d) ð1ó 6Þ [ ð6ó 5Þ [ ð5ó 1Þ

4.

In the equation y2 þ ðx 8Þ2 ¼ 4, is y a function of x? a) Yes b) No c) Cannot be determined pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ What is the domain for f ðxÞ ¼ x 3? a) ð1ó 3Þ [ ð3ó 1Þ b) ð3ó 1Þ c) ½3ó 1Þ d) ð1ó 3Þ

5. 6.

Is the graph shown in Fig. 6-57 the graph of a function? a) Yes b) No c) Cannot be determined

Fig. 6-57.

7.

Evaluate f ðv2 Þ for f ðxÞ ¼ x=ðx þ 1Þ. a) v2 x=ðx þ 1Þ

b) v2 =ðx þ 1Þ

c) v2 =ðv2 þ 1Þ

d) 1=2

CHAPTER 6 Functions

196 8.

What is f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞ for f ðxÞ ¼ x2 þ 2x þ 3? b) 2ah þ h2 þ 2a þ 6 c) h2 þ 2h a) h2 þ 2h þ 6 d) 2ah þ h2 þ 2h

9.

For what interval(s) of x is the function f ðxÞ increasing, the graph of which is shown in Fig. 6-58? a) ð1ó 3Þ b) ð3ó 0Þ c) ð3ó 3Þ d) ð1ó 0Þ

Fig. 6-58.

10.

Refer to Fig. 6-58. What is f ð4Þ? a) 5 b) 2 c) 2 d) Cannot be determined

11.

Refer to Fig. 6-58. What is the domain? a) ½5ó 4 b) ½5ó 2 c) ½2ó 4 d) Cannot be determined

12.

In the equation y3 6x2 þ 2x ¼ 5 is y a function of x? a) Yes b) No c) Cannot be determined pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ What is the domain for f ðxÞ ¼ ðx 10Þ=ð x 1Þ?

13.

a) ð1ó 1Þ [ ð1ó 10Þ [ ð10ó 1Þ c) ð1ó 1Þ

b) ð1ó 1Þ [ ð1ó 1Þ d) ½1ó 1Þ

CHAPTER 6 Functions

197

14.

Find ð f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞÞ=h for f ðxÞ ¼ x2 3x þ 5. b) h2 3h c) 2ah þ h2 þ h d) 2a þ h 3 a) h2 þ h

15.

The graph of which function is shown in Fig. 6-59?

Fig. 6-59.

(a) ( f ðxÞ ¼

x2 2

if x < 1

xþ2

if x 1

x2 2

if x > 1

xþ2

if x 1

(b) ( f ðxÞ ¼

(c) ( f ðxÞ ¼

ðx 2Þ2

if x < 1

xþ2

if x 1

CHAPTER 6 Functions

198 (d) ( f ðxÞ ¼

SOLUTIONS 1. d) 2. b) 9. b) 10. b)

3. a) 11. a)

ðx 2Þ2

if x > 1

xþ2

if x 1

4. b) 5. c) 6. b) 7. c) 8. d) 12. a) 13. c) 14. d) 15. b)

CHAPTER

7

Quadratic Functions

The quadratic equations in Chapter 6 are actually quadratic functions. In Chapter 6 the functions are written in the form y ¼ ax2 þ bx þ c, and here they will be written as f ðxÞ ¼ ax2 þ bx þ c. Remember that the graph of a quadratic function is a parabola that either opens up or opens down.

Fig. 7-1.

199 Copyright © 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click here for terms of use.

CHAPTER 7 Quadratic Functions

200

For a parabola that opens up, the quadratic function is decreasing to the left of the vertex and is increasing to the right of the vertex. For a parabola that opens down, the quadratic function is increasing to the left of the vertex and is decreasing to the right of the vertex. The vertex of a parabola can be found by writing the function in standard form, f ðxÞ ¼ aðx hÞ2 þ k (by using completing the square), where ðhó kÞ are the coordinates of the vertex, or by computing h ¼ b=2a, and k ¼ c aðb=2aÞ2 . This formula for k is not easy to remember (or even to use!). It is easier to ﬁnd the y-value for x ¼ b=2a. EXAMPLES Find the vertex using the fact that h ¼ b=2a. *

f ðxÞ ¼ 3x2 6x þ 1 a ¼ 3ó b ¼ 6, and h ¼ b=2a ¼ ð6Þ=2ð3Þ ¼ 1. Find k by evaluating f ð1Þ ¼ 3ð1Þ2 6ð1Þ þ 1 ¼ 2. The vertex is ð1ó 2Þ.

*

f ðxÞ ¼ x2 þ 4 a ¼ 1ó b ¼ 0ó h ¼ b=2a ¼ 0=2ð1Þ ¼ 0. Find k by evaluating f ð0Þ ¼ 02 þ 4 ¼ 4. The vertex is ð0ó 4Þ.

*

f ðxÞ ¼ 23 x2 2x 6 a ¼ 23 ó b ¼ 2, h¼

b ð2Þ 1 3 ¼ ¼ ¼ 2a 2ð2=3Þ 2=3 2

Find k by evaluating f ð32Þ 3 2 3 2 3 15 ¼ 6¼ 2 f 2 3 2 2 2 The vertex is ð32 ó 15 2 Þ. PRACTICE Find the vertex using the fact that h ¼ b=2a. 1. 2. 3. 4.

f ðxÞ ¼ x2 þ 8x þ 3 f ðxÞ ¼ 5x2 4x 2 hðtÞ ¼ 12 t2 þ 3t þ 5 rðxÞ ¼ 0:001x2 þ 2x 100

CHAPTER 7 Quadratic Functions SOLUTIONS 1. h¼

b 8 ¼ ¼ 4 2a 2ð1Þ

k ¼ f ð4Þ ¼ ð4Þ2 þ 8ð4Þ þ 3 ¼ 13 The vertex is ð4ó 13Þ. 2. b ð4Þ 4 2 ¼ ¼ ¼ 2a 2ð5Þ 10 5 2 2 2 2 k¼f ¼ 5 2 4 5 5 5 4 8 6 þ 2¼ ¼ 5 25 5 5 h¼

3.

The vertex is ð 25 ó 65Þ. b 3 3 ¼ ¼ ¼3 2a 2ð1=2Þ 1 1 9 19 k ¼ hð3Þ ¼ ð3Þ2 þ 3ð3Þ þ 5 ¼ þ 9 þ 5 ¼ 2 2 2 h¼

The vertex is ð3ó 4. h¼

19 2 Þ.

b 2 2 ¼ ¼ ¼ 1000 2a 2ð0:001Þ 0:002

k ¼ rð1000Þ ¼ 0:001ð1000Þ2 þ 2ð1000Þ 100 ¼ 900 The vertex is ð1000ó 900Þ. Finding the range for many functions is not easy—we would probably need to look at their graphs. But ﬁnding the range for quadratic functions is not hard. We only need to use the fact that for parabolas that open up, the vertex is the lowest point, and for parabolas that open down, the vertex is the highest point. The range of a quadratic function that opens up is ½kó 1Þ. The range of a quadratic function that opens down is ð1ó k. We can tell whether a parabola opens up or down by looking at a in f ðxÞ ¼ ax2 þ bx þ c or in f ðxÞ ¼ aðx hÞ2 þ k. If a is positive, the parabola opens up. If a is negative, the parabola opens down.

201

CHAPTER 7 Quadratic Functions

202

EXAMPLES Determine the range for the quadratic functions. *

f ðxÞ ¼ 3x2 6x þ 1 Earlier, we found that the vertex is ð1ó 2Þ. Because the parabola opens up (a ¼ 3), the range is ½2ó 1Þ.

*

f ðxÞ ¼ x2 þ 4 We found that the vertex is ð0ó 4Þ. Because the parabola opens down (a ¼ 1), the range is ð1ó 4.

*

f ðxÞ ¼ 23 x2 2x 6 We found that the vertex is ð32 ó 15 2 Þ. Because the parabola opens up 2 15 (a ¼ 3), the range is ½ 2 ó 1Þ.

PRACTICE Determine the range for the quadratic functions. 1. 2. 3. 4.

f ðxÞ ¼ x2 þ 8x þ 3 f ðxÞ ¼ 5x2 4x 2 hðtÞ ¼ 12 t2 þ 3t þ 5 rðxÞ ¼ 0:001x2 þ 2x 100

SOLUTIONS 1. The vertex is ð4ó 13Þ. Because a is positive, the parabola opens up, so the range is ½13ó 1Þ. 2. The vertex is ð 25 ó 65Þ. Because a is negative, the parabola opens down, so the range is ð1ó 65. 3. The vertex is ð3ó 19 2 Þ. Because a is negative, the parabola opens down, so the range is ð1ó 19 2 . 4. The vertex is ð1000ó 900Þ. Because a is negative, the parabola opens down, so the range is ð1ó 900.

The Maximum/Minimum of a Quadratic Function An important area of mathematics is concerned with optimizing situations. For example, what sales level for a product will give the most proﬁt?

CHAPTER 7 Quadratic Functions

203

What production level will give the lowest cost per unit? What shape will be the strongest? While calculus is used to solve many of these problems, algebra students can optimize problems involving quadratic functions. Quadratic functions can be maximized (if the parabola opens down) or minimized (if the parabola opens up). The maximum or minimum value of a quadratic function is k, the y-coordinate of the vertex. EXAMPLES Find the maximum or minimum value of the quadratic functions. *

f ðxÞ ¼ 2x2 6x þ 7 Because a ¼ 2 is negative, the parabola opens down, and the function has a maximum value (but no minimum value). We need to ﬁnd k. b ð6Þ 3 ¼ ¼ 2a 2ð2Þ 2 2 3 3 3 6 k¼f ¼ 2 þ7 2 2 2 h¼

¼

23 2

The maximum value of the functin is x ¼ 32. *

23 2.

This maximum occurs when

CðqÞ ¼ 0:02q2 5q þ 600 Because a ¼ 0:02 is positive, the parabola opens up, and the function has a minimum value. h¼

b ð5Þ ¼ ¼ 125 2a 2ð0:02Þ

k ¼ Cð125Þ ¼ 0:02ð125Þ2 5ð125Þ þ 600 ¼ 287:50 The minimum value of the function is 287:50. This minimum occurs when q ¼ 125. PRACTICE Find the maximum or minimum value of the quadratic functions. 1. 2.

f ðxÞ ¼ x2 8x þ 2 f ðtÞ ¼ 16t2 þ 48t þ 25

CHAPTER 7 Quadratic Functions

204 3. 4.

f ðxÞ ¼ 100x2 þ 150x þ 25 PðxÞ ¼ 0:015x2 þ 0:45x þ 12

SOLUTIONS 1. Because a ¼ 1 is positive, the parabola opens up, and this function has a minimum value. h¼

ð8Þ ¼4 2ð1Þ

k ¼ f ð4Þ ¼ 42 8ð4Þ þ 2 ¼ 14

2.

The minimum value of the function is 14. The minimum occurs at x ¼ 4. Because a ¼ 16 is negative, the parabola opens down, and this function has a maximum value. 48 3 ¼ 2ð16Þ 2 2 3 3 3 ¼ 16 þ 25 k¼f þ48 2 2 2 h¼

¼ 61

3.

The maximum value of this function is 61. The maximum occurs at t ¼ 32. Because a ¼ 100 is positive, the parabola opens up, and this function has a minimum value. 150 3 ¼ 2ð100Þ 4 2 3 3 125 þ 25 ¼ k ¼ 100 þ150 4 4 4 h¼

4.

The minimum value of the value of the function is 125 4 . The mini3 mum value occurs at x ¼ 4. Because a ¼ 0:015 is negative, the parabola opens down, and this function has a maximum value. h¼

0:45 ¼ 15 2ð0:015Þ

k ¼ Pð15Þ ¼ 0:015ð15Þ2 þ 0:45ð15Þ þ 12 ¼ 15:375 The maximum value of the function is 15:375. The maximum value occurs at x ¼ 15.

CHAPTER 7 Quadratic Functions

205

Applied Maximum/Minimum Problems In the problems for this section, we will be asked to ﬁnd the maximum or minimum of a situation. The functions that will model these problems will be quadratic functions. Think about what the vertex means in each problem. If the problem is to determine the level of production to maximize proﬁt, h will tell us the production level needed to maximize proﬁt, and k will tell us what the maximum proﬁt is. The function to be optimized will be given in the ﬁrst problems. Later, we will need to ﬁnd the function based on information given in the problem. EXAMPLES * The proﬁt function for a product is given by PðxÞ ¼ 2x2 þ 28x þ 150, where x is the number of units sold, and P is in dollars. What level of production will maximize proﬁt? What is the maximum proﬁt? The answer to the ﬁrst question will be h, and the answer to the second question will be k. h¼

28 ¼7 2ð2Þ

k ¼ Pð7Þ ¼ 2ð7Þ2 þ 28ð7Þ þ 150 ¼ 248

*

The level of production which maximizes proﬁt is 7 units, and the maximum proﬁt is $248. The cost per unit of a product is given by the function CðxÞ ¼ 1 2 4 x 6x þ 40, where x is the production level (in hundreds of units), and C is the cost in dollars. What level of production will yield the minimum production cost per unit? Which will answer the question—h or k? The production level is x, so we need to ﬁnd h. h¼

ð6Þ 6 1 ¼ ¼ 6 ¼ 6 2 ¼ 12 2ð1=4Þ 1=2 2

Minimize the cost per unit by producing 12 hundred units. PRACTICE 1. The daily proﬁt for a vendor of bottled water is given by the function PðxÞ ¼ 0:001x2 þ 0:36x 5, where x is the number of bottles sold, and P is the proﬁt in dollars. How many bottles should be sold to maximize daily proﬁt? What is the maximum daily proﬁt?

CHAPTER 7 Quadratic Functions

206 2.

3.

The average cost per unit of a product per week is given by the function CðxÞ ¼ 13 x2 60x þ 5900, where x is the number of units produced and C is in dollars. What is the minimum cost per unit and how many units should be produced per week to minimize the cost per unit? The weekly revenue of a particular service oﬀered by a company depends on the price—the higher the price, the fewer sales; and the lower the price, the higher the sales. The function describing the 1 2 p þ 3p þ 125, where p is the price per hour revenue is RðpÞ ¼ 10 and R is sales revenue in dollars. What is the revenue-maximizing price? What is the maximum weekly revenue?

SOLUTIONS 1. h¼

0:36 ¼ 180 2ð0:001Þ

k ¼ Pð180Þ ¼ 0:001ð180Þ2 þ 0:36ð180Þ 5 ¼ 27:4 The vendor should sell 180 bottles per day to maximize proﬁt. The maximum daily proﬁt is $27.40. 2. h¼

ð60Þ 60 2 3 ¼ ¼ 60 ¼ 60 ¼ 90 2ð1=3Þ 2=3 3 2

1 k ¼ Cð90Þ ¼ ð90Þ2 60ð90Þ þ 5900 ¼ 3200 3 The minimum average cost is $3200, and 90 units should be produced to minimize the average cost. 3. h¼

3 3 1 ¼ ¼ 3 ¼ 3 5 ¼ 15 2ð1=10Þ 1=5 5

k ¼ Rð15Þ ¼

1 ð15Þ2 þ 3ð15Þ þ 125 ¼ 147:50 10

The revenue-maximizing price is $15 per hour. The maximum weekly revenue is $147.50.

CHAPTER 7 Quadratic Functions When an object is thrust upward and is free-falling after the initial thrust, its path is in the shape of a parabola. In the following problems, we will be given the height function of these kinds of falling objects. The functions will be in the form hðxÞ ¼ ax2 þ bx þ c, where x is the horizontal distance and h is the height. Several types of questions are asked for these problems. We will answer the questions, ‘‘What is the object’s maximum height?’’ and ‘‘How far has it traveled horizontally to reach its maximum height?’’ EXAMPLE * Suppose the path of a grasshopper’s jump is given by the function 5 2 x þ 53 x, where both x and h are in inches. What is the hðxÞ ¼ 216 maximum height reached by the grasshopper? How far has it traveled horizontally to reach its maximum height? h¼

5=3 5=3 5 5 5 108 ¼ ¼ ¼ ¼ 36 2ð5=216Þ 5=108 3 108 3 5

k ¼ hð36Þ ¼

5 5 ð36Þ2 þ ð36Þ ¼ 30 216 3

The maximum height reached by the grasshopper is 30 inches and it had traveled 36 inches horizontally when it reached it maximum height. PRACTICE 1. A child throws a ball, its path being given by the function hðxÞ ¼ 0:04x2 þ 1:5x þ 3, where x and h are in feet. What is the maximum height of the ball? How far has it traveled horizontally when it reaches its maximum height? 2. A kitten jumped to pounce on a toy mouse. The path of the kitten is 5 2 given by the function hðxÞ ¼ 72 x þ 53 x, where x and h are in inches. How far had the kitten traveled horizontally when it reached its maximum height? What was the kitten’s maximum height? SOLUTIONS 1. h¼

1:5 ¼ 18:75 2ð0:04Þ

k ¼ hð18:75Þ ¼ 0:04ð18:75Þ2 þ 1:5ð18:75Þ þ 3 ¼ 17:0625

207

CHAPTER 7 Quadratic Functions

208

The ball’s maximum height is 17.0625 feet and it had traveled 18.75 feet horizontally when it reached its maximum height. 2. h¼

5=3 5=3 5 5 5 36 ¼ ¼ ¼ ¼ 12 2ð5=72Þ 5=36 3 36 3 5

k ¼ hð12Þ ¼

5 5 ð12Þ2 þ ð12Þ ¼ 10 72 3

The kitten’s maximum height is 10 inches and it had traveled 12 inches horizontally when it reached its maximum height. Quadratic functions can be used to optimize many types of geometric problems. In the following problems, a number will be ﬁxed (usually the perimeter) and we will be asked to ﬁnd the maximum enclosed area. The area will be a quadratic function, but getting to this function will require a few steps. The ﬁrst few problems will involve a ﬁxed amount of fencing to be used to enclose a rectangular area. EXAMPLES * A farmer has 600 feet of fencing available to enclose a rectangular pasture and then subdivide the pasture into two equal rectangular yards. What dimensions will yield the maximum area? What is the maximum area?

Fig. 7-2.

The formula for the area of a rectangle is A ¼ LW. This formula has two variables (other than A), and we must reduce it to one. There are 600 feet of fencing available, so L þ W þ W þ W þ L ¼ 2L þ 3W must equal 600. This gives us the equation 2L þ 3W ¼ 600. Solve for either L or W.

CHAPTER 7 Quadratic Functions

Fig. 7-3.

2L þ 3W ¼ 600 600 3W L¼ ¼ 300 1:5W 2 Now substitute L ¼ 300 1:5W in the formula A ¼ LW. A ¼ LW ¼ ð300 1:5WÞW ¼ 300W 1:5W 2 ¼ 1:5W 2 þ 300W This quadratic function has a maximum value, the maximum area. h¼

300 ¼ 100 2ð1:5Þ

k ¼ 1:5ð100Þ2 þ 300ð100Þ ¼ 15ó 000

*

The maximum area is 15,000 square feet. This occurs when the width is 100 feet, and the length is 300 1:5ð100Þ ¼ 150 feet. A zoo has 1100 meters of fencing available to create four rectangular pens. What dimensions will enclose the maximum area? What is the maximum area?

Fig. 7-4.

We will label the ﬁgure with L and W.

209

CHAPTER 7 Quadratic Functions

210

Fig. 7-5.

We want to maximize the area, A ¼ LW. The 1100 meters of fencing must be divided among 2 Ls and 5 Ws, so we have the equation 2L þ 5W ¼ 1100. Solve for either L or W and use the new equation to reduce the number of variables in A ¼ LW. 2L þ 5W ¼ 1100 1100 5W L¼ ¼ 550 2:5W 2 A ¼ LW becomes A ¼ ð550 2:5WÞW ¼ 550W 2:5W 2 ¼ 2:5W 2 þ 550W. h¼

550 ¼ 110 2ð2:5Þ

k ¼ 2:5ð110Þ2 þ 550ð110Þ ¼ 30ó 250 To maximize the area, let W ¼ 110 meters, L ¼ 550 2:5ð110Þ ¼ 275 meters. The maximum area is 30,250 square meters. PRACTICE 1. A parks department wants to enclose three adjacent rectangular playing ﬁelds. It has 1600 feet of fencing available. What dimensions will yield the maximum area? What is the maximum area?

Fig. 7-6.

CHAPTER 7 Quadratic Functions 2.

A farmer has 450 meters of fencing available. The farmer decides to fence two rectangular pastures. What dimensions will maximize the area? What is the maximum area?

Fig. 7-7.

SOLUTIONS 1. We can see from Fig. 7-6 that 2L þ 4W ¼ 1600. 2L þ 4W ¼ 1600 1600 4W L¼ ¼ 800 2W 2 A ¼ LW ¼ ð800 2WÞW ¼ 800W 2W 2 ¼ 2W 2 þ 800W 800 h¼ ¼ 200 2ð2Þ k ¼ 2ð200Þ2 þ 800ð200Þ ¼ 80ó 000

2.

Maximize the area by letting W ¼ 200 feet and L ¼ 800 2ð200Þ ¼ 400 feet. The maximum area is 80,000 square feet. We can see from Fig. 7-7 that 2L þ 3W ¼ 450. 2L þ 3W ¼ 450 450 3W ¼ 225 1:5W L¼ 2 A ¼ LW ¼ ð225 1:5WÞW ¼ 225W 1:5W 2 ¼ 1:5W 2 þ 225W 225 ¼ 75 h¼ 2ð1:5Þ k ¼ 1:5ð75Þ2 þ 225ð75Þ ¼ 8437:5 Maximize the area by letting W ¼ 75 meters and L ¼ 225 1:5ð75Þ ¼ 112:5 meters. The maximum area is 8437.5 square meters.

211

CHAPTER 7 Quadratic Functions

212

There is another common problem where we are asked to ﬁnd the dimensions which will maximize a rectangular area. The area needs to be fenced but only on three sides. We can see from Fig. 7-8 that 2W þ L ¼ amount of fencing. Solve this for L to get L ¼ amount of fencing 2W. As before, substitute this quantity for L in A ¼ LW. Then ﬁnd h, which will be the width that will maximize the area, and k will be the maximum area.

Fig. 7-8.

EXAMPLE * A business needs to enclose an area behind its oﬃces for storage. It has 240 feet of fencing available. If the side of the building is not fenced, what dimensions will maximize the enclosed area? We can see from Fig. 7-8 that 2W þ L ¼ 240. L þ 2W ¼ 240 L ¼ 240 2W A ¼ LW ¼ ð240 2WÞW ¼ 240W 2W 2 h¼

240 ¼ 60 2ð2Þ

k ¼ 240ð60Þ 2ð60Þ2 ¼ 7200 Maximize the area by letting W ¼ 60 feet and L ¼ 240 2ð60Þ ¼ 120 feet. The maximum area is 7200 square feet. PRACTICE 1. A rancher wants to enclose a rectangular pasture that borders a stream. The rancher has 500 feet of fencing available and will not fence the side along the stream. What dimensions will maximize the area? What is the maximum area?

CHAPTER 7 Quadratic Functions 2.

The manager of an oﬃce complex wants to provide extra parking behind the oﬃce building. The contractor has 150 meters of fencing available. If the side along the building will not be fenced, what dimensions will maximize the enclosed area? What is the maximum enclosed area?

SOLUTIONS 1. 2W þ L ¼ 500 L ¼ 500 2W A ¼ LW ¼ ð500 2WÞW ¼ 500W 2W 2 500 ¼ 125 h¼ 2ð2Þ k ¼ 500ð125Þ 2ð125Þ2 ¼ 31ó 250 Maximize the area by letting W ¼ 125 feet and L ¼ 500 2ð125Þ ¼ 250 feet. The maximum area is 31,250 square feet. 2. 2W þ L ¼ 150 L ¼ 150 2W A ¼ LW ¼ ð150 2WÞW ¼ 150W 2W 2 150 h¼ ¼ 37:5 2ð2Þ k ¼ 150ð37:5Þ 2ð37:5Þ2 ¼ 2812:5 Maximize the area by letting W ¼ 37:5 meters and L ¼ 150 2ð37:50Þ ¼ 75 meters. The maximum area is 2812.5 square meters. Often in business, revenue depends on the price in two ways. Obviously, if the price is raised, more money will be collected for each unit sold, but the number of units sold might drop. In general, the lower the price, the higher the demand (number of units sold); and the higher the price, the lower the demand. In the following problems, the demand for a certain price will be given. Then we will be told how many sales are lost from a price increase or how many sales are gained from a price decrease. With this information, we can ﬁnd the price to charge to maximize revenue. Let n represent the number of increases or decreases in the price, so if the price is raised in $10 increments, then the increase in price would be 10n and the price would be ‘‘old price þ10n.’’ If 5 sales are lost for each $10 increase in price, then the

213

CHAPTER 7 Quadratic Functions

214

number sold would be ‘‘old sales level 5n.’’ The total revenue would be ‘‘R ¼ ðold price þ 10nÞðold sales level 5nÞ.’’ The revenue function is a quadratic function. Revenue is maximized when n ¼ h, and the maximum revenue is k. EXAMPLES * A store sells an average of 345 pounds of apples per day when the price is $0.85 per pound. The manager thinks that for every increase of $0.10 in the price, 30 fewer pounds of apples will be sold each day. What price will maximize revenue from the sale of apples? What is the maximum revenue? Let n represent the number of $0.10 increases in the price per pound. The price is then represented by 0:85 þ 0:10n. The number of pounds of apples sold per day would be 345 30n. This makes the revenue R ¼ ð0:85 þ 0:10nÞð345 30nÞ. The revenue equation is a quadratic function. The vertex of this function tells us two things. First, h will tell us how many times we need to raise the price by $0.10 in order to maximize revenue, and k will tell us what the maximum revenue is. R ¼ ð0:85 þ 0:10nÞð345 30nÞ ¼ 293:25 þ 9n 3n2 9 h¼ ¼ 1:5 2ð3Þ k ¼ 293:25 þ 9ð1:5Þ 3ð1:5Þ2 ¼ 300

*

Maximize revenue by charging 0:85 þ 0:10ð1:5Þ ¼ $1 per pound. The maximum revenue is $300 per day. An apartment manager is leasing 60 of 75 apartments in her apartment complex with the monthly rent at $1950. For each $25 decrease in the monthly rent, she believes that one more apartment can be rented. What monthly rent will maximize revenue? What is the maximum monthly revenue? Let n represent the number of $25 decreases in the rent. Then monthly rent is represented by 1950 25n, and the number of apartments rented is 60 þ n. The revenue function is R ¼ ð1950 25nÞð60 þ nÞ. The coordinates of the vertex will help us to answer the questions. R ¼ ð1950 25nÞð60 þ nÞ ¼ 117ó 000 þ 450n 25n2 450 h¼ ¼9 2ð25Þ k ¼ 117ó 000 þ 450ð9Þ 25ð9Þ2 ¼ 119ó 025

CHAPTER 7 Quadratic Functions Maximize revenue by charging 1950 25ð9Þ ¼ $1725 for the monthly rent. The maximum revenue is $119,025. PRACTICE 1. At a small college, 1200 tickets can be sold during a football game when the ticket price is $9. The athletic director learns that for each $0.75 decrease in the ticket price, 200 more people will attend the game. What should the ticket price be in order to maximize ticket revenue? 2. The owner of a concession stand sells 10,000 soft drinks for $3.70 per drink during baseball games. A survey reveals that for each $0.20 decrease in the price of the drinks, 800 more will be sold. What should the price be in order to maximize revenue? What is the maximum revenue? 3. The manager of an apartment complex can rent all 60 apartments in a building if the monthly rent is $2800, and that for each $50 increase in the monthly rent one tenant will be lost and will not likely be replaced. What should the monthly rent be to maximize revenue? What is the maximum revenue? SOLUTIONS 1. Let n represent the number of $0.75 decreases in the ticket price. This makes the new ticket price 9 0:75n and the number of tickets sold 1200 þ 200n. Ticket revenue is R ¼ ð9 0:75nÞð1200 þ 200nÞ. R ¼ ð9 0:75nÞð1200 þ 200nÞ ¼ 10ó 800 þ 900n 150n2 900 ¼3 h¼ 2ð150Þ k ¼ 10ó 800 þ 900ð3Þ 150ð3Þ2 ¼ 12ó 150

2.

Maximize ticket revenue by charging $9:00 0:75ð3Þ ¼ $6:75 per ticket. The maximum ticket revenue is $12,150. Let n represent the number of $0.20 decreases in the drink price. This makes the new drink price 3:70 0:20n and the number of drinks sold 10ó 000 þ 800n. Revenue is R ¼ ð3:70 0:20nÞð10ó 000 þ 800nÞ. R ¼ ð3:70 0:20nÞð10ó 000 þ 800nÞ ¼ 37ó 000 þ 960n 160n2 960 h¼ ¼3 2ð160Þ k ¼ 37ó 000 þ 960ð3Þ 160ð3Þ2 ¼ 38ó 440

215

CHAPTER 7 Quadratic Functions

216

3.

Maximize revenue by charging $3:70 0:20ð3Þ ¼ $3:10 per drink. The maximum revenue is $38,440. Let n represent the number of $50 increases in the monthly rent. This makes the monthly rent 2800 þ 50n and the number of tenants 60 1n ¼ 60 n. Monthly revenue is R ¼ ð2800 þ 50nÞð60 nÞ. R ¼ ð2800 50nÞð60 nÞ ¼ 168ó 000 þ 200n 50n2 200 h¼ ¼2 2ð50Þ k ¼ 168ó 000 þ 200ð2Þ 50ð2Þ2 ¼ 168ó 200 Maximize revenue by charging $2800 þ 50ð2Þ ¼ $2900 monthly rent. The maximum revenue is $168,200.

Maximizing/Minimizing Other Functions Algebra students can use graphing calculators to approximate the maximum and/or minimum values of other kinds of functions. For example, the volume of a certain box is given by the function V ¼ 4x3 40x2 þ 100x, where x is the height (in inches) of the box and V is the volume (in cubic inches) of the box, and conditions make it necessary for 0 < x < 5. The graph of this function is shown in Fig. 7-9.

Fig. 7-9.

CHAPTER 7 Quadratic Functions

217

Because the domain of this applied function is ð0ó 5Þ, we need consider only this part of the graph.

Fig. 7-10.

We can use a graphing calculator to approximate the highest point, ð1:67ó 74:07Þ. The maximum volume is approximately 74.07 cubic inches and the height at which the box’s volume is maximum is about 1.67 inches. Calculus is necessary to ﬁnd the exact values.

Chapter 7 Review 1.

What is the range for the function f ðxÞ ¼ 2x2 6x þ 1? b) ð1ó 32Þ c) ½ 72 ó 1Þ d) ð1ó 72 a) ½32 ó 1Þ

2.

What is the maximum value for the function f ðxÞ ¼ x2 þ 3x þ 10? c) 49 d) There is no maximum value a) 5ó 2 b) 32 4

3.

The proﬁt function for a product is PðxÞ ¼ 0:01x2 þ 3x þ 500, where x is the number produced and P is in dollars. How many units must be produced to maximize proﬁt? a) 150 b) 725 c) 419 d) 119

4.

A parks department wants to enclose a rectangular playing ﬁeld and subdivide it into two ﬁelds (see Fig. 7-2). There are 1800 feet of fencing available. What is the maximum area? a) 405,000 square feet b) 150,000 square feet c) 450 square feet d) 135,000 square feet

CHAPTER 7 Quadratic Functions

218 5.

The revenue of a certain product depends on the amount spent on advertising. The function is RðxÞ ¼ 0:001x2 þ 240x 13ó 500ó 000, where R is the revenue (in dollars) and x is the amount spent on advertising (in dollars). How much should be spent on advertising in order to maximize revenue? a) $120,000 b) $900,000 c) $90,000 d) $150,000

6.

What is the range for the function f ðxÞ ¼ x2 10x þ 8? a) ½33ó 1Þ b) ð1ó 33 c) ½5ó 1Þ d) ð1ó 5

7.

For a) b) c) d)

8.

A cotton candy vendor at a small fair sells 270 cones on average when the price is $1 each. The vendor believes that for each $0.10 increase in the price, sales will drop by 15. What is the maximum revenue? a) $294 b) $356 c) $400 d) Cannot be determined

1 2 the quadratic function gðtÞ ¼ 16 t þ t þ 10 the maximum functional value is 14. the minimum functional value is 14. the maximum functional value is 8. the minimum functional value is 8.

SOLUTIONS 1. c) 2. c)

3. a)

4. d)

5. a)

6. b)

7. a)

8. a)

CHAPTER

8

Transformations and Combinations

Many important graphs come in families. We have already studied three families: graphs of circles, lines, and parabolas. There is a lot we can tell about the graph of an equation by the equation itself. From the equation of a circle in the form ðx hÞ2 þ ðx kÞ2 ¼ r2 , we know that its center is at (h, k) and its radius is r. From the equation of a line in the form y ¼ mx þ b, we know its slope is m and its y-intercept is b. From the equation of a quadratic function in the form y ¼ aðx hÞ2 þ k, we know that its vertex is (h, k) and that it opens up if a is positive or opens down if a is negative. Let us begin with a closer look at quadratic functions. The graph of every quadratic function is more or less the graph of y ¼ x2 . For example, the vertex for the function y ¼ ðx 2Þ2 is (2, 0). Another way of looking at this is to say that the vertex moved from (0, 0) to (2, 0). That is, the vertex moved to the right two units.

219 Copyright © 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click here for terms of use.

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

220

Fig. 8-1.

The function y ¼ ðx 2Þ2 is really the function f ðxÞ ¼ x2 evaluated at x 2 : f ðx 2Þ ¼ ðx 2Þ2 . Evaluating any function at x 2 shifts the entire function two units to the right. For any function f ðxÞ, the graph of f ðx 2Þ is the graph of f ðxÞ shifted to the right two units. For any positive number k, the graph y ¼ f ðx kÞ is the graph of f (x) shifted to the right k units, no matter what function f ðxÞ is. EXAMPLES * The graph of f ðx 5Þ is the graph of f ðxÞ shifted to the right 5 units. * The graph of f ðx 20Þ is the graph of f ðxÞ shifted to the right 20 units. * The graph of f ðx 12Þ is the graph of f ðxÞ shifted to the right 1 2 units. What would be the eﬀect on the graph of f ðxÞ by adding positive k to x? The vertex for y ¼ ðx þ 3Þ2 is ð3ó 0Þ. This is the graph of f ðxÞ ¼ x2 shifted to the left 3 units. The graph of any function f ðx þ kÞ is the graph of f ðxÞ shifted to the left k units. EXAMPLES * The graph of f ðx þ 12Þ is the graph of f ðxÞ shifted to the left 12 units. * The graph of gðx þ 3Þ is the graph of gðxÞ shifted to the left 3 units. PRACTICE Compare the graph of the functions with the graph of f ðxÞ. 1. 2. 3.

f ðx þ 5Þ f ðx 0:10Þ f ðx 35Þ

CHAPTER 8 Transformations SOLUTIONS 1. The graph of f ðx þ 5Þ is the graph of f (x) shifted to the left 5 units. 2. The graph of f ðx 0:10Þ is the graph of f ðxÞ shifted to the right 0.10 units. 3. The graph of f ðx 35Þ is the graph of f ðxÞ shifted to the right 35 units. The vertex for the quadratic function y ¼ x2 þ 2 is ð0ó 2Þ, which is shifted two units up from the vertex of f ðxÞ ¼ x2 . Adding a positive number to a function has the eﬀect of shifting its graph upward. Subracting a positive number from a function has the eﬀect of shifting its graph downward. If k is a positive number, the graph of f ðxÞ þ k is the graph of f ðxÞ shifted up k units, and the graph of f ðxÞ k is the graph of f ðxÞ shifted down k units. EXAMPLES * The graph of f ðxÞ 4 is the graph if f ðxÞ shifted down 4 units. * The graph of hðxÞ þ 9 is the graph of hðxÞ shifted up 9 units. PRACTICE Compare the graph of the functions with the graph of f ðxÞ. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

f ðxÞ þ 1 f ðxÞ þ 15 f ðxÞ 8 f ðxÞ 1 f ðx þ 1Þ f ðx 6Þ

SOLUTIONS 1. The graph 2. The graph 3. The graph 4. The graph 5. The graph 6. The graph

of of of of of of

f ðxÞ þ 1 is the graph of f ðxÞ shifted up 1 unit. f ðxÞ þ 15 is the graph of f ðxÞ shifted up 15 units. f ðxÞ 8 is the graph of f ðxÞ shifted down 8 units. f ðxÞ 1 is the graph of f ðxÞ shifted down 1 unit. f ðx þ 1Þ is the graph of f ðxÞ shifted left 1 unit. f ðx 6Þ is the graph of f ðxÞ shifted right 6 units.

Functions can have a combination of vertical and horizontal shifts. If h and k are positive numbers, the graph of f ðx hÞ þ k is the graph of f ðxÞ shifted to the right h units and up k units. The graph of f ðx þ kÞ h is the graph of f ðxÞ shifted to the left k units and down h units. EXAMPLES * The graph of y ¼ ðx 2Þ2 þ 1 is the graph of f ðxÞ ¼ x2 shifted to the right 2 units and up 1 unit.

221

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

222 *

The graph of f ðx þ 2Þ þ 3 is the graph of f ðxÞ shifted to the left 2 units and up 3 units.

PRACTICE Compare the graph of the functions with the graph of f ðxÞ. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

f ðx þ 12Þ þ 3 f ðx 4Þ 5 f ðx þ 6Þ 8 f ðx þ 10Þ þ 15 f ðx 1Þ þ 9

SOLUTIONS 1. The graph of f ðx þ 12Þ þ 3 is the graph of f ðxÞ shifted to the left 12 units and up 3 units. 2. The graph of f ðx 4Þ 5 is the graph of f ðxÞ shifted to the right 4 units and down 5 units. 3. The graph of f ðx þ 6Þ 8 is the graph of f ðxÞ shifted to the left 6 units and down 8 units. 4. The graph of f ðx þ 10Þ þ 15 is the graph of f ðxÞ shifted to the left 10 units and up 15 units. 5. The graph of f ðx 1Þ þ 9 is the graph of f ðxÞ shifted to the right 1 unit and up 9 units. In the following we compare the graph of a function with its transformation. The solid graphs are the graphs of f ðxÞ, and the dashed graphs are the transformations of f ðxÞ. EXAMPLES Compare the graph of the functions with the graph of f ðxÞ. Then write the transformed function.

Fig. 8-2.

CHAPTER 8 Transformations The dashed graph is the graph of f ðxÞ shifted to the right 1 unit, so this is the graph of f ðx 1Þ.

Fig. 8-3.

The dashed graph is the graph of f ðxÞ shifted to the right 2 units and down 1 unit, so this is the graph of f ðx 2Þ 1. PRACTICE Compare the graph of the transformations with the graph of f ðxÞ. Then write the transformed function. 1.

Fig. 8-4.

2.

Fig. 8-5.

223

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

224 3.

Fig. 8-6.

4.

Fig. 8-7.

SOLUTIONS 1. The dashed graph is the graph of f ðxÞ shifted down 1 unit. It is the graph of f ðxÞ 1. 2. The dashed graph is the graph of f ðxÞ shifted to the right 2 units and up 1 unit. It is the graph of f ðx 2Þ þ 1. 3. The dashed graph is the graph of f ðxÞ shifted to the left 2 units. It is the graph of f ðx þ 2Þ. 4. The dashed graph is the graph of f ðxÞ shifted to the left 1 unit and down 2 units. It is the graph of f ðx þ 1Þ 2. For any function f ðxÞ, the graph of f ðxÞ is the graph of f ðxÞ ﬂipped upside down, or in more technical terms, ‘‘reﬂected about the x-axis.’’ For example, the graph of y ¼ x2 is a reﬂection of the graph of f ðxÞ ¼ x2 .

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

Fig. 8-8.

EXAMPLES The dashed graphs are the reﬂections about the x-axis of the solid graphs.

Fig. 8-9.

Fig. 8-10.

225

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

226

Fig. 8-11.

With these reﬂections, the x-values do not change but the y-values of f ðxÞ are the opposite of the y-values for f ðxÞ. The x-intercepts (where y ¼ 0) do not change. If multiplying the y-values of a function by 1 has the eﬀect of turning the graph upside down, what eﬀect does multiplying the y-values by some other number have? In other words, how does the graph of a f ðxÞ compare with the graph of f ðxÞ? It depends on a. If a is larger than 1, the graph of a f ðxÞ is vertically stretched. The graph of 50 f ðxÞ is stretched more than the graph of 3 f ðxÞ. If a is between 0 and 1, then the graph of a f ðxÞ is vertically 1 f ðxÞ is ﬂattened more than the compressed, or ﬂattened. The graph of 10 2 graph of 3 f ðxÞ. EXAMPLES *

Fig. 8-12.

CHAPTER 8 Transformations The dashed graph in Fig. 8-12 is the graph of 12 f ðxÞ. The y-value for each point on the dashed graph is half of the corresponding y-value in the solid graph. For example, the point ð3ó 2Þ on the graph of f ðxÞ is moved to ð3ó 1Þ on the graph of 12 f ðxÞ. The point ð2ó 4Þ on the solid graph is moved to (2, 2) on the dashed graph. *

Fig. 8-13.

The dashed graph in Fig. 8-13 is the graph of 3 f ðxÞ. The y-values for each point on the dashed graph are three times the y-values on the solid graph. For example, the point ð2ó 4Þ on the solid graph is moved to ð2ó 12Þ on the dashed graph. The point ð1ó 0Þ on the solid graph did not move because 3 0 ¼ 0. When a is a negative number, other than 1, the eﬀect of a f ðxÞ is a combination of the changes above. First, the graph will be turned upside down (reﬂected about the x-axis). Then it will either be vertically compressed or stretched. In the following examples, the solid graphs are the graphs of f ðxÞ and the dashed graphs are the graphs of a f ðxÞ. EXAMPLES *

Fig. 8-14.

227

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

228

The dashed graph is the graph of 12 f ðxÞ. The point ð2ó 4Þ on the solid graph moved to ð2ó 2Þ because 4 ð 12Þ ¼ 2. The point ð3ó 2Þ on the solid graph moved to ð3ó 1Þ because 2 ð 12Þ ¼ 1. The point ð1ó 0Þ on the solid graph did not move because 0 ð 12Þ ¼ 0: *

Fig. 8-15.

The dashed graph is the graph of 3 f ðxÞ. To summarize, if a > 1, the graph of a f ðxÞ is vertically stretched. If 0 < a < 1, the graph of a f ðxÞ is vertically ﬂattened. If a < 1, the graph is reﬂected about the x-axis and vertically stretched. If 1 < a < 0, the graph is reﬂected about the x-axis and vertically ﬂattened. PRACTICE For problems 1–4, determine whether the dashed graph is a vertically stretched or ﬂattened version of the solid graph and whether or not it is reﬂected about the x-axis. 1.

Fig. 8-16.

CHAPTER 8 Transformations 2.

Fig. 8-17.

3.

Fig. 8-18.

4.

Fig. 8-19.

229

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

230 5.

Below are two pairs of graphs. The solid graphs are the graph of f ðxÞ. One of the dashed graphs is the graph of 32 f ðxÞ and the other is the graph of 4 f ðxÞ. Which graph is the graph of 32 f ðxÞ? Which is the graph of 4 f ðxÞ?

Fig. 8-20.

Fig. 8-21.

SOLUTIONS 1. The dashed graph is vertically ﬂattened. 2. The dashed graph is reﬂected about the x-axis. 3. The dashed graph is vertically ﬂattened and is reﬂected about the x-axis. 4. The dashed graph is vertically stretched and is reﬂected about the x-axis. 5. The dashed graph in Fig. 8-20 is the graph of 32 f ðxÞ. The dashed graph in Fig. 8-21 is the graph of 4 f ðxÞ. We will look at one more transformation, f ðxÞ. The transformation f ðxÞ turned the graph upside down. The transformation f ðxÞ will turn the graph sideways, or ‘‘reﬂected about the y-axis.’’ The solid graph shown in Fig. 8-22 is the graph of f ðxÞ, and the dashed graph is the graph of f ðxÞ. We can get the graph of f ðxÞ by replacing the x-values with their opposites. For example, the point ð4ó 2Þ on f ðxÞ is replaced by ð4ó 2Þ.

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

Fig. 8-22.

We are ready to sketch transformations of a given graph. The graph of f ðxÞ will be given and we will be asked to sketch a given transformation. Some of the transformations can be done with no extra work, but we will need to be careful with others. To help with the more complicated transformations, we will use tables of values. EXAMPLES Sketch the transformations f ðx þ 1Þ 3, f ðxÞ þ 1ó f ðx þ 2Þ 3ó 2 f ðxÞó f ðxÞ, f ðxÞ 1, and f ð2 xÞ.

Fig. 8-23.

Table 8-1 gives the values for this function. Table 8-1 x

f (x)

4

3

2

0

0

1

2

2

4

4

231

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

232 *

To graph f ðx þ 1Þ 3, shift the graph of f ðxÞ to the left 1 unit and down 3 units. Because every point is moving left 1 unit, the new x-values are the old x-values minus 1. Because every point is also moving down 3 units, the new y-values are the old y-values minus 3 (Table 8-2).

Table 8-2 x1

y3

Plot this point

4 1 ¼ 5

3 3 ¼ 6

( 5, 6)

2 1 ¼ 3

0 3 ¼ 3

(3, 3)

0 1 ¼ 1

1 3 ¼ 4

(1, 4)

21¼1

2 3 ¼ 5

(1, 5)

41¼3

43¼1

(3, 1)

Fig. 8-24.

*

For the graph of f ðxÞ þ 1, we will not change the x-values. The y-values have two changes. First, we will take the negative of the old y-values; second, we will add 1 to them (Table 8-3).

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

233

Table 8-3 x

y þ 1

Plot this point

4

(3) þ 1 ¼ 4

(4, 4)

2

0 þ 1=1

(2, 1)

0

(1) þ 1=2

(0, 2)

2

(2) þ 1=3

(2, 3)

4

4 þ 1=0

(4, 3)

Fig. 8-25.

*

To ﬁnd the points for f ðx þ 2Þ 3, subtract 2 from each x-value, and subtract 3 from the opposite of the y-values (Table 8-4). Table 8-4 x2 42 ¼ 6

y3 (3)3 ¼ 0

Plot this point (6, 0)

22 ¼ 4

03 ¼ 3

(4, 3)

02 ¼ 2

(1) 3 ¼ 2

(2, 2)

22 ¼ 0

(2)3 ¼ 1

(0, 1)

42 ¼ 2

43 ¼ 7

(2, 7)

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

234

Fig. 8-26. *

Sketch the graph of 2 f ðxÞ by multiplying each y-value by 2. The x-values do not change (Table 8-5). Table 8-5 x

2y

Plot this point

4

2(3) ¼ 6

(4, 6)

2

2(0) ¼ 0

(2, 0)

0

2(1) ¼ 2

(0, 2)

2

2(2) ¼ 4

(2, 4)

4

2(4) ¼ 8

(4, 8)

Fig. 8-27.

CHAPTER 8 Transformations *

235

Sketch the graph of f ðxÞ by replacing each x-value with its opposite. The y-values do not change (Table 8-6). Table 8-6 x

y

Plot this point

(4) ¼ 4

3

(4, 3)

(2) ¼ 2

0

0 ¼ 0

1

(0, 1)

2

2

(2, 2)

4

4

(2, 0)

(4, 4)

Fig. 8-28.

*

Sketch the graph of f ðxÞ 1 by taking the the opposite of each x-value and by subtracting 1 from each y-value (Table 8-7). Table 8-7 x

y1

Plot this point

(4) ¼ 4

3 1 ¼ 4

(4, 4)

(2) ¼ 2

0 1 ¼ 1

(2, 1)

0 ¼ 0

1 1 ¼ 2

(0, 2)

2

2 1 ¼ 3

(2, 3)

4

41¼3

(4, 3)

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

236

Fig. 8-29. *

The graph of f ð2 xÞ is a little more diﬃcult. This transformation is ﬁrst a reﬂection about the y-axis, then a shift to the right 2 units. The y-values do not change (Table 8-8). Table 8-8 2x

y

Plot this point

2(4) ¼ 6

3

2(2) ¼ 4

0

20¼2

1

(2, 1)

22¼0

2

(0, 2)

4

(2, 4)

2 4 ¼ 2

Fig. 8-30.

(6, 3) (4, 0)

CHAPTER 8 Transformations PRACTICE Sketch the transformations of the function f ðxÞ whose graph is given in Fig. 8-31.

Fig. 8-31.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

f ðx þ 2Þ f ðx 1Þ 2 3 f ðxÞ f ðxÞ f ðx 1Þ þ 2 f ðxÞ þ 1 2 f ðx 2Þ

SOLUTIONS 1.

Fig. 8-32.

2.

Fig. 8-33.

237

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

238 3.

Fig. 8-34.

4.

Fig. 8-35.

5.

Fig. 8-36.

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

239

6.

Fig. 8-37.

7.

Fig. 8-38.

It might seem odd that in the transformation f ðx þ 1Þ þ 2, ‘‘x þ 1’’ has the eﬀect of moving x in the negative direction while ‘‘þ2’’ has the eﬀect of moving y in the positive direction. The reason we subtract 1 from each x is so that when we evaluate f ðx þ 1Þ at x 1, we end up with f ðxÞ: f ððx 1Þ þ 1Þ ¼ f ðxÞ. It is for this reason that to sketch the graph of the transformation f ðdxÞ, we would compute the x-values by dividing them by d. For example, if we need to sketch the graph of f ð2xÞ, we would need to divide each x-value by 2. This is so that f ð2ð12 xÞÞ ¼ f ðxÞ:

Special Functions There are several families of functions whose graphs college algebra students should know. 1.

f (x) ¼ c

This is the constant function. Its graph is a horizontal line.

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

240 2.

f (x) ¼ mx þ b

3.

f (x) ¼ x2

4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

3 f (x) ¼ x pﬃﬃﬃ f (x) ¼ x f (x) ¼ |x| f (x) ¼ ax f (x) ¼ loga x

This is the linear function. Its graph is a nonvertical line. This is the quadratic function. Its graph is a parabola. This is the cubic function. This is the square root function. This is the absolute value function. This is the exponential function. This is the logarithmic function.

The graphs of the ﬁrst three are covered in Chapter 4, the second three are covered in this chapter, and the exponential function is covered in Chapter 11. Once you know the basic shape of the graphs of these functions, you can use what you learned earlier in this chapter to sketch the graphs of many functions with only a little work. This information can also help you use a graphing calculator more eﬀectively. Figure 8-39 shows the graph of y ¼ x3 .

Fig. 8-39.

The solid graphs in Figs. 8-39–8-46 are the graphs of y ¼ x3 and the dashed graphs are transformations of y ¼ x3 . The transformation in Fig. 8-40 is f ðxÞ ¼ x3 , a reﬂection of y ¼ x3 about the x-axis. Coincidentally, both reﬂections about the x-axis and y-axis are the same. In other words, y ¼ x3 and y ¼ ðxÞ3 are the same function.

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

Fig. 8-40.

The graph f ðxÞ ¼ 2x3 is the graph y ¼ x3 stretched vertically.

Fig. 8-41.

The graph of f ðxÞ ¼ ðx 2Þ3 1 is the graph of y ¼ x3 shifted to the right 2 units and down 1 unit.

Fig. 8-42.

241

242

CHAPTER 8 Transformations PRACTICE Match the graph with the function.

Fig. 8-43.

Fig. 8-44.

Fig. 8-45.

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

Fig. 8-46.

1. 2. 3. 4.

f ðxÞ ¼ 12 x3 f ðxÞ ¼ ðx 1Þ3 f ðxÞ ¼ 3x3 f ðxÞ ¼ ðx 2Þ3 þ 3

SOLUTIONS 1. Figure 8-45 2. Figure 8-46 3. Figure 8-43 4. Figure 8-44 pﬃﬃﬃ The graph of y ¼ x is part of a parabola. Imagine turning a parabola on its side pand ﬃﬃﬃ cutting oﬀ the bottom pﬃﬃﬃ half. What would be left is the graph of y ¼ x. The graph of y ¼ x is shown in pﬃﬃﬃFig. 8-47. The solid graphs in Figs. 8-48–8-56 are the graph of y ¼ x. The dashed graphs are transformations.

Fig. 8-47.

243

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

244 The graph of f ðxÞ ¼

pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ x þ 2 is the graph of y ¼ x shifted up 2 units.

Fig. 8-48.

The graph of f ðxÞ ¼

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ x is the graph of y ¼ x reﬂected about the y-axis.

Fig. 8-49.

pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ The graph of f ðxÞ ¼ x is the graph of y ¼ x reﬂected about the x-axis.

Fig. 8-50.

CHAPTER 8 Transformations pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ The graph of f ðxÞ ¼ 2 x is the graph of y ¼ x ﬁrst reﬂected across the y-axis then shifted to the right 2 units.

Fig. 8-51.

PRACTICE Match the graph with the function.

Fig. 8-52.

Fig. 8-53.

245

246

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

Fig. 8-54.

Fig. 8-55.

Fig. 8-56.

CHAPTER 8 Transformations 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ f ðxÞ ¼ 1 p x ﬃﬃﬃ f ðxÞ ¼ 3 pﬃﬃﬃþ x f ðxÞ ¼ 4 xpﬃﬃﬃ f ðxÞ ¼ 1p ﬃﬃﬃ x f ðxÞ ¼ 12 x

SOLUTIONS 1. Figure 8-52 2. Figure 8-54 3. Figure 8-55 4. Figure 8-53 5. Figure 8-56 The last new function in this section is the absolute value function, y ¼ jxj. Its graph is in the shape of a ‘‘V.’’ The graph of y ¼ jxj is shown in Fig. 8-57. As before, the solid graphs in Figs. 8-58–8-65 are the graphs of y ¼ jxj and the dashed graphs are transformations.

Fig. 8-57.

The graph of f ðxÞ ¼ 3jxj is the graph of y ¼ jxj stretched vertically.

Fig. 8-58.

247

248

CHAPTER 8 Transformations The graph of f ðxÞ 14 jxj is the graph of y ¼ jxj reﬂected across the x-axis and vertically ﬂattened.

Fig. 8-59.

The graph of f ðxÞ ¼ 4jxj 6 is the graph of y ¼ jxj ﬁrst stretched vertically then shifted down 6 units.

Fig. 8-60.

PRACTICE Match the graph with the function.

Fig. 8-61.

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

Fig. 8-62.

Fig. 8-63.

Fig. 8-64.

249

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

250

Fig. 8-65.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

f ðxÞ ¼ jx 3j f ðxÞ ¼ jx þ 2j 1 f ðxÞ ¼ 12 jxj f ðxÞ ¼ 2jxj f ðxÞ ¼ 3jx 2j þ 1

SOLUTIONS 1. Figure 8-63 2. Figure 8-65 3. Figure 8-62 4. Figure 8-61 5. Figure 8-64 The next set of practice problems is another set of matching problems but the reference graphs pﬃﬃﬃ will not be given. These will be transformations of y ¼ x2 , y ¼ x3 , y ¼ x, y ¼ jxj. PRACTICE Match the graph to its function. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

3 f ðxÞ ¼ ðxp ﬃﬃﬃ 1Þ f ðxÞ ¼ 4 x f ðxÞ ¼ x2 f ðxÞ ¼ jx þ 2j þ 2 f ðxÞ ¼ ðx þp1Þﬃﬃﬃ3 4 f ðxÞ ¼ p 2þ x ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ f ðxÞ ¼ x 3 f ðxÞ ¼ 12 x2 4 f ðxÞ ¼ jxj 4

CHAPTER 8 Transformations SOLUTIONS

Fig. 8-66.

Fig. 8-67.

Fig. 8-68.

251

252

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

Fig. 8-69.

Fig. 8-70.

Fig. 8-71.

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

Fig. 8-72.

Fig. 8-73.

Fig. 8-74.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure

8-70 8-73 8-67 8-69 8-66 8-71

253

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

254 7. 8. 9.

Figure 8-68 Figure 8-72 Figure 8-74

Sometimes the transformations f ðxÞ do not change the graph at all. For example, for f ðxÞ ¼ x2 , f ðxÞ is the same as f ðxÞ: f ðxÞ ¼ ðxÞ2 ¼ x2 , and gðxÞ ¼ jxj is the same as gðxÞ ¼ j xj ¼ jxj. This is because these graphs are symmetric with respect to the y-axis. That is, the left half of the graph is a reﬂection (or mirror image) of the right half. The dashed part of the graph in Fig. 8-75 is a reﬂection of the solid part of the graph.

Fig. 8-75.

A function whose vertical reﬂection (f ðxÞ) is the same as its horizontal reﬂection ( f ðxÞ) is symmetric with respect to the origin. Origin symmetry is a little harder to see than y-axis symmetry. Imagine folding the graph in Fig. 8-76 along the x-axis then again along the y-axis; the upper right-hand part of the graph will be the same as the lower left-hand part of the graph.

Fig. 8-76.

CHAPTER 8 Transformations The graph of y2 ¼ x in Fig. 8-77 has x-axis symmetry. This symmetry is not as important as y-axis symmetry and origin symmetry because only one function has this kind of symmetry (y ¼ 0).

Fig. 8-77.

PRACTICE Determine whether the graphs are symmetric with respect to the y-axis, x-axis, or origin. 1.

Fig. 8-78.

2.

Fig. 8-79.

255

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

256 3.

Fig. 8-80.

4.

Fig. 8-81.

5.

Fig. 8-82.

CHAPTER 8 Transformations 6.

Fig. 8-83.

SOLUTIONS 1. y-axis symmetry 2. No symmetry 3. Origin symmetry 4. y-axis symmetry 5. No symmetry 6. Origin symmetry We can tell if the graph of a function has y-axis symmetry or origin symmetry by looking at its equation. If we evaluate the function at x (replace x with x) and the y-values do not change, then the function has y-axis symmetry. Knowing that the graph of a function has y-axis symmetry is very useful when sketching the graph by hand. This is because if ðxó yÞ is on the graph, then ðxó yÞ is also on the graph. For example, if a function is symmetric with respect to the y-axis and the point ð2ó 3Þ is on the graph, then we automatically know that ð2ó 3Þ is also on the graph. The graph of a function has origin symmetry when evaluating the function at x also changes the sign on the y-values. If a function is symmetric with respect to the origin and the point ð2ó 3Þ is on the graph, then the point ð2ó 3Þ is also on the graph. Functions whose graphs have y-axis symmetry are called even functions. Functions whose graphs have origin symmetry are called odd functions. A function is even if f ðxÞ ¼ f ðxÞ. This is the mathematical notation for the idea that replacing an x-value with its opposite will not change the y-value. A function is odd if f ðxÞ ¼ f ðxÞ. This is the mathematical notation for

257

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

258

the idea that replacing an x-value with its opposite replaces the y-value with its opposite. Because so many important functions involve x to powers, the following facts will be useful. ðxÞeven power ¼ xeven power

and ðxÞodd power ¼ xodd power

The product of an even number of negative numbers is positive, and the product of an odd number of negative numbers is negative. EXAMPLES * 2ðxÞ3 ¼ 2ð1Þx3 ¼ 2x3 * 3ðxÞ7 ¼ 3ð1Þx7 ¼ 3x7 * 1 ðxÞ ¼ 1 þ x * 1 ðxÞ3 ¼ 1 þ x3

* * * *

5ðxÞ6 ¼ 5x6 4ðxÞ8 ¼ 4x8 1 ðxÞ2 ¼ 1 x2 ðxÞ2 ðxÞ3 ¼ x2 þ x3

PRACTICE Simplify. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

ðxÞ3 ðxÞ2 4ðxÞ100 7ðxÞ15 2ðxÞ5 8ðxÞ4 ðxÞ3 þ 2ðxÞ2 þ 4ðxÞ þ 1 5ðxÞ4 3ðxÞ3 6ðxÞ2 þ 9ðxÞ þ 16

SOLUTIONS 1. ðxÞ3 ¼ x3 2. ðxÞ2 ¼ x2 3. 4ðxÞ100 ¼ 4x100 4. 7ðxÞ15 ¼ 7x15 5. 2ðxÞ5 ¼ 2x5 6. 8ðxÞ4 ¼ 8x4 7. ðxÞ3 þ 2ðxÞ2 þ 4ðxÞ þ 1 ¼ x3 þ 2x2 4x þ 1 8. 5ðxÞ4 3ðxÞ3 6ðxÞ2 þ 9ðxÞ þ 16 ¼ 5x4 þ 3x3 6x2 9x þ 16 Evaluating a function at x is often the most diﬃcult part of determining if a function is even, odd, or neither. Once we have evaluated a function at x and simpliﬁed it, we will compare this both to f ðxÞ and to f ðxÞ. If the simpliﬁed equation is the same as f ðxÞ, then the function is even. If it is the same as f ðxÞ, then the function is odd.

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

259

EXAMPLES Determine whether the functions are even, odd, or neither. *

f ðxÞ ¼ x3 þ x First we will multiply both sides of f ðxÞ by 1 so that we can compare f ðxÞ with f ðxÞ and with f ðxÞ. f ðxÞ ¼ ðx3 þ xÞ ¼ x3 x Now we will ﬁnd and simplify f ðxÞ and compare it to f ðxÞ ¼ x3 þ x and to f ðxÞ ¼ x3 x. f ðxÞ ¼ ðxÞ3 þ ðxÞ ¼ x3 x Because f ðxÞ and f ðxÞ are the same, f ðxÞ is an odd function.

*

f ðxÞ ¼ 5x3 4 We will multiply both sides of the equation by 1 to ﬁnd f ðxÞ. f ðxÞ ¼ ð5x3 4Þ ¼ 5x3 þ 4 Now we will ﬁnd and simplify f ðxÞ. f ðxÞ ¼ 5ðxÞ3 4 ¼ 5x3 4 f ðxÞ is not the same as f ðxÞ and not the same as f ðxÞ, so f ðxÞ is neither even nor odd.

*

f ðxÞ ¼ 6x2 þ 1 f ðxÞ ¼ ð6x2 þ 1Þ ¼ 6x2 1 f ðxÞ ¼ 6ðxÞ2 þ 1 ¼ 6x2 þ 1 f ðxÞ and f ðxÞ are the same, so f ðxÞ is an even function.

*

f ðxÞ ¼ 9 Because the y-value is 9 no matter what x is, f ðxÞ ¼ 9, so f ðxÞ is an even function.

*

f ðxÞ ¼ j2xj þ 3 f ðxÞ ¼ ðj2xj þ 3Þ ¼ j2xj 3 f ðxÞ ¼ j2ðxÞj þ 3 ¼ j 2xj þ 3 ¼ j2xj þ 3

ðj xj ¼ jxjÞ

f ðxÞ and f ðxÞ are the same, so f ðxÞ is an even function.

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

260 *

gðxÞ ¼

3 x4 x2 þ 2

3 x2 þ 2 3 3 gðxÞ ¼ ¼ 4 4 2 ðxÞ ðxÞ þ 2 x x2 þ 2

gðxÞ ¼

x4

gðxÞ and gðxÞ are the same, so gðxÞ is an even function. PRACTICE Determine whether the functions are even, odd, or neither. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

f ðxÞ ¼ 2x5 6x3 þ x f ðxÞ ¼ 8 x2 gðxÞ ¼ x3 x2 þ x 1 f ðxÞ ¼ 2x þ 1 8 hðxÞ ¼ ðx þ 1Þ 2x f ðxÞ ¼ ð5x3 þ xÞ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ gðxÞ ¼ x2 þ 4 hðxÞ ¼ j3xj 8 f ðxÞ ¼ 25

SOLUTIONS 1. f ðxÞ ¼ 2x5 6x3 þ x f ðxÞ ¼ ð2x5 6x3 þ xÞ ¼ 2x5 þ 6x3 x f ðxÞ ¼ 2ðxÞ5 6ðxÞ3 þ ðxÞ ¼ 2x5 þ 6x3 x 2.

f ðxÞ and f ðxÞ are the same, so f ðxÞ is an odd function. f ðxÞ ¼ 8 x2 f ðxÞ ¼ ð8 x2 Þ ¼ 8 þ x2 f ðxÞ ¼ 8 ðxÞ2 ¼ 8 x2

3.

f ðxÞ and f ðxÞ are the same, so f ðxÞ is an even function. gðxÞ ¼ x3 x2 þ x 1 gðxÞ ¼ ðx3 x2 þ x 1Þ ¼ x3 þ x2 x þ 1 gðxÞ ¼ ðxÞ3 ðxÞ2 þ ðxÞ 1 ¼ x3 x2 x 1 gðxÞ is not the same as gðxÞ or gðxÞ, so gðxÞ is neither even nor odd.

CHAPTER 8 Transformations 4.

f ðxÞ ¼ 2x þ 1 f ðxÞ ¼ ð2x þ 1Þ ¼ 2x 1 f ðxÞ ¼ 2ðxÞ þ 1 ¼ 2x þ 1

5.

6.

f ðxÞ is not the same as f ðxÞ or f ðxÞ, so f ðxÞ is neither even nor odd. 8 hðxÞ ¼ ðx þ 1Þ 8 8 ¼ hðxÞ ¼ xþ1 xþ1 8 hðxÞ ¼ x þ 1 hðxÞ is not the same as hðxÞ or hðxÞ, so hðxÞ is neither even nor odd. 2x f ðxÞ ¼ ð5x3 þ xÞ 2x 2x ¼ 3 3 5x þ x 5x þ x 2ðxÞ 2x f ðxÞ ¼ ¼ 3 5ðxÞ þ ðxÞ 5x3 x 2x 2x ¼ 3 ¼ 3 ð5x þ xÞ 5x þ x f ðxÞ ¼

7.

8.

f ðxÞ ispthe same as f ðxÞ, so f ðxÞ is an even function. ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2 gðxÞ ¼ x þ 4 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ gðxÞ ¼ x2 þ 4 qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ gðxÞ ¼ ðxÞ2 þ 4 ¼ x2 þ 4 gðxÞ and gðxÞ are the same, so gðxÞ is an even function. hðxÞ ¼ j3xj 8 hðxÞ ¼ ðj3xj 8Þ ¼ j3xj þ 8 hðxÞ ¼ j3ðxÞj 8 ¼ j 3xj 8 ¼ j3xj 8

9.

hðxÞ and hðxÞ are the same, so hðxÞ is an even function. f ðxÞ ¼ 25. Because f ðxÞ ¼ 25 for every x, f ðxÞ ¼ 25 also, so f ðxÞ is an even function.

261

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

262

Combining Functions The vast majority of functions studied in algebra and calculus are some combination of only a handful of basic functions, most of them introduced in this book. The most obvious combination of two or more functions are arithmetic combinations: adding, subtracting, multiplying, and dividing. Suppose two functions f ðxÞ and gðxÞ are given. * *

ð f þ gÞðxÞ means f ðxÞ þ gðxÞ: ð fgÞðxÞ means f ðxÞgðxÞ:

* *

ð f gÞðxÞ means f ðxÞ gðxÞ: ð f =gÞðxÞ means f ðxÞ=gðxÞ:

EXAMPLE * f ðxÞ ¼ 3x 4 and gðxÞ ¼ x2 þ x ð f þ gÞðxÞ ¼ ð3x 4Þ þ ðx2 þ xÞ ¼ x2 þ 4x 4 ð f gÞðxÞ ¼ ð3x 4Þ ðx2 þ xÞ ¼ 3x 4 x2 x ¼ x2 þ 2x 4 ð fgÞðxÞ ¼ ð3x 4Þðx2 þ xÞ ¼ 3x3 þ 3x2 4x2 4x ¼ 3x3 x2 4x f 3x 4 ðxÞ ¼ 2 g x þx

PRACTICE Find ð f þ gÞðxÞó ð f gÞðxÞó ð fgÞðxÞ, and ð f =gÞðxÞ. 1. 2. 3.

f ðxÞ ¼ p xþ 6 and gðxÞ ¼ 2x þ 4 ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ f ðxÞ ¼ x þ 6 and gðxÞ ¼ x 2 xþ2 3x þ 1 and gðxÞ ¼ f ðxÞ ¼ 3x 1 x2

SOLUTIONS 1. ð f þ gÞðxÞ ¼ ðx þ 6Þ þ ð2x þ 4Þ ¼ x þ 10 ð f gÞðxÞ ¼ ðx þ 6Þ ð2x þ 4Þ ¼ x þ 6 þ 2x 4 ¼ 3x þ 2

CHAPTER 8 Transformations ð fgÞðxÞ ¼ ðx þ 6Þð2x þ 4Þ ¼ 2x2 þ 4x 12x þ 24 ¼ 2x2 8x þ 24 f xþ6 ðxÞ ¼ g 2x þ 4 2.

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ xþ6þx2 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ð f gÞðxÞ ¼ x þ 6 ðx 2Þ ¼ x þ 6 x þ 2 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ð fgÞðxÞ ¼ x þ 6ðx 2Þ ¼ ðx 2Þ x þ 6 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ xþ6 f ðxÞ ¼ x2 g ð f þ gÞðxÞ ¼

3. ð f þ gÞðxÞ ¼ ¼ ð f gÞðxÞ ¼

x þ 2 3x þ 1 x þ 2 x 2 3x þ 1 3x 1 þ ¼ þ 3x 1 x 2 3x 1 x 2 x 2 3x 1 x2 4 9x2 1 10x2 5 þ ¼ 2 ð3x 1Þðx 2Þ ð3x 1Þðx 2Þ 3x 7x þ 2 x þ 2 3x þ 1 3x 1 x 2

x2 4 9x2 1 ¼ ð3x 1Þðx 2Þ ð3x 1Þðx 2Þ x2 4 ð9x2 1Þ 8x2 3 ¼ 3x2 7x þ 2 3x2 7x þ 2 x þ 2 3x þ 1 ðx þ 2Þð3x þ 1Þ ð fgÞðxÞ ¼ ¼ 3x 1 x 2 ð3x 1Þðx 2Þ ¼

3x2 þ 7x þ 2 3x2 7x þ 2 f ðx þ 2Þ=ð3x 1Þ ðxÞ ¼ g ð3x þ 1Þ=ðx 2Þ ¼

¼

x þ 2 3x þ 1 xþ2 x2 ¼ 3x 1 x 2 3x 1 3x þ 1

¼

x2 4 9x2 1

263

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

264

Function Composition Two (or more) functions can be combined by composing one function with another. We have performed function composition without calling it by its name. The basic idea behind function composition is that one function is evaluated at another. For example, if f ðxÞ ¼ 4x þ 7 and gðxÞ ¼ 2x 3, then ‘‘to evaluate f at g’’ means to compute f ð2x 3Þ. Remember that to ‘‘evaluate a function’’ means to substitute the quantity in the parentheses for x. f ð2x 3Þ ¼ 4ð2x 3Þ þ 7 ¼ 8x 12 þ 7 ¼ 8x 5 The notation for this operation is f gðxÞ. By deﬁnition, f gðxÞ means f ðgðxÞÞ. This operation is not commutative. That is, f gðxÞ is usually not the same as g f ðxÞ. EXAMPLES Find f gðxÞ and g f ðxÞ. *

f ðxÞ ¼ x2 þ 4x 3 and gðxÞ ¼ 2x 5 f gðxÞ ¼ f ðgðxÞÞ

This is the definition of f gðxÞ

¼ f ð2x 5Þ

Replace gðxÞ with 2x 5

¼ ð2x 5Þ2 þ 4ð2x 5Þ 3

Replace x with 2x 5 in f ðxÞ

¼ ð2x 5Þð2x 5Þ þ 4ð2x 5Þ 3 ¼ 4x2 20x þ 25 þ 8x 20 3 ¼ 4x2 12x þ 2 g f ðxÞ ¼ gð f ðxÞÞ

This is the definition of g f ðxÞ

¼ gðx2 þ 4x 3Þ

Replace f ðxÞ with x2 þ 4x 3

¼ 2ðx2 þ 4x 3Þ 5

Replace x with x2 þ 4x 3 in gðxÞ

¼ 2x2 þ 8x 6 5 ¼ 2x2 þ 8x 11

CHAPTER 8 Transformations *

265

f ðxÞ ¼ 8 5x and gðxÞ ¼ x þ 4 f gðxÞ ¼ f ðgðxÞÞ ¼ f ðx þ 4Þ ¼ 8 5ðx þ 4Þ ¼ 8 5x 20 ¼ 5x 12 g f ðxÞ ¼ gð f ðxÞÞ ¼ gð8 5xÞ ¼ 8 5x þ 4 ¼ 5x þ 12

*

f ðxÞ ¼

pﬃﬃﬃ x and gðxÞ ¼ x2 þ 2x þ 2 f gðxÞ ¼ f ðgðxÞÞ ¼ f ðx2 þ 2x þ 2Þ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ¼ x2 þ 2x þ 2 pﬃﬃﬃ g f ðxÞ ¼ gð f ðxÞÞ ¼ gð xÞ pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ ¼ ð xÞ2 þ 2 x þ 2 ¼ x þ 2 x þ 2

*

f ðxÞ ¼ 16x 1 and gðxÞ ¼ 1=ðx þ 2Þ

1 f gðxÞ ¼ f ðgðxÞÞ ¼ f xþ2 1 ¼ 16 1 xþ2 ¼

16 14 x 1 or xþ2 xþ2

g f ðxÞ ¼ gð f ðxÞÞ ¼ gð16x 1Þ ¼

1 1 ¼ ð16x 1Þ þ 2 16x þ 1

PRACTICE Find f gðxÞ and g f ðxÞ. 1. 2. 3. 4.

f ðxÞ ¼ x þ 2 and gðxÞp ¼ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ x2 ﬃ4 2 f ðxÞ ¼ x and gðxÞ ¼ 2x 4 f ðxÞ ¼ 3x2 þ x and gðxÞ ¼ 1=x f ðxÞ ¼ 1=x and gðxÞ ¼ 2=ðx 1Þ

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

266 SOLUTIONS 1.

f gðxÞ ¼ f ðgðxÞÞ ¼ f ðx2 4Þ ¼ ðx2 4Þ þ 2 ¼ x2 2 g f ðxÞ ¼ gð f ðxÞÞ ¼ gðx þ 2Þ ¼ ðx þ 2Þ2 4 ¼ ðx þ 2Þðx þ 2Þ 4 ¼ x2 þ 4x þ 4 4 ¼ x2 þ 4x 2. pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ f gðxÞ ¼ f ðgðxÞÞ ¼ f ð 2x 4Þ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ¼ ð 2x 4Þ2 ¼ 2x 4 g f ðxÞ ¼ gð f ðxÞÞ ¼ gðx2 Þ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ¼ 2x2 4 3. f gðxÞ ¼ f ðgðxÞÞ ¼ f

1 x

2 1 1 3 1 ¼3 þ ¼ 2þ x x x x g f ðxÞ ¼ gð f ðxÞÞ ¼ gð3x2 þ xÞ ¼

1 3x þ x 2

4. f gðxÞ ¼ f ðgðxÞÞ ¼ f ¼

2 x1

1 2 ¼1 2=ðx 1Þ x1

¼1

x1 x1 ¼ 2 2

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

267

1 g f ðxÞ ¼ gð f ðxÞÞ ¼ g x 2 2 ¼ ¼ 1=x 1 1=x x=x 2 1x ¼ ¼2 ð1 xÞ=x x x 2x ¼ ¼2 1x 1x There is no reason a function cannot be evaluated at itself. In other words, sometimes we are asked to compute f f ðxÞ for some function f ðxÞ. For example, suppose f ðxÞ ¼ 3x2 þ 5. f f ðxÞ ¼ f ð f ðxÞÞ ¼ f ð3x2 þ 5Þ ¼ 3ð3x2 þ 5Þ2 þ 5 ¼ 3ð3x2 þ 5Þð3x2 þ 5Þ þ 5 ¼ 3ð9x2 þ 30x þ 25Þ þ 5 ¼ 27x2 þ 90x þ 80 Sometimes we need only to compose functions at a single x-value. For example, if f ðxÞ ¼ 8 5x and gðxÞ ¼ x þ 4, we might only need to ﬁnd f gðxÞ for x ¼ 2. To do this, let x ¼ 2 in gðxÞ: gð2Þ ¼ 2 þ 4 ¼ 6. Now let x ¼ 6 in f ðxÞ: f ð6Þ ¼ 8 5ð6Þ ¼ 22. We have just found that f gð2Þ ¼ 22. Of course, if we know that f gðxÞ ¼ 5x 10 (as we computed earlier), we could evaluate f gð2Þ by letting x ¼ 2 in 5x 12. For the following examples and practice problems, both f gðxÞ and g f ðxÞ were computed as above. EXAMPLES * Find f gð1Þ and g f ð2Þ for f ðxÞ ¼ x2 þ 4x 3 and gðxÞ ¼ 2x 5. First ﬁnd gð1Þ: gð1Þ ¼ 2ð1Þ 5 ¼ 3. Now let x ¼ 3 in f ðxÞ: f ð3Þ ¼ ð3Þ2 þ 4ð3Þ 3 ¼ 6, so f gð1Þ ¼ f ðgð1ÞÞ ¼ f ð3Þ ¼ 6. g f ð2Þ ¼ gð f ð2ÞÞ ¼ gð7Þ

ð f ð2Þ ¼ ð2Þ2 þ 4ð2Þ 3 ¼ 7Þ

ðgð7Þ ¼ 2ð7Þ 5 ¼ 19Þ pﬃﬃﬃ Find f gð0Þ and g f ð9Þ for f ðxÞ ¼ x and gðxÞ ¼ x2 þ 2x þ 2. f gð0Þ ¼ f ðgð0ÞÞ ¼ 19

*

¼ f ð2Þ pﬃﬃﬃ ¼ 2

ðgð0Þ ¼ 02 þ 2ð0Þ þ 2 ¼ 2Þ

g f ð9Þ ¼ gð f ð9ÞÞ ¼ gð3Þ

ð f ð9Þ ¼

¼ 32 þ 2ð3Þ þ 2 ¼ 17

pﬃﬃﬃ 9 ¼ 3Þ

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

268

PRACTICE 1. Find f gð3Þ and g f ð5Þ for f ðxÞ ¼ x þ 2 and gðxÞ ¼ x2 p ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ﬃ 4. 2. Find f gð5Þ and g f ð2Þ for f ðxÞ ¼ x2 and gðxÞ ¼ 2x 4. 3. Find f gð2Þ and g f ð2Þ for f ðxÞ ¼ 1=x and gðxÞ ¼ 2=ðx 1Þ. SOLUTIONS 1. f gð3Þ ¼ f ðgð3ÞÞ ¼ f ð5Þ ðgð3Þ ¼ ð3Þ2 4 ¼ 5Þ ¼5þ2¼7 g f ð5Þ ¼ gð f ð5ÞÞ ¼ gð7Þ

ðf ð5Þ ¼ 5 þ 2 ¼ 7Þ

2

¼ 7 4 ¼ 45 2. f gð5Þ ¼ f ðgð5ÞÞ pﬃﬃﬃ ¼ f ð 6Þ pﬃﬃﬃ ¼ ð 6Þ2 ¼ 6

ðgð5Þ ¼

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ 2ð5Þ 4 ¼ 6Þ

g f ð2Þ ¼ gð4Þ ð f ð2Þ ¼ 22 ¼ 4Þ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ ¼ 2ð4Þ 4 ¼ 4 ¼ 2 3. f gð2Þ ¼ f ðgð2ÞÞ 2 2 2 gð2Þ ¼ ¼f ¼ 3 2 1 3 1 2 3 3 ¼ ¼1 ¼1 ¼ 2=3 3 2 2 g f ð2Þ ¼ gð f ð2ÞÞ 1 1 ¼g f ð2Þ ¼ 2 2 2 2 ¼ ¼ 1=2 1 1=2 1 ¼2 ¼ 2 ð2Þ ¼ 4 2 Graphs can be used to evaluate the composition of functions at a particular x-value. For f gðxÞ, the y-value of gðxÞ becomes the x-value for f ðxÞ. In other

CHAPTER 8 Transformations words, f gðxÞ is the y-value for f ðxÞ whose x-value is gðxÞ. For example, if we are asked to ﬁnd f gð1Þ, we need to look on the graph of gðxÞ for the point whose x-coordinate is 1, and put this y-coordinate in for x in f ðxÞ. EXAMPLE

Fig. 8-84.

The solid graph is the graph of f ðxÞ and the dashed graph is the graph of gðxÞ. *

Find f gð1Þó f gð1Þó g f ð0Þ For f gð1Þ ¼ f ðgð1ÞÞ, we need to look on the graph of gðxÞ for the point whose x-coordinate is 1. This point is ð1ó 2Þ. Now we will use y ¼ 2 as x ¼ 2 in f ðxÞ. We need to look on the graph of f ðxÞ for the point whose x-coordinate is 2. That point is ð2ó 5Þ. This means that f gð1Þ ¼ 5. For f gð1Þ ¼ f ðgð1ÞÞ, we will look on the graph of gðxÞ for the point whose x-coordinate is 1. This point is ð1ó 2Þ. Now we will use y ¼ 2 as x ¼ 2 in f ðxÞ. We need to look on the graph of f ðxÞ for the point whose x-coordinate is 2. That point is ð2ó 3Þ. This means that f gð1Þ ¼ 3. For g f ð0Þ ¼ gð f ð0ÞÞ, we need to look on the graph of f ðxÞ for the point whose x-coordinate is 0. This point is ð0ó 3Þ. Now we will look on the graph of gðxÞ for the point whose x-coordinate is 3. That point is ð3ó 6Þ. This means that g f ð0Þ ¼ 6.

PRACTICE The graph of f ðxÞ is the solid graph, and the graph of gðxÞ is the dashed graph.

269

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

270

Fig. 8-85.

1. 2. 3. 4.

Find Find Find Find

f gð3Þ g f ð1Þ f gð1Þ f f ð2Þ

SOLUTIONS 1. The point ð3ó 1Þ is on the graph of gðxÞ. The point on the graph of f ðxÞ whose x-coordinate is 1 is ð1ó 5Þ. This makes f gð3Þ ¼ 5. 2. The point ð1ó 5Þ is on the graph of f ðxÞ. The point on the graph of gðxÞ whose x-coordinate is 5 is ð5ó 4Þ. This makes g f ð1Þ ¼ 4. 3. The point ð1ó 2Þ is on the graph of gðxÞ. The point on the graph of f ðxÞ whose x-coordinate is 2 is ð2ó 0Þ. This makes f gð1Þ ¼ 0. 4. The point ð2ó 0Þ is on the graph of f ðxÞ. The point on the graph of f ðxÞ whose x-coordinate is 0 is ð0ó 8Þ. This makes f f ð2Þ ¼ 8.

THE DOMAIN OF THE COMPOSITION OF FUNCTIONS Finding the domain of the composition of functions is a little more complicated than ﬁnding the domain for the other combinations. For example, x ¼ 1 is in the domain of both f ðxÞ ¼ 1=x and gðxÞ ¼ x þ 1 but not in the domain of f gðxÞ. Why not? We cannot let f ðxÞ be evaluated at x ¼ 0, and gð1Þ ¼ 1 þ 1 ¼ 0, so f gð1ÞÞ ¼ f ðgð1ÞÞ ¼ f ð0Þ ¼ 10 is not deﬁned. For any functions f ðxÞ and gðxÞ, the domain of f gðxÞ is the domain of gðxÞ after deleting any x-values whose y-values are not allowed for f ðxÞ.

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

271

In the above example, x ¼ 1 is in the domain of gðxÞ but x ¼ gð1Þ is not in the domain of f ðxÞ. To ﬁnd the domain of f gðxÞ, we ﬁrst need to ﬁnd the domain of gðxÞ. Next, we will evaluate f ðxÞ at gðxÞ. Before simplifying, see which, if any, x-values need to be removed from the domain of gðxÞ. EXAMPLES Find the domain of f gðxÞ. *

f ðxÞ ¼ 1=ðx 1Þ and gðxÞ ¼ x2 The domain for gðxÞ is all x. Are there any x-values that need to be removed? This means, are there any y-values for gðxÞ that cause a zero in the denominator for f ðxÞ? Evaluate f ðgðxÞÞ. f ðgðxÞÞ ¼ f ðx2 Þ ¼

*

*

1 x 1 2

Because x ¼ 1 and x ¼ 1 cause the denominator to be 0, we must remove them from the domain of gðxÞ. The domain of f gðxÞ is all x except 1 and 1. In interval notation, this set is ð1ó 1Þ [ ð1ó 1Þ [ ð1ó 1Þ. pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ f ðxÞ ¼ x2 and gðxÞ ¼ x þ 1 The domain for gðxÞ is all x 1. Are there any x-values that need topbe removed from ½1ó 1Þ? We need for f gðxÞ ¼ f ðgðxÞÞ ¼ ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2 f ð x þ 1Þ ¼ ð x þ 1Þ to be deﬁned. Since x þ 1 is deﬁned for all x 1, we do not need to remove any numbers from ½1ó 1Þ, so the domain for f gðxÞ is ½1ó 1Þ. f ðxÞ ¼ 1=ðx þ 1Þ and gðxÞ ¼ 1=ðx 1Þ The domain for gðxÞ is all x except 1. f gðxÞ ¼ f ðgðxÞÞ ¼

1 1=ðx 1Þ þ 1

We cannot allow the denominator, 1=ðx 1Þ þ 1, to be 0, so we need to remove any x-value from the domain of gðxÞ that makes 1=ðx 1Þ þ 1 ¼ 0. 1 þ1¼0 x1 1 x1 þ1 ¼0 x1 x1 1 þ ðx 1Þ x ¼ ¼0 x x1

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

272

The fraction x=ðx 1Þ is 0 when the numerator, x, is 0. This makes the domain for f gðxÞ all x except 1 and 0. In interval notation, this is ð1ó 0Þ [ ð0ó 1Þ [ ð1ó 1Þ. This is a good example of why we need to look at f gðxÞ before it is simpliﬁed because f gðxÞ simpliﬁes to ðx 1Þ=x. This simpliﬁcation hides the fact that we cannot allow x to equal 1. PRACTICE Find the domain for f gðxÞ. Give solutions in interval notation. pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 1. f ðxÞ ¼ 4x 5 and gðxÞp¼ x ﬃþ 3 ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2 2. f ðxÞ ¼ x and gðxÞ ¼ 3x þ 5 3. f ðxÞ ¼ 1=ðx þ 1Þ and gðxÞ ¼ x 1 pﬃﬃﬃ 4. f ðxÞ ¼ 1=x and gðxÞ ¼ x SOLUTIONS pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 1. The domain for gðxÞ is x 3. Evaluate f gðxÞ: f ð x þ 3Þ ¼ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 4 x þ 3 5. We do not need to remove any x-values, so the domain is ½3ó 1Þ. pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 5 2. The domain pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ﬃ 2 for gðxÞ is x 3. Evaluate f gðxÞ: f ð 3x þ 5Þ ¼ ð 3x þ 5Þ ¼ 3x þ 5. We do not need to remove any x-values. The domain is ½ 53 ó 1Þ. 3. The domain for gðxÞ is all x. Evaluate f gðxÞ f gðxÞ ¼ f ðgðxÞÞ ¼ f ðx 1Þ ¼

4.

1 1 ¼ ðx 1Þ þ 1 x

We cannot allow x to be 0, so we need to remove x ¼ 0 from the domain of gðxÞ. The domain is ð1ó 0Þ [ ð0ó 1Þ. The domain for gðxÞ is x 0. Evaluate f gðxÞ. pﬃﬃﬃ 1 f gðxÞ ¼ f ð xÞ ¼ pﬃﬃﬃ x pﬃﬃﬃ We cannot allow x ¼ 0, so we need to remove x ¼ 0 from the domain of gðxÞ. The domain is ð0ó 1Þ.

A chain of three or more functions can be composed together. The steps in evaluating these chains are the same as in evaluating the composition of two functions. By deﬁnition, f g hðxÞ ¼ f gðhðxÞÞ ¼ f ðgðhðxÞÞÞ. In this expression, we call f the outside function, g the middle function, and

CHAPTER 8 Transformations h the inside function. In f g hðxÞ, we begin by ﬁnding gðhðxÞÞ, then evaluating f ðxÞ at gðhðxÞÞ. EXAMPLES Find f g hðxÞ. pﬃﬃﬃ * f ðxÞ ¼ x, gðxÞ ¼ 5x þ 6, and hðxÞ ¼ 8x2 þ x þ 4 First we will ﬁnd g hðxÞ ¼ gðhðxÞÞ. gðhðxÞÞ ¼ gð8x2 þ x þ 4Þ ¼ 5ð8x2 þ x þ 4Þ þ 6 ¼ 40x2 þ 5x þ 26 Now we can evaluate f ðxÞ at 40x2 þ 5x þ 26. pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ f g hðxÞ ¼ f ð40x2 þ 5x þ 26Þ ¼ 40x2 þ 5x þ 26 *

f ðxÞ ¼ x10 ó gðxÞ ¼ 2x2 9, and hðxÞ ¼ 3x þ 8 g hðxÞ ¼ gðhðxÞÞ ¼ gð3x þ 8Þ ¼ 2ð3x þ 8Þ2 9 ¼ 2ð3x þ 8Þð3x þ 8Þ 9 ¼ 18x2 þ 96x þ 119 Evaluate f ðxÞ at 18x2 þ 96x þ 119 f g hðxÞ ¼ f ð18x2 þ 96x þ 119Þ ¼ ð18x2 þ 96x þ 119Þ10

PRACTICE Find f g hðxÞ. 1. 2. 3. 4.

f ðxÞ ¼ 5x 8ó ﬃgðxÞ ¼ 2x þ 9, and hðxÞ ¼ 6x2 þ 3x þ 1 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ f ðxÞ ¼ 3x þ 4ó gðxÞ ¼ x2 x 3, and hðxÞ ¼ x þ 1 f ðxÞ ¼ x12 ó gðxÞ ¼ 3x2 þ x 4, and hðxÞ ¼ 9x þ 2 f ðxÞ ¼ 1=xó gðxÞ ¼ x2 , and hðxÞ ¼ x2 4

SOLUTIONS 1. g hðxÞ ¼ gðhðxÞÞ ¼ gð6x2 þ 3x þ 1Þ ¼ 2ð6x2 þ 3x þ 1Þ þ 9 ¼ 12x2 þ 6x þ 11 f ð12x2 þ 6x þ 11Þ ¼ 5ð12x2 þ 6x þ 11Þ 8 ¼ 60x2 þ 30x þ 47 f g hðxÞ ¼ 60x2 þ 30x þ 47

273

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

274 2.

g hðxÞ ¼ gðhðxÞÞ ¼ gðx þ 1Þ ¼ ðx þ 1Þ2 ðx þ 1Þ 3 ¼ ðx þ 1Þðx þ 1Þ x 1 3 ¼ x2 þ x 3 f ðx2 þ x 3Þ ¼ f g hðxÞ ¼

qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 3ðx2 þ x 3Þ þ 4 ¼ 3x2 þ 3x 5 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 3x2 þ 3x 5

3. g hðxÞ ¼ gðhðxÞÞ ¼ gð9x þ 2Þ ¼ 3ð9x þ 2Þ2 þ ð9x þ 2Þ 4 ¼ 3ð9x þ 2Þð9x þ 2Þ þ 9x þ 2 4 ¼ 243x2 þ 117x þ 10 f ð243x2 þ 117x þ 10Þ ¼ ð243x2 þ 117x þ 10Þ12 f g hðxÞ ¼ ð243x2 þ 117x þ 10Þ12 4. g hðxÞ ¼ gðhðxÞÞ ¼ gðx2 4Þ ¼ ðx2 4Þ2 ¼ ðx2 4Þðx2 4Þ ¼ x4 8x2 þ 16 1 8x2 þ 16 1 f g hðxÞ ¼ 4 x 8x2 þ 16

f ðx4 8x2 þ 16Þ ¼

x4

Chapter 8 Review 1.

The graph of f ðx þ 3Þ 6 is the graph of f ðxÞ a) shifted to the left 3 units and down 6 units. b) shifted to the right 3 units and up 6 units. c) shifted to the left 3 units and up 6 units. d) shifted to the right 3 units and down 6 units.

CHAPTER 8 Transformations 2.

The solid graph in Fig. 8-86 is the graph of f ðxÞ ¼ jxj. The dashed graph is the graph of which function? a) y ¼ jx þ 2j 1 b) y ¼ jx 2j 1 c) y ¼ jx þ 2j þ 1 d) y ¼ jx 2j þ 1

Fig. 8-86.

3.

Is f ðxÞ ¼ 3x2 þ 5 an even function, odd function, or neither? a) Even b) Odd c) Neither d) Cannot be determined

4.

For f ðxÞ ¼ x 7 and gðxÞ ¼ x2 þ 3x, ﬁnd f gðxÞ. b) x2 11x þ 28 c) x3 4x2 21x a) x2 þ 4x 7 d) x2 þ 3x 7

5.

The solid graph in Fig. 8-87 is the graph of f ðxÞ. The dashed graph is the graph of a f ðxÞ. What is a? b) 12 c) 2 d) 2 a) 12

Fig. 8-87.

275

CHAPTER 8 Transformations

276 6.

The graph of 3f ðxÞ is the graph of f ðxÞ a) reﬂected about the x-axis and vertically stretched. b) reﬂected about the x-axis and vertically ﬂattened. c) reﬂected about the y-axis and vertically stretched. d) reﬂected about the y-axis and vertically ﬂattened.

7.

Is gðxÞ ¼ 2x3 x an even function, odd function, or neither? a) Even b) Odd c) Neither d) Cannot be determined pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ Evaluate f gðxÞ for f ðxÞ ¼ 3x þ 5 and gðxÞ ¼ x2 . pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ c) x2 þ 5 b) x2 3x þ 5 d) 3x þ 5 a) 3x2 þ 5

8.

9.

10.

What is the domain for f gðxÞ when f ðxÞ ¼ 1=x and gðxÞ ¼ x 6? a) ð1; 0Þ [ ð0; 1Þ b) ð0; 6Þ [ ð6; 1Þ c) ð1; 6Þ [ ð6; 1Þ d) ð1; 0Þ [ ð0; 6Þ [ ð6; 1Þ pﬃﬃﬃ The solid graph in Fig. 8-88 is the graph of y ¼ x. The dashed graph is p the pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ﬃﬃﬃ graph of what function? pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ a) y ¼ px þ1 b) y ¼ x þ 1 c) y ¼ 1 x ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ d) y ¼ x 1

Fig. 8-88.

11.

Find f gð2Þ when f ðxÞ ¼ x2 x and gðxÞ ¼ 4x. a) 16 b) 8 c) 56 d) 10

CHAPTER 8 Transformations 12.

277

pﬃﬃﬃ Find f g hðxÞ for f ðxÞ ¼ 3 x, gðxÞ ¼ x2 þ 1, and hðxÞ ¼ 2x þ 5. p p ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 3 3 2 þ 20x þ 26 b) ð2x þ 5Þ x2 þ 1 c) 2x2=3 þ 7 a) p4x ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ﬃ 3 d) 2x2 þ 7

SOLUTIONS 1. a) 2. b) 7. b) 8. a)

3. a) 9. c)

4. d) 10. d)

5. b) 11. c)

6. a) 12. a)

9

CHAPTER

Polynomial Functions

A polynomial function is a function in the form f ðxÞ ¼ an xn þ an1 xn1 þ þ a1 x þ a0 , where each ai is a real number and the powers on x are whole numbers. There is no x under a root sign and no x in any denominator. The number ai is called a coeﬃcient. For example, in the polynomial function f ðxÞ ¼ 2x3 þ 5x2 4x þ 8, the coeﬃcients are 2ó 5ó 4, and 8. The constant term (the term with no variable) is 8. The powers on x are 3ó 2, and 1. The degree of the polynomial (and polynomial function) is the highest power on x. In this example, the degree is 3. Quadratic functions are of degree 2. Linear functions of the form f ðxÞ ¼ mx þ b (if m 6¼ 0) are of degree 1. Constant functions of the form f ðxÞ ¼ b are of degree 0 (this is because x0 ¼ 1, making f ðxÞ ¼ bx0 ). The leading term of a polynomial (and polynomial function) is the term having x to the highest power. Usually, but not always, the leading term is written ﬁrst. The leading coeﬃcient is the coeﬃcient on the leading term. In our example, the leading term is 2x3 , and the leading coeﬃcient is 2. By looking at the leading term only, we can tell roughly what the graph looks like. The graph of any polynomial will go up on both ends, go down on both ends, or go up on one end and down on the other. This is called the end behavior of the

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CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions graph. The ﬁgures below illustrate the end behavior. The shape of the dashed part of each graph depends on the individual function.

Fig. 9-1.

This graph goes up on both ends.

Fig. 9-2.

This graph goes down on both ends.

Fig. 9-3.

This graph goes down on the left and up on the right.

279

280

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

Fig. 9-4.

This graph goes up on the left and down on the right. If the degree of the polynomial is an even number, the graph will look like the graph in Figs. 9-1 or 9-2. If the leading coeﬃcient is a positive number, the graph will look like the graph in Fig. 9-1. If the leading coeﬃcient is a negative number, the graph will look like the graph in Fig. 9-2. If the degree of the polynomial is an odd number, the graph will look like the one in Figs. 9-3 or 9-4. If the leading coeﬃcient is a positive number, the graph will look like the graph in Fig. 9-3. If the leading coeﬃcient is a negative number, the graph will look like the graph in Fig. 9-4. How can one term in a polynomial function give us this information? For polynomial functions, the leading term dominates all of the other terms. For x-values large enough (both large positive numbers and large negative numbers), the other terms do not contribute much to the size of the y-values. ‘‘Large enough’’ x-values depend on the polynomial. For example, x ¼ 100 is ‘‘large’’ for the function f ðxÞ ¼ x2 x þ 1 but not ‘‘large’’ for the function f ðxÞ ¼ 9718x10 þ 30ó162x8 10ó956x7 . We can avoid memorizing the eﬀect of the leading coeﬃcient on the graph of the function by reasoning our way to remembering. Suppose the leading term is 5x4 . What kind of y-value will we get for a ‘‘large’’ positive x-value? 5ðlarge positiveÞ4 A ‘‘large’’ positive number raised to the fourth power then multiplied by 5 will be another ‘‘large’’ positive number. The same is true for a ‘‘large’’ negative number. 5ðlarge negativeÞ4

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions This is another ‘‘large’’ positive number. This means that the graph will look like the graph in Fig. 9-1. If we change the leading coeﬃcient from 5 to 5, then 5(large positive)4 and 5(large negative)4 are large negative numbers. The graph of the function will look like the graph in Fig. 9-2. Now suppose the leading term is 5x3 . What kind of y-value will we get by letting x be a ‘‘large’’ positive number? 5ðlarge positiveÞ3 A large positive number raised to the third power is also a large positive number. When multiplied by 5, it becomes a larger positive number. 5ðlarge negativeÞ3 A large negative number raised to the third power is a large negative number. When multiplied by 5, it becomes a larger negative number. The graph of the function will look like the graph in Fig. 9-3. Finally, if the leading coeﬃcient is 5 instead of 5, 5ðlarge positiveÞ3 is a large negative number, and 5ðlarge negativeÞ3 is a large positive number. The graph of the function will look like the graph in Fig. 9-4. EXAMPLES Match the graph of the given function with one of the graphs in Figs. 9-1–9-4. *

*

*

f ðxÞ ¼ 4x5 þ 6x3 2x2 þ 8x þ 11 We only need to look at the leading term, 4x5 . The degree, 5, is odd, and the leading coeﬃcient, 4. The graph of this function looks like the one in Fig. 9-3. PðxÞ ¼ 5 þ 2x 6x2 The leading term is 6x2 . The degree, 2, is even, and the leading coeﬃcient, 6, is negative. The graph of this function looks like the one in Fig. 9-2. hðxÞ ¼ 2x3 þ 4x2 7x þ 9 The leading term is 2x3 . The degree, 3, is odd, and the leading coeﬃcient, 2, is negative. The graph of this function looks like the one in Fig. 9-4.

281

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

282 *

gðxÞ ¼ x4 þ 4x3 8x2 þ 3x 5 The leading term is x4 . The degree, 4, is even, and the leading coeﬃcient, 1, is positive. The graph of this function looks like the one in Fig. 9-1.

PRACTICE Match the graph of the given function with one of the graphs in Figs. 9-1–9-4. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

f ðxÞ ¼ 8x3 þ 4x2 9x þ 3 f ðxÞ ¼ 4x5 þ 10x4 3x3 þ x2 PðxÞ ¼ x2 þ x 6 gðxÞ ¼ 1 þ x þ x2 þ x3 PðxÞ ¼ x3

SOLUTIONS 1. Figure 9-4 2. Figure 9-3 3. Figure 9-2 4. Figure 9-3 5. Figure 9-4 Finding the x-intercepts (if any) for the graph of a polynomial function is very important. The x-intercept of any graph is where the graph touches the x-axis. This happens when the y-coordinate of the point is 0. We found the x-intercepts for many quadratic functions—by factoring and setting each factor equal to zero. This is how we will ﬁnd the x-intercepts for any polynomial function. This is not always easy to do. In fact, some polynomials are so hard to factor that the best we can do is approximate the x-intercepts (using graphing calculators or calculus manipulations). This will not be the case for the polynomials in this book, however. Every polynomial here will be factorable using the techniques covered later in the book. Because an x-intercept for f ðxÞ ¼ an xn þ an1 xn1 þ þ a1 x þ a0 is a solution to the equation 0 ¼ an xn þ an1 xn1 þ þ a1 x þ a0 , x-intercepts are also called zeros of the polynomial. All of the following statements have the same meaning for a polynomial. Let c be a real number, and let PðxÞ be a polynomial function. 1. 2. 3.

c is an x-intercept of the graph of PðxÞ. c is a zero for PðxÞ. x c is a factor of PðxÞ.

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions EXAMPLES * x 1 is a factor means that 1 is an x-intercept and a zero. * x þ 5 is a factor means that 5 is an x-intercept and a zero. * x is a factor means that 0 is an x-intercept and a zero. * 3 is a zero means that x 3 is a factor and 3 is an x-intercept. We can ﬁnd the zeros of a function (or at least the approximate zeros) by looking at its graph.

Fig. 9-5.

The x-intercepts of the graph in Fig. 9-5 are 2 and 2. Now we know that x 2 and x þ 2 (which is x ð2Þ) are factors of the polynomial.

Fig. 9-6.

283

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

284

The graph of the polynomial function in Fig. 9-6 has x-intercepts of 1ó 1, and 2. This means that x 1ó x 2, and x þ 1 (as x ð1Þ) are factors of the polynomial.

Fig. 9-7.

The x-intercepts for the graph in Fig. 9-7 are 3ó 0, and 2, making x þ 3, x (as x 0), and x 2 factors of the polynomial. PRACTICE Identify the x-intercepts and factors for the polynomial functions whose graphs are given. 1.

Fig. 9-8.

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions 2.

Fig. 9-9.

3.

Fig. 9-10.

4.

Fig. 9-11.

285

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

286 5.

Fig. 9-12.

SOLUTIONS 1. The x-intercepts are 2ó 0, and 1, so x þ 2ó x, and x 1 are factors of the polynomial. 2. The x-intercepts are 3ó 2, and 4, so x þ 3ó x 2, and x 4 are factors of the polynomial. 3. The x-intercepts are 0 and 4, so x and x 4 are factors of the polynomial. 4. The x-intercepts are 4ó 2ó 2 and 4, so x þ 4ó x þ 2ó x 2, and x 4 are factors of the polynomial. 5. The x-intercepts are 3 and 0, so x þ 3 and x are factors of the polynomial. Now that we know about the end behavior of the graphs of polynomial functions and the relationship between x-intercepts and factors, we can look at a polynomial and have a pretty good idea of what its graph looks like. In the next set of examples and practice problems, we will match the graphs from the above discussion with their polynomial functions. EXAMPLES Match the functions with the graphs in Figs. 9-5–9-7. *

f ðxÞ ¼

1 2 1 1 3 x ðx þ 3Þðx 2Þ ¼ x4 þ x3 x2 10 10 10 5

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions Because f ðxÞ is a polynomial whose degree is even and whose leading coeﬃcient is positive, we will look for a graph that goes up on the left and up on the right. Because the factors are x2 ó x þ 3, and x 2, we will also look for a graph with x-intercepts of 0ó 3, and 2. The graph in Fig. 9-7 satisﬁes these conditions. *

*

1 1 1 gðxÞ ¼ ðx 1Þðx 2Þðx þ 1Þ ¼ x3 x2 x þ 1 2 2 2 Because gðxÞ is a polynomial whose degree is odd and whose leading coeﬃcient is positive, we will look for a graph that goes down on the left and up on the right. The factors are x 1ó x 2, and x þ 1, so we will also look for a graph with 1ó 2, and 1 as x-intercepts. The graph in Fig. 9-6 is the only one that satisﬁes all of these conditions. PðxÞ ¼ ðx2 þ 2Þðx 2Þðx þ 2Þ ¼ x4 2x2 8 Because PðxÞ is a polynomial whose degree is even and whose leading term is positive, we will look for a graph that goes up on both ends. Although x2 þ 2 is a factor, there is no x-intercept from this factor (this is because x2 þ 2 ¼ 0 has no real number solution). The xintercepts are 2 and 2. The graph in Fig. 9-5 satisﬁes these conditions.

PRACTICE Match the polynomial function with one of the graphs in Figs. 9-8–9-12. 1. 1 1 5 f ðxÞ ¼ ðx þ 4Þðx þ 2Þðx 2Þðx 4Þ ¼ x4 þ x2 8 8 8 2 2. gðxÞ ¼ x2 ðx 4Þ2 ¼ x4 8x3 þ 16x2 3. 1 1 1 PðxÞ ¼ x2 ðx þ 2Þðx 1Þ ¼ x4 x3 þ x2 2 2 2 4. QðxÞ ¼ x2 ðx þ 3Þ ¼ x3 þ 3x2 5. 1 1 3 RðxÞ ¼ ðx þ 3Þðx 2Þðx 4Þ ¼ x3 x2 5x þ 12 2 2 2 SOLUTIONS 1. Figure 9-11 2. Figure 9-10

287

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

288 3. 4. 5.

Figure 9-8 Figure 9-12 Figure 9-9

Sketching Graphs of Polynomials To sketch the graph of most polynomial functions accurately, we need to use calculus (do not let that scare you—the calculus part is easier than the algebra part!). We can still get a pretty good graph using algebra alone. The general method is to plot x-intercepts (if there are any), a point to the left of the smallest x-intercept, a point between any two x-intercepts, and a point to the right of the largest x-intercept. Because y-intercepts are easy to ﬁnd, these can also be plotted. EXAMPLES 1 * f ðxÞ ¼ xðx þ 1Þðx 3Þ 2 The x-intercepts are 0ó 1, and 3. We will use x ¼ 2 for the point to the left of the smallest x-intercept, x ¼ 0:5 for the point between the x-intercepts 1 and 0, x ¼ 1:5 for the point between the x-intercepts 0 and 3, and x ¼ 4 for the point to the right of the x-intercept 3 (Table 9-1). Table 9-1 x

f (x)

2

5

1

0

0.5

0.4375

0 1.5

0 2.8125

3

0

4

10

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

Fig. 9-13.

*

f ðxÞ ¼ ð2x 1Þðx þ 2Þðx 3Þ The x-intercept from the factor 2x 1 is 12. 2x 1 ¼ 0 2x ¼ 1 x¼

1 2

The other x-intercepts are 2 and 3. In addition to the x-intercepts, we will plot the points for x ¼ 2:5 (to the left of x ¼ 2), x ¼ 1 (between x ¼ 2 and x ¼ 12), x ¼ 2 (between x ¼ 12 and x ¼ 3), and x ¼ 3:5 (to the right of x ¼ 3) (Table 9-2). The reason we used x ¼ 2:5 instead of x ¼ 3 and x ¼ 3:5 instead of x ¼ 4 is that their y-values were too large for our graph.

289

290

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions Table 9-2 x

f (x)

2.5

16.5

2

0

1

12

0

6

1 2

0

2

12

3

0

3.5

16.5

Fig. 9-14.

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions PRACTICE Sketch the graph of the function. 1. 2. 3.

f ðxÞ ¼ 12 xðx 2Þðx þ 2Þ gðxÞ ¼ 12 ðx þ 3Þðx 1Þðx 3Þ 1 ðx þ 4Þðx þ 1Þðx 2Þðx 3Þ hðxÞ ¼ 10

SOLUTIONS 1.

Fig. 9-15.

2.

Fig. 9-16.

291

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

292 3.

Fig. 9-17.

Polynomials can be divided in much the same way as whole numbers. When we take the quotient of two whole numbers (where the divisor is not zero), we get a quotient and a remainder. The same happens when we take the quotient of two polynomials. Polynomial division is useful in factoring polynomials. Polynomial division problems usually come in one of two forms. dividend polynomial or dividend polynomial divisor polynomial divisor polynomial According to the division algorithm for polynomials, for any polynomials f ðxÞ and gðxÞ (with gðxÞ not the zero function) f ðxÞ rðxÞ ¼ qðxÞ þ ó gðxÞ gðxÞ where qðxÞ is the quotient (which might be 0) and rðxÞ is the remainder, which has degree strictly less than the degree of gðxÞ. Multiplying by gðxÞ to clear the fraction, we also get f ðxÞ ¼ gðxÞqðxÞ þ rðxÞ. First we will perform polynomial division using long division. qðxÞ gðxÞj f ðxÞ rðxÞ

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions EXAMPLES Find the quotient and remainder using long division. *

4x2 þ 3x 5 xþ2 x þ 2j 4x2 þ 3x 5 We will begin by dividing the leading term of the dividend by the leading term of the divisor. For the ﬁrst step in this example, we will divide 4x2 by x. You might see right away that 4x2 x is 4x. If not, write 4x2 x as a fraction then reduce: 4x2 =x ¼ 4x. This will be the ﬁrst term of the quotient. 4x x þ 2j 4x2 þ 3x 5 Multiply 4x by the divisor: 4xðx þ 2Þ ¼ 4x2 þ 8x. Subtract this from the ﬁrst two terms of the dividend. Be careful to subtract all of 4x2 þ 8x, not just 4x2 . x þ 2j

4x 4x2 þ 3x 5 ð4x2 þ 8xÞ 5x

Bring down the next term. 4x 4x2 þ 3x 5 ð4x2 þ 8xÞ 5x 5

x þ 2j

Start the process again with 5x x ¼ 5. Multiply x þ 2 by 5: 5ðx þ 2Þ ¼ 5x 10. Subtract this from 5x 5. x þ 2j

4x 5 4x2 þ 3x 5 ð4x2 þ 8xÞ 5x 5 ð 5x 10Þ 5

293

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

294

We are ﬁnished because 5 x ¼ 5=x cannot be a term in a polynomial. The remainder is 5 and the quotient is 4x 5. *

3x4 þ 5x3 4x2 þ 7x 1 x2 þ 2x 3 x2 þ 2x 3j 3x4 þ 5x3 4x2 þ 7x 1 Divide 3x4 by x2 to get the ﬁrst term of the quotient: 3x4 =x2 ¼ 3x2 . Multiply x2 þ 2x 3 by 3x2 : 3x2 ðx2 þ 2x 3Þ ¼ 3x4 þ 6x3 9x2 . Subtract this from the ﬁrst three terms in the dividend. 3x2 x2 þ 2x 3j 3x4 þ 5x3 4x2 þ 7x 1 ð3x4 þ 6x3 9x2 Þ x3 þ 5x2 Divide x3 by x2 to get the second term in the quotient: x3 =x2 ¼ x. Multiply x2 þ 2x 3 by x: xðx2 þ 2x 3Þ ¼ x3 2x2 þ 3x. Subtract this from x3 þ 5x2 þ 7x. 3x2 x x2 þ 2x 3j 3x4 þ 5x3 4x2 þ 7x 1 ð3x4 þ 6x3 9x2 Þ x3 þ 5x2 þ 7x ðx3 2x2 þ 3xÞ 7x2 þ 4x Divide 7x2 by x2 to get the third term in the quotient: 7x2 =x2 ¼ 7. Multiply x2 þ 2x 3 by 7: 7ðx2 þ 2x 3Þ ¼ 7x2 þ 14x 21. Subtract this from 7x2 þ 4x 1. 3x2 x þ 7 x2 þ 2x 3j 3x4 þ 5x3 4x2 þ 7x 1 ð3x4 þ 6x3 9x2 Þ x3 þ 5x2 þ 7x ðx3 2x2 þ 3xÞ 7x2 þ 4x 1 ð7x2 þ 14x 21Þ 10x þ 20

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions Because 10x=x2 cannot be a term in a polynomial, we are ﬁnished. The quotient is 3x2 x þ 7, and the remainder is 10x þ 20. PRACTICE Use long division to find the quotient and remainder. 1. x3 6x2 þ 12x 4 xþ2 2. ð6x3 2x2 þ 5x 1Þ ðx2 þ 3x þ 2Þ 3. x5 þ 3x4 3x3 3x2 þ 19x 13 x2 þ 2x 3 SOLUTIONS 1. x2 8x þ 28 x þ 2j x3 6x2 þ 12x 4 ðx3 þ 2x2 Þ 8x2 þ 12x ð8x2 16xÞ 28x 4 ð28x þ 56Þ 60 The quotient is x2 8x þ 28, and the remainder is 60. 2. 6x 20 x2 þ 3x þ 2j 6x3 2x2 þ 5x 1 ð6x3 þ 18x2 þ 12xÞ 20x2 7x 1 ð20x2 60x 40Þ 53x þ 39 The quotient is 6x 20, and the remainder is 53x þ 39.

295

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

296 3.

x3 þ x2 2x þ 4 x þ 2x 3j x5 þ 3x4 3x3 3x2 þ 19x 13 ðx5 þ 2x4 3x3 Þ 2

x4 þ 0x3 3x2 ðx4 þ 2x3 3x2 Þ 2x3 þ 0x2 þ 19x ð2x3 4x2 þ 6xÞ 4x2 þ 13x 13 ð4x2 þ 8x 12Þ 5x 1 The quotient is x3 þ x2 2x þ 4, and the remainder is 5x 1. It is important that every power of x, from the highest power to the constant term, be represented in the polynomial. Although it is possible to perform long division without all powers represented, it is very easy to make an error. Also, it is not possible to perform synthetic division (discussed later in this chapter) without a coeﬃcient for every term. If a power of x is not written, we need to rewrite the polynomial (either the dividend, divisor, or both) using a coeﬃcient of 0 on the missing powers. For example, we would write x3 1 as x3 þ 0x2 þ 0x 1. EXAMPLE * ðx3 8Þ ðx þ 1Þ Rewrite as ðx3 þ 0x2 þ 0x 8Þ ðx þ 1Þ x2 x þ 1 x þ 1j

x3 þ 0x2 þ 0x 8 ðx3 þ x2 Þ x2 þ 0x ðx2 xÞ x8 ðx þ 1Þ 9

The quotient is x2 x þ 1, and the remainder is 9.

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions PRACTICE Find the quotient and remainder. 1. x3 1 x1 2. 3.

ð3x4 5x þ 2Þ ðx 4Þ 3x4 x2 þ 1 x2 2

SOLUTIONS 1. x2 þ x þ 1 x 1j x3 þ 0x2 þ 0x 1 ðx3 x2 Þ x2 þ 0x ðx2 xÞ x1 ðx 1Þ 0 The quotient is x2 þ x þ 1, and the remainder is 0. 2. 3x3 þ 12x2 þ 48x þ 187 x 4j 3x4 þ 0 x3 þ 0x2 5x þ 2 ð3x4 12x3 Þ 12x3 þ 0x2 ð12x3 48x2 Þ 48x2 5x ð48x2 192xÞ 187x þ 2 ð187x 748Þ 750 The quotient is 3x3 þ 12x2 þ 48x þ 187, and the remainder is 750.

297

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

298 3.

3x2 þ 5 x þ 0x 2j 3x4 þ 0x3 x2 þ 0x þ 1 ð3x4 þ 0x3 6x2 Þ 5x2 þ 0x þ 1 ð5x2 þ 0x 10Þ 11 2

The quotient is 3x2 þ 5, and the remainder is 11. Polynomial division is a little more diﬃcult when the leading coeﬃcient of the divisor is not 1. One reason is that the terms of the quotient are harder to ﬁnd and are likely to be fractions. EXAMPLES Find the quotient and remainder using long division. *

x2 x þ 2 2x 1 Find the ﬁrst term in the quotient by dividing the ﬁrst term of the dividend by the ﬁrst term of the divisor: x2 =2x ¼ x=2 ¼ ð1=2Þx. 1 2x

2x 1j

x2 x þ 2 ðx2 12 xÞ 12 x þ 2

The second term in the quotient is 12 x 12 1 1 1 1 ¼ ¼ 2¼ ¼ 2 2 2 4 2 2x Multiply 2x 1 by 14: 14 ð2x 1Þ ¼ 12 x þ 14. 2x 1j

1 1 2x 4 x2 x þ

2

2

ðx 12 xÞ 12 x þ 2 ð 12 x þ 14Þ 7 4 The quotient is 12 x 14, and the remainder is 74.

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions *

299

2 ð4x þ 5x 6Þ x1 3 2

Find the ﬁrst term in the quotient by dividing the leading term of the dividend by the ﬁrst term of the divisor. 4x2 4x 2 3 ¼ 4x ¼ 4x ¼ 6x ¼ 3 2 ð2=3Þx 2=3 2 12 6x x 1 ¼ x2 6x ¼ 4x2 6x 3 3

2 3x

1j

6x 4x2 þ 5x 6 ð4x2 6xÞ 11x 6

11x 11 2 3 33 ¼ ¼ 11 ¼ 11 ¼ ð2=3Þx 2=3 3 2 2 33 2 66 33 33 x 1 ¼ x ¼ 11x 2 3 6 2 2 6x þ 33 2 2 2 þ 5x 6 j x 1 4x 3 ð4x2 6xÞ 11x 6 ð11x 33 2Þ 21 2

The quotient is 6x þ 33 2 , and the remainder is

21 2.

PRACTICE Use long division to find the quotient and remainder. 1. 2.

ðx3 x2 þ 2x þ 5Þ ð3x 4Þ 3x3 x2 þ 4x þ 2 ð1=2Þx2 þ 1

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

300 SOLUTIONS 1.

1 2 3x 3

þ 19 x 3x 4j x x2 þ 2x þ 5 ðx3 43 x2 Þ 1 2 3 x þ 2x ð13 x2 49 xÞ 22 9 xþ5 ð22=9Þx 22=9 22 1 22 ¼ ¼ ¼ 3x 3 9 3 27 22 66x 88 22 88 ð3x 4Þ ¼ ¼ x 27 27 27 9 27 1 2 3x 3

þ 19 x þ 22 27 3x 4j x x2 þ 2x þ 5 ðx3 43 xÞ 1 2 3 x þ 2x ð13 x2 49 xÞ 22 9 xþ5 88 ð22 9 x 27Þ 223 27

2.

The quotient is 13 x2 þ 19 x þ 22 27, and the remainder is

223 27 .

3x3 3x 1 ¼ 3x ¼ 3x 2 ¼ 6x ¼ 2 ð1=2Þ 2 ð1=2Þx 1 2 6x x þ 0x þ 1 ¼ 3x3 þ 0x2 6x 2

12 x2 þ 0x þ 1j

6x 3x3 x2 þ 4x þ 2 ð3x3 0x2 6xÞ x2 þ 10x þ 2

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

301

x2 1 1 ¼1 ¼12¼2 ¼ 2 ð1=2Þx2 1=2 1 2 2 x þ 0x þ 1 ¼ x2 þ 0x þ 2 2

12 x2

þ 0x þ 1j

6x þ 2 3x3 x2 þ 4x þ 2 ð3x3 0x2 6xÞ x2 þ 10x þ 2 ðx2 þ 0x þ 2Þ 10x þ 0

The quotient is 6x þ 2, and the remainder is 10x. Synthetic division of polynomials is much easier than long division. It only works when the divisor is of a certain form, though. Here, we will use synthetic division when the divisor is of the form x number or x þ number. First we will learn how to set up the problems. For a problem of the form an xn þ an1 xn1 þ þ a1 x þ a0 xc or

ðan xn þ an1 xn1 þ þ a1 x þ a0 Þ ðx cÞó

write cj an

an1

a1

a0

Every power of x must be represented. EXAMPLES Set up the division problems for synthetic division. *

4x3 5x2 þ x 8 x2 The coeﬃcients of the dividend are 4, 5, 1, and 8. Because the divisor is x 2, c ¼ 2. 2j 4

5

1

8

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

302

*

x3 2x þ 1 x4 We need to think of x3 2x þ 1 as x3 þ 0x2 2x þ 1. The coeﬃcients are 1ó 0ó 2, and 1. The divisor is x 4, so c ¼ 4. 4j 1

*

0

2

1

3x4 x2 þ 2x þ 9 xþ5 Think of 3x4 x2 þ 2x þ 9 as 3x4 þ 0x3 x2 þ 2x þ 9 and x þ 5 as x ð5Þ. The coeﬃcients are 3ó 0ó 1ó 2, and 9, and c ¼ 5. 5j 3

0

1

2

PRACTICE Set up the problems for synthetic division. 1. 5x3 þ x2 3x þ 4 x2 2. x4 x3 þ 3x 10 x6 3. x3 þ 2x2 þ x 8 xþ3 4.

ðx3 þ 8Þ ðx þ 2Þ

SOLUTIONS 1. 2j 5 1 3 4 2. 6j 1 1 0 3 10 3. 3j 1 2 1 8 4. 2j 1 0 0 8

9

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions We are ready to learn the steps in synthetic division. The tedious work in long division is reduced to a few steps. Find the quotient and remainder using synthetic division. 4x3 5x2 þ x 8 x2 2j 4

5

1

8

5

1

8

Bring down the ﬁrst coeﬃcient. 2j 4 4 Multiply this coeﬃcient by 2 (the c) and put the product under 5, the next coeﬃcient. 2j 4

5 1 8

8

4 Add 5 and 8. Put the sum under 8. 2j 4 4

5 1 8 3

8

Multiply 3 by 2 and put the product under 1, the next coeﬃcient. 2j 4 4

5 1 8 6 3

8

Add 1 and 6. Put the sum under 6. 2j 4 4

5 1 8 6 3 7

8

Multiply 7 by 2. Put the product under 8, the last coeﬃcient. 2j 4 4

5 1 8 6 3 7

8 14

303

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

304

Add 8 and 14. Put the sum under 14. This is the last step. 2j 4 4

5 1 8 6 3 7

8 14 6

The numbers on the last row are the coeﬃcients of the quotient and the remainder. The degree of the remainder is smaller than the degree of the divisor. Because the divisor is x 2, its degree is 1. This means that the remainder has to be a constant (which is a term of degree 0). It also means that the degree of the quotient is exactly one less than the degree of the dividend. In this example, the degree of the dividend is 3, so the degree of the quotient is 2. The last number on the bottom row is the remainder. The numbers before it are the coeﬃcients of the quotient, in order from the highest degree to the lowest. The remainder in this example is 6. The coeﬃcients of the quotient are 4, 3, and 7. The quotient is 4x2 þ 3x þ 7. EXAMPLE * ð3x4 x2 þ 2x þ 9Þ ðx þ 5Þ 5j 3

0

1

2

9

Bring down 3, the ﬁrst coeﬃcient. Multiply it by 5. Put 3ð5Þ ¼ 15 under 0. 5j 3

0 15

1

2

9

3 Add 0 þ ð15Þ ¼ 15. Multiply 15 by 5 and put ð15Þð5Þ ¼ 75 under 1. 5j 3 3

0 15 15

1 75

Add 1 and 75. Multiply ð74Þð5Þ ¼ 370 under 2. 5j 3 3

0 15 15

1 75 74

2

9

1 þ 75 ¼ 74

2 370

9

by

5

and

put

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions Add 2 to 370. Multiply 2 þ ð370Þ ¼ 368 by 5 and put ð368Þð5Þ ¼ 1840 under 9. 5j 3

0 15 3 15

1 75 74

2 9 370 1840 368

Add 9 to 1840. Put 9 þ 1840 ¼ 1849 under 1840. This is the last step. 5j 3

0 15 3 15

1 75 74

2 9 370 1840 368 1849

The dividend has degree 4, so the quotient has degree 3. The quotient is 3x3 15x2 þ 74x 368 and the remainder is 1849. PRACTICE Find the quotient and remainder using synthetic division. 1. 5x3 þ x2 3x þ 4 x2 2. x3 þ 2x2 þ x 8 xþ3 3. 4.

ðx3 þ 8Þ ðx þ 2Þ

3x4 þ 6x3 þ 4x2 þ 9x 11 xþ1 5. 2x3 þ x2 4x 12 x þ ð1=2Þ

305

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

306 SOLUTIONS 1.

2j 5

1 10 5 11

3 22 19

4 38 42

The quotient is 5x2 þ 11x þ 19, and the remainder is 42. 2. 3j 1

2 3 1

1

1 3 4

8 12 20

The quotient is x2 x þ 4, and the remainder is 20. 3. 2j 1

0 2 2

1

0 8 4 8 4 0

The quotient is x2 2x þ 4, and the remainder is 0. 4. 1j 3 3

6 4 3 9 9 5

9 5 14

11 14 25

The quotient is 3x3 þ 9x2 5x þ 14, and the remainder is 25. 5. 12j 2 2

1 1 0

4 0 4

12 2 10

The quotient is 2x2 4, and the remainder is 10. When dividing a polynomial f ðxÞ by x c, the remainder tells us two things. If we get a remainder of 0, then both the divisor ðx cÞ and quotient are factors of f ðxÞ. In practice problem 3 above, we had ðx3 þ 8Þ ðx þ 2Þ ¼ x2 2x þ 4, with a remainder of 0. This means that

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

307

x3 þ 8 ¼ ðx þ 2Þðx2 2x þ 4Þ. Another fact we get from the remainder is that f ðcÞ ¼ remainder. f ðxÞ ¼ ðx cÞqðxÞ þ remainder f ðcÞ ¼ ðc cÞqðcÞ þ remainder f ðcÞ ¼ 0qðcÞ þ remainder f ðcÞ ¼ remainder The fact that f ðcÞ is the remainder is called the Remainder Theorem. It is useful when trying to evaluate complicated polynomials. We can also use this fact to check our work in synthetic division and long division (providing the divisor is x c). EXAMPLE * ðx3 6x2 þ 4x 5Þ ðx 3Þ By the Remainder Theorem, we should get the remainder to be 33 6ð32 Þ þ 4ð3Þ 5 ¼ 20. 3j 1 1

6 4 3 9 3 5

5 15 20

EXAMPLE Use synthetic division and the Remainder Theorem to evaluate f ðcÞ. *

f ðxÞ ¼ 14x3 16x2 þ 10x þ 8; c ¼ 1. We will ﬁrst perform synthetic division with x 1. 1j 14 14

16 14 2

10 2 8

8 8 16

The remainder is 16, so f ð1Þ ¼ 16. PRACTICE Use synthetic division and the Remainder Theorem to evaluate f ðcÞ. 1. 2. 3.

f ðxÞ ¼ 6x4 8x3 þ x2 þ 2x 5; c ¼ 2 f ðxÞ ¼ 3x3 þ 7x2 3x þ 4; c ¼ 23 f ðxÞ ¼ 4x3 þ 5x2 3x þ 4; c ¼ 12

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

308 SOLUTIONS 1. 2j 6

8 12 20

6

1 2 40 82 41 80

5 160 155

The remainder is 155, so f ð2Þ ¼ 155. 2. 2 3

j3 3

3.

7 2 9

3 6 3

4 2 6

The remainder is 6, so f ð23Þ ¼ 6. 12j 4 4 The remainder is

29 4,

5 2 7

3 72 13 2

4 13 4 29 4

so f ð 12Þ ¼ 29 4.

Now we will use synthetic division and the Remainder Theorem to help factor polynomials. Suppose x ¼ c is a zero for a polynomial f ðxÞ. Let us see what happens when we divide f ðxÞ by x c. f ðxÞ ¼ ðx cÞqðxÞ þ rðxÞ Because x ¼ c is a zero, the remainder is 0, so f ðxÞ ¼ ðx cÞqðxÞ þ 0, which means f ðxÞ ¼ ðx cÞqðxÞ. The next step in completely factoring f ðxÞ is factoring qðxÞ, if necessary. EXAMPLES Completely factor the polynomials. *

f ðxÞ ¼ x3 4x2 7x þ 10, c ¼ 1 is a zero. We will use the fact that c ¼ 1 is a zero to get started. We will use synthetic division to divide f ðxÞ by x 1. 1j 1 1

4 1 3

7 10 3 10 10 0

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions The quotient is x2 3x 10. We now have f ðxÞ partially factored. f ðxÞ ¼ x3 4x2 7x þ 10 ¼ ðx 1Þðx2 3x 10Þ Because the quotient is quadratic, we can factor it directly or by using the quadratic formula. x2 3x 10 ¼ ðx 5Þðx þ 2Þ Now we have the complete factorization of f ðxÞ: f ðxÞ ¼ x3 4x2 7x þ 10 ¼ ðx 1Þðx 5Þðx þ 2Þ *

RðxÞ ¼ x3 2x þ 1, c ¼ 1 is a factor. 1j 1 1

0 1 1

2 1 1 1 1 0

RðxÞ ¼ x3 2x þ 1 ¼ ðx 1Þðx2 þ x 1Þ We need to use the quadratic formula to ﬁnd the two zeros of x2 þ x 1. pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 1 12 4ð1Þð1Þ x¼ 2ð1Þ pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ 1 5 1 þ 5 1 5 ¼ ó 2 2 2 pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ The factors for these zeros are x ðð1 þ 5Þ=2Þ and x ðð1 5Þ=2Þ. pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ 1 þ 5 1 5 RðxÞ ¼ ðx 1Þ x x 2 2 PRACTICE Completely factor the polynomials. 1. 2. 3.

f ðxÞ ¼ x3 þ 2x2 x 2; c ¼ 1 is a zero. hðxÞ ¼ x3 þ x2 30x 72; c ¼ 4 is a zero. PðxÞ ¼ x3 5x2 þ 5x þ 3; c ¼ 3 is a zero.

309

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

310 SOLUTIONS 1. 1j 1

2 1 3

1

1 3 2

2 2 0

f ðxÞ ¼ ðx 1Þðx2 þ 3x þ 2Þ ¼ ðx 1Þðx þ 1Þðx þ 2Þ 2. 4j 1

1 4 3

1

30 12 18

72 72 0

hðxÞ ¼ ðx þ 4Þðx2 3x 18Þ ¼ ðx þ 4Þðx 6Þðx þ 3Þ 3. 3j 1 1

5 5 3 3 6 3 2 1 0

PðxÞ ¼ ðx 3Þðx2 2x 1Þ In order to factor x2 2x 1, we must ﬁrst ﬁnd its zeros. qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ð2Þ ð2Þ2 4ð1Þð1Þ x¼ 2ð1Þ pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ 2 8 22 2 ¼ ¼ 2 2 pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ 2ð1 2Þ ¼1 2 ¼ 2 pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ ¼ 1 þ 2ó 1 2

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ Because x ¼ 1 þ pﬃﬃ2ﬃ is a zero, x ð1 þ pﬃﬃ2ﬃ Þ ¼ x 1 pﬃﬃ2ﬃ is a factor. Because x ¼ 1 2 is a zero, x ð1 2Þ ¼ x 1 þ 2 is a factor. PðxÞ ¼ ðx 3Þðx 1

pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ 2Þðx 1 þ 2Þ

In the above examples and practice problems, a zero was given to help us get started. Usually, we have to ﬁnd a starting point ourselves. The Rational Zero Theorem gives us a place to start. The Rational Zero Theorem says that if a polynomial function f ðxÞ, with integer coeﬃcients, has a rational number p=q as a zero, then p is a divisor of the constant term and q is a divisor of the leading coeﬃcient. Not all polynomials have rational zeros, but most of those in algebra courses do. The Rational Zero Theorem is used to ﬁnd a list of candidates for zeros. These candidates are rational numbers whose numerators divide the polynomial’s constant term and whose denominators divide its leading coeﬃcient. Once we have this list, we try each number in the list to see which, if any, are zeros. Once we have found a zero, we can begin to factor the polynomial. EXAMPLES List the possible rational zeros. *

f ðxÞ ¼ 4x3 þ 6x2 2x þ 9 The numerators in our list will be the divisors of 9: 1ó 3, and 9 as well as their negatives, 1ó 3, and 9. The denominators will be the divisors of 4: 1ó 2, and 4. The list of possible rational zeros is 1 3 9 1 3 9 1 3 9 1 3 ó ó ó ó ó ó ó ó ó ó ó 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 9 1 3 9 1 3 9 ó ó ó ó ó ó and : 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 Normally, we would not write a fraction with 1 as a denominator. This list could be written with a little less eﬀort as 1ó 3ó 9ó 12 ó 32 ó 92 ó 14 ó 34 ó 94. We only need to list the numerators with negative numbers and not the denominators. The reason is that no new numbers are added to the list, only duplicates of numbers already there. For 1 example, 1 2 and 2 are the same number.

311

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

312 *

gðxÞ ¼ 6x4 5x3 þ 2x 8 The possible numerators are the divisors of 8: 1ó 2ó 4, and 8. The possible denominators are the divisors of 6: 1ó 2ó 3, and 6. The list of possible rational zeros is 1 2 4 8 1 2 4 8 1ó 2ó 4ó 8ó ó ó ó ó ó ó ó ó 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 1 2 4 8 ó ó ó 6 6 6 6 There are several duplicates on this list. There will be duplicates when the constant term and leading coeﬃcient have common factors. The duplicates do not really matter, but they could waste time when checking the list for zeros.

PRACTICE List the candidates for rational zeros. Do not try to find the zeros. 1. 2. 3. 4.

f ðxÞ ¼ 3x4 þ 8x3 11x2 þ 3x þ 4 f ðxÞ ¼ x3 1 gðxÞ ¼ x5 x3 þ x 10 PðxÞ ¼ 6x4 24

SOLUTIONS 1. Possible numerators: 1ó 2ó 4 Possible denominators: 1 and 3 Possible rational zeros: 1ó 2ó 4ó 13 ó 23 ó 43 2. Possible numerators: 1 Possible denominator: 1 Possible rational zeros: 1 3. Possible numerators: 1ó 2ó 5ó 10 Possible denominator: 1 Possible rational zeros: 1ó 2ó 5ó 10 4. Possible numerators: 1ó 2ó 3ó 4ó 6ó 8ó 12ó 24 Possible denominators: 1ó 2ó 3ó 6 Possible rational zeros (with duplicates omitted): 1ó 2ó 3, 4ó 6ó 8ó 12ó 24ó 12 ó 32 ó 13 ó 23 ó 43 ó 83 ó 16 Now that we have a starting place, we can factor many polynomials. Here is the strategy. First we will see if the polynomial can be factored directly. If not, we need to list the possible rational zeros. Then we will try the numbers in this list, one at a time, until we ﬁnd a zero. Once we have found a zero,

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

313

we will use polynomial division (long division or synthetic division) to ﬁnd the quotient. Next, we will factor the quotient. If the quotient is a quadratic factor, we will either factor it directly or use the quadratic formula to ﬁnd its zeros. If the quotient is a polynomial of degree 3 or higher, we will need to start over to factor the quotient. Eventually, the quotient will be a quadratic factor. EXAMPLES Completely factor each polynomial. *

PðxÞ ¼ x3 þ 5x2 x 5 While this polynomial factors using factoring by grouping, we will use the above strategy. The possible rational zeros are 1 and 5. Pð1Þ ¼ 13 þ 5ð1Þ2 1 5 ¼ 0 Now that we know that x ¼ 1 is a zero, we will use synthetic division to ﬁnd the quotient for ðx3 þ 5x2 x 5Þ ðx 1Þ. 1j 1 1

5 1 6

1 6 5

5 5 0

PðxÞ ¼ x3 þ 5x2 x 5 ¼ ðx 1Þðx2 þ 6x þ 5Þ ¼ ðx 1Þðx þ 1Þðx þ 5Þ *

f ðxÞ ¼ 3x4 2x3 7x2 2x First we will factor x from each term: f ðxÞ ¼ xð3x3 2x2 7x 2Þ. The possible rational zeros for 3x3 2x2 7x 2 are 1ó 2ó 13 ó 23. 3ð1Þ3 2ð1Þ2 7ð1Þ 2 6¼ 0 3ð1Þ3 2ð1Þ2 7ð1Þ 2 ¼ 0 We will use synthetic division to ﬁnd the quotient for ð3x3 2x2 7x 2Þ ðx þ 1Þ. 1j 3 3

2 3 5

7 5 2

2 2 0

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

314

The quotient is 3x2 5x 2 which factors into ð3x þ 1Þðx 2Þ. f ðxÞ ¼ 3x4 2x3 7x2 2x ¼ xð3x3 2x2 7x 2Þ ¼ xðx þ 1Þð3x2 5x 2Þ ¼ xðx þ 1Þð3x þ 1Þðx 2Þ *

hðxÞ ¼ 3x3 þ 4x2 18x þ 5 The possible rational zeros are 1ó 5ó 13, and 53. hð1Þ ¼ 3ð13 Þ þ 4ð12 Þ 18ð1Þ þ 5 6¼ 0 hð1Þ ¼ 3ð1Þ3 þ 4ð1Þ2 18ð1Þ þ 5 6¼ 0 hð5Þ ¼ 3ð53 Þ þ 4ð52 Þ 18ð5Þ þ 5 6¼ 0 Continuing in this way, we see that hð5Þ 6¼ 0ó hð13Þ 6¼ 0ó hð 13Þ 6¼ 0 and hð53Þ ¼ 0. 5 3

j3 3

4 5 9

18 15 3

5 5 0

5 hðxÞ ¼ x ð3x2 þ 9x 3Þ 3 5 5 2 ðx2 þ 3x 1Þ ¼ x ð3Þðx þ 3x 1Þ ¼ 3 x 3 3 ¼ ð3x 5Þðx2 þ 3x 1Þ We will ﬁnd the zeros of x2 þ 3x 1 using the quadratic formula. pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 32 4ð1Þð1Þ x¼ 2ð1Þ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 3 13 3 þ 13 3 13 ¼ ó ¼ 2 2 2 p ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 3 þ 13 3 13 hðxÞ ¼ ð3x 5Þ x x 2 2 3

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

315

PRACTICE Completely factor each polynomial. 1. 2. 3.

f ðxÞ ¼ x4 2x3 3x2 þ 8x 4 hðxÞ ¼ 2x3 þ 5x2 23x þ 10 PðxÞ ¼ 7x3 þ 26x2 15x þ 2

SOLUTIONS 1. The possible rational zeros are 1ó 2, and 4. f ð1Þ ¼ 0. 1j 1

2 1 1

1

3 8 1 4 4 4

4 4 0

f ðxÞ ¼ ðx 1Þðx3 x2 4x þ 4Þ The possible rational zeros for x3 x2 4x þ 4 (which could be factored by grouping) are 1ó 2, and 4. We will try x ¼ 1 again. Because 13 12 4ð1Þ þ 4 ¼ 0, x ¼ 1 is a zero again. 1j 1 1

1 1 0

4 4 0 4 4 0

x3 x2 4x þ 4 ¼ ðx 1Þðx2 4Þ ¼ ðx 1Þðx 2Þðx þ 2Þ f ðxÞ ¼ ðx 1Þðx3 x2 4x þ 4Þ ¼ ðx 1Þðx 1Þðx 2Þðx þ 2Þ ¼ ðx 1Þ2 ðx 2Þðx þ 2Þ 2.

The possible rational zeros are 1ó 2ó 5ó 10ó 12, and 52. Because hð2Þ ¼ 0, x ¼ 2 is a zero of hðxÞ. 2j 2 2

5 4 9

hðxÞ ¼ ðx 2Þð2x2 þ 9x 5Þ hðxÞ ¼ ðx 2Þð2x 1Þðx þ 5Þ

23 18 5

10 10 0

ð2x2 þ 9x 5 ¼ ð2x 1Þðx þ 5ÞÞ

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

316 3.

The possible rational zeros are 1ó 2ó 17, and 27. Because Pð27Þ ¼ 0, x ¼ 27 is a zero for PðxÞ. 2 7

j7 7

26 2 28

15 2 8 2 7 0

2 PðxÞ ¼ x ð7x2 þ 28x 7Þ 7 2 2 ¼ x ð7Þðx2 þ 4x 1Þ ¼ 7 x ðx2 þ 4x 1Þ 7 7 ¼ ð7x 2Þðx2 þ 4x 1Þ We will use the quadratic formula to ﬁnd the zeros for x2 þ 4x 1. pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 4 42 4ð1Þð1Þ 4 20 ¼ x¼ 2ð1Þ 2 pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ 4 2 5 2ð2 5Þ ¼ ¼ 2 ﬃﬃﬃ 2 pﬃﬃﬃ p pﬃﬃﬃ ¼ 2 5 ¼ 2 þ 5ó 2 5 pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ x2 þ 4x 1 ¼ ðx ð2 þ 5ÞÞðx ð2 5ÞÞ pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ ¼ ðx þ 2 5Þðx þ 2 þ 5Þ PðxÞ ¼ ð7x 2Þðx þ 2

pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ 5Þðx þ 2 þ 5Þ

For a polynomial such as f ðxÞ ¼ 5x3 þ 20x2 9x 36, the list of possible rational zeros is quite long—36! There are ways of getting around having to test every one of them. The fastest way is to use a graphing calculator to sketch the graph of y ¼ 5x3 þ 20x2 9x 36. There appears to be an x-intercept at x ¼ 4 (remember that x-intercepts and zeros are the same thing). 4j 5 5

20 20 0

9 0 9

36 36 0

f ðxÞ ¼ ðx þ 4Þð5x2 9Þ

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions We will solve 5x2 9 ¼ 0 to ﬁnd the other zeros. 5x2 9 ¼ 0 5x2 ¼ 9 9 x2 ¼ 5

rﬃﬃﬃ 9 3 x¼ ¼ pﬃﬃﬃ 5 5 pﬃﬃﬃ 5 3 ¼ pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ 5 5 pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ 3 5 3 5 3 5 ¼ ¼ ó 5 5 5

pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ 3 5 3 5 f ðxÞ ¼ ðx þ 4Þ x xþ 5 5 There are also a couple of algebra manipulations that can help eliminate some of the possible rational zeros. The ﬁrst we will learn is Descartes’ Rule of Signs. The second is the Upper and Lower Bounds Theorem. Descartes’ Rule of Signs counts the number of positive zeros and negative zeros. For instance, according to the rule f ðxÞ ¼ x3 þ x2 þ 4x þ 6 has no positive zeros at all. This shrinks the list of possible rational zeros from 1ó 2ó 3, and 6 to 1ó 2ó 3, and 6. The Upper and Lower Bounds Theorem gives us an idea of how large (in both the positive and negative directions) the zeros can be. For example, we can use the Upper and Lower Bounds Theorem to show that all of the zeros for f ðxÞ ¼ 5x3 þ 20x2 9x 36 are between 5 and 5. This shrinks the list of possible rational zeros from 1ó 2ó 3ó 4, 18 6ó 9ó 12ó 18ó 36ó 15 ó 25 ó 35 ó 45 ó 65 ó 95 ó 12 5 ó 5 , and 1 2 3 4 6 9 12 18 36 5 to 1ó 2ó 3ó 4ó 5, 5 ó 5 ó 5 ó 5 ó 5 ó 5 , and 5 . Descartes’ Rule of Signs counts the number of positive zeros and the number of negative zeros by counting sign changes. The maximum number of positive zeros for a polynomial function is the number of sign changes in f ðxÞ ¼ an xn þ an1 xn1 þ þ a1 x þ a0 . The possible number of positive zeros is the number of sign changes minus an even whole number. For example, if there are 5 sign changes, then there are 5 or 3 or 1 positive zeros. If there are 6 sign changes, there are 6 or 4 or 2 or 0 positive zeros. The polynomial function f ðxÞ ¼ 3x4 2x3 þ 7x2 þ 5x 8 has 3 sign changes: from 3 to 2, from 2 to 7, and from 5 to 8. There are either 3 or 1 positive zeros. The maximum number of negative zeros is the number of sign changes

317

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

318

in the polynomial f ðxÞ. The possible number of negative zeros is the number of sign changes in f ðxÞ minus an even whole number. EXAMPLES Use Descartes’ Rule of Signs to count the possible number of positive zeros and negative zeros for the polynomial functions. *

f ðxÞ ¼ 5x3 6x2 10x þ 4 There are 2 sign changes: from 5 to 6 and from 10 to 4. This means that there are either 2 or 0 positive zeros. Before we count the possible number of negative zeros, remember from earlier in the book that for a number a, aðxÞeven power ¼ axeven power and aðxÞodd power ¼ axodd power . f ðxÞ ¼ 5ðxÞ3 6ðxÞ2 10ðxÞ þ 4 ¼ 5x3 6x2 þ 10x þ 4

*

There is 1 sign change, from 6 to 10, so there is exactly 1 negative zero. gðxÞ ¼ x4 þ 3x2 9x þ 1 There are 3 sign changes: from 1 to 3, from 3 to 9, and from 9 to 1, so there are 3 or 1 positive zeros. If we were to rewrite gðxÞ as gðxÞ ¼ x4 þ 0x3 þ 3x2 9x þ 1, we would not consider zero coeﬃcients as changing signs. In other words, we will ignore the zero coeﬃcients. gðxÞ ¼ ðxÞ4 þ 3ðxÞ2 9ðxÞ þ 1 ¼ x4 þ 3x2 þ 9x þ 1

*

There is 1 sign change, from 1 to 3, so there is exactly 1 negative zero. PðxÞ ¼ x5 þ x3 þ x þ 4 There are no sign changes, so there are no positive zeros. PðxÞ ¼ ðxÞ5 þ ðxÞ3 þ ðxÞ þ 4 ¼ x5 x3 x þ 4 There is 1 sign change, so there is exactly 1 negative zero.

One of the advantages of the sign test is that if we know that there are two positive zeros and we have found one of them, then we know that there is exactly one more.

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions PRACTICE Use Descartes’ Rule of Signs to count the possible number of positive zeros and the possible number of negative zeros of the polynomial functions. 1. 2. 3.

f ðxÞ ¼ 2x4 6x3 x2 þ 4x 8 f ðxÞ ¼ x3 x2 þ x þ 1 hðxÞ ¼ x4 x2 6

SOLUTIONS 1. There are 3 sign changes in f ðxÞ, so there are 3 or 1 positive zeros. f ðxÞ ¼ 2ðxÞ4 6ðxÞ3 ðxÞ2 þ 4ðxÞ 8 ¼ 2x4 þ 6x3 x2 4x 8

2.

There is 1 sign change in f ðxÞ, so there is exactly 1 negative zero. There is 1 sign change in f ðxÞ, so there is exactly 1 positive zero. f ðxÞ ¼ ðxÞ3 ðxÞ2 þ ðxÞ þ 1 ¼ x3 x2 x þ 1

3.

There are 2 sign changes in f ðxÞ, so there are 2 or 0 negative zeros. There are no sign changes in hðxÞ, so there are no positive zeros. hðxÞ ¼ ðxÞ4 ðxÞ2 6 ¼ x4 x2 6 There are no sign changes in hðxÞ, so there are no negative zeros.

The Upper and Lower Bounds Theorem helps us to ﬁnd a range of xvalues that will contain all real zeros. It does not tell us what these bounds are. We make a guess as to what these bounds might be then check them. For a negative number x ¼ a, the statement ‘‘a is a lower bound for the real zeros’’ means that there is no number to the left of x ¼ a on the x-axis that is a zero. For a positive number x ¼ b, the statement ‘‘b is an upper bound for the real zeros’’ means that there is no number to the right of x ¼ b on the x-axis that is a zero. To determine whether a negative number x ¼ a is a lower bound for a polynomial, we need to use synthetic division. If the numbers in the bottom row alternate between nonpositive and nonnegative numbers, then x ¼ a is a lower bound for the negative zeros. ‘‘Nonpositive’’ means 0 or a negative number, and ‘‘nonnegative’’ means 0 or a positive number.

319

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

320

To determine whether a positive number x ¼ b is an upper bound for the positive zeros, again we need to use synthetic division. If the numbers on the bottom row are all nonnegative, then x ¼ b is an upper bound for the positive zeros. EXAMPLES Show that the given values for a and b are lower and upper bounds, respectively, for the polynomials. *

f ðxÞ ¼ x4 þ x3 16x2 4x þ 48; a ¼ 5 and b ¼ 5 5j 1

1 5 4

1

16 20 4

4 20 24

48 120 168

The bottom row alternates between positive and negative numbers, so a ¼ 5 is a lower bound for the negative zeros of f ðxÞ. 5j 1

1 5 6

1

*

4 70 66

48 330 378

The entries on the bottom row are all positive, so b ¼ 5 is an upper bound for the positive zeros of f ðxÞ. All of the real zeros for f ðxÞ are between x ¼ 5 and x ¼ 5. If 0 appears on the bottom row when testing for an upper bound, we can consider 0 to be positive. If 0 appears in the bottom row when testing for a lower bound, we can consider 0 to be negative if the previous entry is positive and positive if the previous entry is negative. In other words, consider it to be the opposite sign as the previous entry. PðxÞ ¼ 4x4 þ 20x3 þ 7x2 þ 3x 6 with a ¼ 5 5j 4 4

*

16 30 14

20 20 0

7 3 0 35 7 32

6 160 154

Because 0 follows a positive number, we will consider 0 to be negative. This makes the bottom row alternate between positive and negative entries, so a ¼ 5 is a lower bound for the negative zeros of PðxÞ. RðxÞ ¼ x3 þ 4x2 þ 12x 5 with a ¼ 2. 2j 1 1

4 2 6

12 12 0

5 0 5

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

321

Because 0 follows a positive number, we will consider 0 to be negative. The bottom row does not alternate between negative and positive entries, so a ¼ 2 is not a lower bound for the negative zeros of RðxÞ. PRACTICE Show that the given values for a are lower bounds and for b are upper bounds for the zeros of the polynomials. 1. 2. 3.

f ðxÞ ¼ x3 6x2 þ x þ 5; a ¼ 3ó b ¼ 7 f ðxÞ ¼ x4 x2 2; a ¼ 2ó b ¼ 2 gðxÞ ¼ 3x4 þ 6x3 þ 2x2 þ x 5; a ¼ 2ó b ¼ 1

SOLUTIONS 1. 3j 1

6 3 9

1

1 27 28

5 84 79

The entries on the bottom row alternate between positive and negative (or nonnegative and nonpositive), so a ¼ 3 is a lower bound for the zeros of f ðxÞ. 7j 1

6 7 1

1

1 7 8

5 56 61

The entries on the bottom row are positive (nonnegative), so b ¼ 7 is an upper bound for the positive zeros of f ðxÞ. 2. 2j 1 1

0 2 2

1 0 4 6 3 6

2 12 10

The entries on the bottom row alternate between positive and negative, so a ¼ 2 is a lower bound for the negative zeros of f ðxÞ. 2j 1 1

0 2 2

1 4 3

0 6 6

2 12 10

The entries on the bottom row are all positive, so b ¼ 2 is an upper bound for the positive zeros of f ðxÞ.

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

322 3. 2j 3 3

6 6 0

2 1 0 4 2 3

5 6 1

The entries on the bottom row alternate between nonnegative and nonpositive (because 0 follows a positive number, consider it nonpositive), so a ¼ 2 is a lower bound for the negative zeros of gðxÞ. 1j 3 3

6 3 9

2 9 11

1 11 12

5 12 7

The entries on the bottom row are all positive, so b ¼ 1 is an upper bound for the positive zeros of gðxÞ. The Upper and Lower Bounds Theorem has some limitations. For instance, it does not tell us how to ﬁnd upper and lower bounds for the zeros of a polynomial. For any polynomial, there are inﬁnitely many upper and lower bounds. For instance, if x ¼ 5 is an upper bound, then any number larger than 5 is also an upper bound. For many polynomials, a starting place is the quotient of the constant term and the leading coeﬃcient and its negative: ðconstant termÞ=ðleading coefficientÞ. First show that these are bounds for the zeros, then work your way inward. For example, if f ðxÞ ¼ 2x3 7x2 þ 50 x þ 50, let a ¼ 50 2 ¼ 25 and b ¼ 2 ¼ 25. Then, let a and b get closer together, say a ¼ 10 and b ¼ 10. The Upper and Lower Bounds Theorem does not work well when the leading coeﬃcient is negative. For example, f ðxÞ ¼ 2x4 þ x2 þ 6 has zeros pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ 2 and 2 but no matter what positive number we choose for b, the bottom row will always have 2 as its ﬁrst entry. The way around this is to multiply the polynomial by 1. This works because every polynomial and its ‘‘negative’’ have the same zeros. We are ready to sketch the graph of polynomial functions. The general scheme of graphing most polynomials is to ﬁnd the x-intercepts (the zeros), plot a point to the left of the smallest x-intercept, a point between consecutive x-intercepts, and a point to the right of the largest x-intercept. The tools we have learned will be useful. The Rational Zero Theorem and polynomial division will help us to ﬁnd the x-intercepts (if there are any). Descartes’ Rule of Signs and the Upper and Lower Bounds Theorem can help narrow down the list of possible rational zeros. Finally, if a function is even or odd, the work of computing points is cut in half.

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

323

EXAMPLES Sketch the graph for the polynomial functions. *

gðxÞ ¼ x3 x2 17x 15 The possible rational zeros are 1ó 3ó 5, and 15; gð1Þ ¼ 0. 1j 1 1

1 1 2

17 2 15

15 15 0

gðxÞ ¼ ðx þ 1Þðx2 2x 15Þ ¼ ðx þ 1Þðx þ 3Þðx 5Þ The x-intercepts are 3ó 1, and 5. We will plot points for x ¼ 3:5ó x ¼ 2ó x ¼ 0ó x ¼ 3, and x ¼ 5:5.

Fig. 9-18.

*

hðxÞ ¼ x3 4x This polynomial factors easily without having to use synthetic division: hðxÞ ¼ x3 4x ¼ xðx2 4Þ ¼ xðx 2Þðx þ 2Þ. The x-intercepts are 2ó 0, and 2. We will plot points for x ¼ 3ó 1ó 1, and 3. Because hðxÞ is an odd function, the y-value for x ¼ 3 will be the opposite of the y-value for x ¼ 3, and the y-value for x ¼ 1 will be the opposite of the y-value for x ¼ 1.

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

324

Fig. 9-19. *

f ðxÞ ¼ 2x3 þ 15x2 þ 31x þ 12 The list of possible rational zeros is 1ó 2ó 3ó 4ó 6ó 12ó 12, and 32. Because f ðxÞ has no sign changes, there are no positive zeros, so we only need to check 1ó 2ó 3ó 4ó 6ó 12ó 12 ó 32; f ð3Þ ¼ 0. 15 31 12 3j 2 6 27 12 2 9 4 0 2 f ðxÞ ¼ ðx þ 3Þð2x þ 9x þ 4Þ ¼ ðx þ 3Þð2x þ 1Þðx þ 4Þ The x-intercepts are 4ó 3, and 12 (from 2x þ 1 ¼ 0). We will plot points for x ¼ 5ó 3:5ó 2, and 0.

Fig. 9-20.

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

325

PRACTICE Sketch the graph of the polynomials. 1. 2. 3. 4.

f ðxÞ ¼ x3 þ x2 þ 2x gðxÞ ¼ x3 x2 10x 8 hðxÞ ¼ x4 þ 6x3 þ 11x2 þ 6x PðxÞ ¼ x3 5x2 þ 18

SOLUTIONS 1. f ðxÞ ¼ x3 þ x2 þ 2x ¼ xðx2 x 2Þ ¼ xðx 2Þðx þ 1Þ

Fig. 9-21.

2.

The possible rational zeros are 1ó 2ó 4, and 8; gð1Þ ¼ 0. 1j 1 1

1 1 2

10 2 8

8 8 0

gðxÞ ¼ x3 x2 10x 8 ¼ ðx þ 1Þðx2 2x 8Þ ¼ ðx þ 1Þðx 4Þðx þ 2Þ

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

326

Fig. 9-22.

3.

hðxÞ ¼ x4 þ 6x3 þ 11x2 þ 6x ¼ xðx3 þ 6x2 þ 11x þ 6Þ. The possible rational zeros for x3 þ 6x2 þ 11x þ 6 are 1ó 2ó 3, and 6. There are no sign changes, so there are no positive zeros; we only need to check 1ó 2ó 3, and 6: ð1Þ3 þ 6ð1Þ2 þ 11ð1Þþ 6 ¼ 0. 1j 1 1

6 1 5

11 5 6

6 6 0

hðxÞ ¼ x4 þ 6x3 þ 11x2 þ 6x ¼ xðx3 þ 6x2 þ 11x þ 6Þ ¼ xðx þ 1Þðx2 þ 5x þ 6Þ ¼ xðx þ 1Þðx þ 2Þðx þ 3Þ

Fig. 9-23.

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions 4.

327

The possible rational zeros are 1ó 2ó 3ó 6ó 9, and 18. Because a ¼ 4 is a lower bound for the negative zeros and x ¼ 6 is an upper bound for the positive zeros, we only need to check 1ó 2, and 3; Pð3Þ ¼ 0. 3j 1 1

5 0 3 6 2 6

18 18 0

PðxÞ ¼ x3 5x2 þ 18 ¼ ðx 3Þðx2 2x 6Þ The zeros for x2 2x 6 are qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ð2Þ ð2Þ2 4ð1Þð6Þ x¼ 2ð1Þ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2 28 1:65ó 3:65 ¼ 2

Fig. 9-24.

Complex Numbers Until now, the zeros of polynomials have been real numbers. The next topic involves complex pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ zeros. These zeros come from even roots of negative numbers like 1. Before working with complex zeros of polynomials, we will ﬁrst learn some complex number arithmetic.

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

328

Complex numbers are normally pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ written in the form a þ bi, where a and b are real numbers and i ¼ 1. Technically, real numbers are complex pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ﬃ numbersp where b ¼ 0. A number such as 4 þ 9 would be written as 4 þ 3i ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃpﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ because 9 ¼ 9 1 ¼ 3i. EXAMPLES Write the complex numbers in the form a þ bi, where a and b are real numbers. pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ * 1ﬃ ¼ p 8iﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ p64 ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ¼ p64 ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃpﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ * 27 ¼ 27 1 ¼ pﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ 27i ¼ 9 3i ¼ 3 3i Be careful, 3i 6¼ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ 3 i * 6 þ p8 ¼ 6 þ 8iﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ¼ 6 þ 4pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2i ¼ 6 þ 2 2ipﬃﬃﬃ ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ p * 2 50 ¼ 2 50i ¼ 2 25 2i ¼ 2 5 2i PRACTICE Write the complex numbers in the form a þ bi, where a and b are real numbers. pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 1. p25 ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2. p10 ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 3. 24pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 4. 14 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 36 5. 8 þ 12 SOLUTIONS pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 1. p25 ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ¼ p25 ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ i ¼ 5i 2. p10 ¼ ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ p10 ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ i pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ i ¼ 4 6 i ¼ 2 6i 3. 24p¼ 24 ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 4. 14 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 36 ¼ 14 p ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ36 i ¼ 14pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 6i ﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ 5. 8 þ 12 ¼ 8 þ 12 i ¼ 8 þ 4 3 i ¼ 8 þ 2 3 i Adding complex numbers is a matter of adding like terms. Add the real parts, a and c, and the imaginary parts, b and d. ða þ biÞ þ ðc þ diÞ ¼ ða þ cÞ þ ðb þ dÞi EXAMPLES Perform the addition. Write the sum in the form a þ bi, where a and b are real numbers. * * *

ð3 5iÞ þ ð4 þ 8iÞ ¼ ð3 þ 4Þ þ ð5 þ 8Þi ¼ 7 þ 3i 2i 6 þ 9i ¼ 6 þ 11i 4 þ i 3 i ¼ ð4 3Þ þ ð1 1Þi ¼ 1

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions *

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 7 18 þ 3 þ 5 2 ¼ 7 18i þ 3 þ 5 2i pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ¼ 7 9 2i þ 3 þ 5 2i ¼ 7 3 2i þ 3 þ 5 2i pﬃﬃﬃ ¼ 10 þ 2 2i

PRACTICE Perform the addition. Write the sum in the form a þ bi, where a and b are real numbers. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

18 4i þ ð15Þ þ 2i 8 2 þ 5i 5þiþ5i 7þp i þﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 12 þ i pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 1þ p 15 6 þ 2 15 ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ p ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 5 þ 12 þ 7 þ 4 12

SOLUTIONS 1. 18 4i þ ð15Þ þ 2i ¼ 3 2i 2. 8 2 þ 5i ¼ 6 þ 5i 3. 5 þ i þ 5 i ¼ 10 þ 0i ¼ 10 4. 7 þ ipþﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 12 þ i ¼ 19 þ p 2iﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 5. 1 þ 15 þ ð6Þ þ 2 15 ¼ 1 þ 15 i 6 þ 2 15 i ¼ 5 þ 3 15 i 6. pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 5 þ 12 þ 7 þ 4 12 ¼ 5 þ 12i þ 7 þ 4 12i pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ¼ 5 þ 4 3i þ 7 þ 4 4 3i pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ ¼ 5 þ 2 3i þ 7 þ 4 2 3i pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ ¼ 5 þ 2 3i þ 7 þ 8 3i pﬃﬃﬃ ¼ 2 þ 10 3i Two complex numbers can be subtracted by distributing the minus sign in the parentheses then adding the like terms. a þ bi ðc þ diÞ ¼ a þ bi c di ¼ ða cÞ þ ðb dÞi EXAMPLES Perform the subtraction and write the difference in the form a þ bi, where a and b are real numbers. * *

11 3i ð7 þ 6iÞ ¼ 11 3i 7 6i ¼ 4 9i i ð1 þ iÞ ¼ i 1 i ¼ 1

329

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

330 * *

9 p ð4ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ﬃiÞ ¼ 9 p4ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ þ i ¼ 5 þ ipﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 7 þ p8 ð1 18 Þ ¼ 7 þ 8 i 1 þ 18 i ¼ 7 þ 2 2 i 1 þ 3 2i ¼ ﬃﬃﬃ 6 þ 5 2i

PRACTICE Perform the subtraction and write the difference in the form a þ bi, where a and b are real numbers. 1. 2. 3.

2 þ 3i ð8 þ 7iÞ 4pþ 5i ð4 5iÞpﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 48 ð1 75Þ

SOLUTIONS 1. 2 þ 3i ð8 þ 7iÞ ¼ 2 þ 3i 8 7i ¼ 6 4i 2. 4 þ 5i ð4 5iÞ ¼ 4 þ 5i 4 þ 5i ¼ 10i 3. pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 48 ð1 75Þ ¼ 48i þ 1 þ 75i pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ¼ 16 3i þ 1 þ 25 3i pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ ¼ 4 3i þ 1 þ 5 3i ¼ 1 þ 9 3i Multiplying complex numbers is not as straightforward as are adding and subtracting them. First we will take the product of two purely imaginary pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ﬃ numbers (numbers whose real parts are 0). Remember that i ¼ 1, which makes i2 ¼ 1. In most complex number multiplication problems, we will have a term with i2 . Replace i2 with 1. EXAMPLES Write the product in the form a þ bi, where a and b are real numbers. * * *

ð5iÞð6iÞ ¼ 30i2 ¼ 30ð1Þ ¼ 30 2 ð2iÞð9iÞ ¼ 18i ¼p18 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ﬃ p¼ﬃﬃﬃ 18ð1Þ pﬃﬃﬃ ﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ ð 6Þð 9Þ ¼ ð 6iÞð 9iÞ ¼ ð 6Þð3Þi2 ¼ 3 6ð1Þ ¼ 3 6

PRACTICE Write the product in the form a þ bi, where a and b are real numbers. 1. 2.

ð2iÞð10iÞ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ð4 25Þð2 25Þ

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions 3. 4.

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ p3 ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ p12 ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 6 15

SOLUTIONS 1. ð2iÞð10iÞ ¼ 20i2 ¼ 20ð1Þ ¼ 20 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2. ð4 25Þð2 25Þ ¼ 4ð5iÞ½2ð5iÞ ¼ 200i2 ¼ 200ð1Þ ¼ 200 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 3. 3 12 ¼ 3 i 12 i ¼ 3 12 i2 ¼ 36 i2 ¼ 6ð1Þ ¼ 6 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 4. 6 15 ¼ 6 i 15 i ¼ 6 15 i2 ¼ 90 i2 ¼ 3 10ð1Þ ¼ 3 10 Two complex numbers in the form a þ bi can be multiplied using the FOIL method, substituting 1 for i2 and combining like terms. EXAMPLES Perform the multiplication. Write the product in the form a þ bi, where a and b are real numbers. * * *

ð4 þ 2iÞð5 þ 3iÞ ¼ 20 þ 12i þ 10i þ 6i2 ¼ 20 þ 22i þ 6ð1Þ ¼ 14 þ 22i ð1 iÞð2 þ iÞ ¼ 2 þ i 2i i2 ¼ 2 i ð1Þ ¼ 3 i ð8 2iÞð8 þ 2iÞ ¼ 64 þ 16i 16i 4i2 ¼ 64 4ð1Þ ¼ 68

PRACTICE 1. ð15 þ 3iÞð2 þ iÞ 2. ð1 þ 3iÞð4 2iÞ 3. ð3 þ 2iÞð3 2iÞ 4. ð2 iÞð2 þ iÞ SOLUTIONS 1. ð15 þ 3iÞð2 þ iÞ ¼ 30 þ 15i 6i þ 3i2 ¼ 30 þ 9i þ 3ð1Þ ¼ 33 þ 9i 2. ð1 þ 3iÞð4 2iÞ ¼ 4 þ 2i þ 12i 6i2 ¼ 4 þ 14i 6ð1Þ ¼ 2 þ 14i 3. ð3 þ 2iÞð3 2iÞ ¼ 9 6i þ 6i 4i2 ¼ 9 4ð1Þ ¼ 13 4. ð2 iÞð2 þ iÞ ¼ 4 þ 2i 2i i2 ¼ 4 ð1Þ ¼ 5 The two complex numbers a þ bi and a bi are called complex conjugates. The only diﬀerence between a complex number and its conjugate is the sign between the real part and the imaginary part. EXAMPLES * The complex conjugate of 3 þ 2i is 3 2i. * The complex conjugate of 7 i is 7 þ i. * The complex conjugate of 10i is 10i.

331

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

332

PRACTICE Identify the complex conjugate. 1. 2. 3.

15 þ 7i 3 þ i 9i

SOLUTIONS 1. The complex conjugate of 15 þ 7i is 15 7i. 2. The complex conjugate of 3 þ i is 3 i. 3. The complex conjugate of 9i is 9i. The product of any complex number and its conjugate is a real number. ða þ biÞða biÞ ¼ a2 abi þ abi b2 i2 ¼ a2 b2 ð1Þ ¼ a2 þ b2

EXAMPLES * ð7 2iÞð7 þ 2iÞ. Here, a ¼ 7 and b ¼ 2, so a2 ¼ 49 and b2 ¼ 4, making ð7 2iÞð7 þ 2iÞ ¼ 49 þ 4 ¼ 53: * ð1 iÞð1 þ iÞ. Here a ¼ 1 and b ¼ 1, so a2 ¼ 1 and b2 ¼ 1, making ð1 iÞ ð1 þ iÞ ¼ 1 þ 1 ¼ 2: * ð6 þ 3iÞð6 3iÞ ¼ 36 þ 9 ¼ 45 PRACTICE Perform the multiplication. 1. 2. 3.

ð8 10iÞð8 þ 10iÞ ð1 9iÞð1 þ 9iÞ ð5 2iÞð5 þ 2iÞ

SOLUTIONS 1. ð8 10iÞð8 þ 10iÞ ¼ 64 þ 100 ¼ 164 2. ð1 9iÞð1 þ 9iÞ ¼ 1 þ 81 ¼ 82 3. ð5 2iÞð5 þ 2iÞ ¼ 25 þ 4 ¼ 29 Dividing two complex numbers can be complicated. These problems are normally written in fraction form. If the denominator is purely imaginary, we can simply multiply the fraction by i=i and simplify.

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions EXAMPLES Perform the division. Write the quotient in the form a þ bi, where a and b are real numbers. *

2 þ 3i i

2 þ 3i i ð2 þ 3iÞi ¼ i i i2 2 2i þ 3i 2i þ 3ð1Þ ¼ ¼ 2 1 i 3 þ 2i ¼ ¼ ð3 þ 2iÞ 1 ¼ 3 2i ¼

*

4 þ 5i 2i

4 þ 5i i 4i þ 5i2 ¼ 2i i 2i2 4i þ 5ð1Þ 4i 5 ¼ ¼ 2ð1Þ 2 5 þ 4i ð5 þ 4iÞ ¼ ¼ 2 2 5 4i 5 ¼ ¼ 2i 2 2 ¼

PRACTICE Write the quotient in the form a þ bi, where a and b are real numbers. 12 þ 5i 1. 2i 4 9i 2. 3i 1þi 3. i SOLUTIONS 1. 12 þ 5i 12 þ 5i i 12i þ 5i2 ¼ ¼ 2i 2i i 2i2 12i þ 5ð1Þ 5 þ 12i ¼ ¼ 2ð1Þ 2 ð5 þ 12iÞ 5 12i 5 ¼ ¼ ¼ 6i 2 2 2

333

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

334 2.

4 9i 4 9i i 4i 9i2 ¼ ¼ 3i 3i i 3i2 4i 9ð1Þ 9 þ 4i 4 ¼ ¼ ¼3þ i 3ð1Þ 3 3 3. 1 þ i 1 þ i i i þ i2 ¼ ¼ 2 i i i i i þ ð1Þ 1 þ i ¼ ¼ 1 1 ð1 þ iÞ ¼ ¼1i 1 When the divisor (denominator) is in the form a þ bi, multiplying the fraction by i=i will not work. 2 5i i 2i 5i2 5 þ 2i ¼ ¼ 3 þ 6i i 3i þ 6i2 6 þ 3i What does work is to multiply the fraction by the denominator’s conjugate over itself. This works because the product of any complex number and its conjugate is a real number. We will use the FOIL method in the numerator (if necessary) and the fact that ða þ biÞða biÞ ¼ a2 þ b2 in the denominator. EXAMPLES Write the quotient in the form a þ bi, where a and b are real numbers. *

2 þ 7i 6þi ¼

2 þ 7i 6 i 12 2i þ 42i 7i2 ¼ 6þi 6i 62 þ 12

12 þ 40i 7ð1Þ 12 þ 40i þ 7 ¼ 37 37 19 þ 40i 19 40 ¼ ¼ þ i 37 37 37 ¼

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions *

4 9i 5 2i

4 9i 5 þ 2i 20 þ 8i 45i 18i2 ¼ 5 2i 5 þ 2i 52 þ 22 20 37i 18ð1Þ 20 37i þ 18 ¼ ¼ 25 þ 4 29 38 37i 38 37 ¼ i ¼ 29 29 29 ¼

PRACTICE Write the quotient in the form a þ bi, where a and b are real numbers. 1.

1 2i 1i

2.

4 þ 2i 1 3i

3.

8i 2 5i

4.

6 þ 4i 6 4i

SOLUTIONS 1. 1 2i 1 2i 1 þ i 1 þ i 2i 2i2 ¼ ¼ 1i 1i 1þi 12 þ 12 1 i 2ð1Þ 3 i 3 1 ¼ ¼ i ¼ 2 2 2 2 2. 4 þ 2i 4 þ 2i 1 þ 3i 4 þ 12i þ 2i þ 6i2 ¼ ¼ 1 3i 1 3i 1 þ 3i 12 þ 32 4 þ 14i þ 6ð1Þ 2 þ 14i 1 7 ¼ ¼ þ i ¼ 10 10 5 5 3. 8i 8 i 2 þ 5i 16 þ 40i 2i 5i2 ¼ ¼ 2 5i 2 5i 2 þ 5i 22 þ 52 16 þ 38i 5ð1Þ 21 þ 38i 21 38 ¼ ¼ ¼ þ i 29 29 29 29

335

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

336 4.

6 þ 4i 6 þ 4i 6 þ 4i 36 þ 24i þ 24i þ 16i2 ¼ ¼ 6 4i 6 4i 6 þ 4i 62 þ 42 36 þ 48i þ 16ð1Þ 20 þ 48i 5 12 ¼ ¼ ¼ þ i 36 þ 16 52 13 13 There are reasons to write complex numbers in the form a þ bi. One is that complex numbers are plotted in the plane (real numbers are plotted on the number line), where the x-axis becomes the real axis and the y-axis becomes the imaginary axis. The number 3 4i is plotted in Fig. 9-25.

Fig. 9-25.

Complex Solutions to Quadratic Equations Every quadratic equation has a solution, real or complex. The real solution, or solutions, for a quadratic equation is, or are, the x-intercept, or intercepts, for the graph of the quadratic function. The graph for f ðxÞ ¼ x2 þ 1 has no real solutions and no x-intercepts.

Fig. 9-26.

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions The equation x2 þ 1 ¼ 0 does have two complex solutions. x2 þ 1 ¼ 0 x2 ¼ 1 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ x ¼ 1 ¼ i EXAMPLES Solve the equations and write the solutions in the form a þ bi, where a and b are real numbers. *

3x2 þ 8x þ 14 ¼ 0

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 82 4ð3Þð14Þ 8 104 ¼ x¼ 2ð3Þ 6 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 8 2 26 i 2ð4 26 iÞ ¼ ¼ 6pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ p6ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 4 26 i 4 26 ¼ ¼ i 3pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 3 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 3 4 4 26 26 ¼ þ i; i 3 3 3 3 2 9x þ 25 ¼ 0 8

*

9x2 þ 25 ¼ 0 9x2 ¼ 25 25 x2 ¼ 9 rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 25 25 i x¼ ¼ 9 9 5 5 5 x ¼ i ¼ i; i 3 3 3 PRACTICE Solve the equations and write the solutions in the form a þ bi, where a and b are real numbers. 1. 2. 3. 4.

x2 þ 2x þ 4 ¼ 0 x2 þ 25 ¼ 0 9x2 þ 4 ¼ 0 6x2 þ 8x þ 9 ¼ 0

337

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

338 SOLUTIONS 1.

x2 þ 2x þ 4 ¼ 0 2 2 2 2 2 ¼ 4 þ x þ 2x þ 2 2 ðx þ 1Þ2 ¼ 3 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ x þ 1 ¼ 3 pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ x ¼ 1 3 i ¼ 1 þ 3 i; 1 3 i 2. x2 þ 25 ¼ 0 x2 ¼ 25 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ x ¼ 25 ¼ 5i ¼ 5i; 5i 3. 9x2 þ 4 ¼ 0 9x2 ¼ 4 4 x2 ¼ 9 rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 4 2 2 2 x ¼ ¼ i ¼ i; i 9 3 3 3 4. pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 82 4ð6Þð9Þ x¼ 2ð6Þ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 8 152 8 2 38 i ¼ ¼ 12pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 12pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2ð4 38 iÞ 4 38 i ¼ ¼ 12 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ p6ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 38 38 4 2 ¼ i¼ i 6 p6ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 3 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 6 2 2 38 38 i; i ¼ þ 3 3 6 6 8

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions In all the previous examples and practice problems, complex solutions to quadratic equations came in conjugate pairs. This always happens when the solutions are complex numbers. A quadratic expression that has complex zeros are called irreducible (over the reals) because they cannot be factored using real numbers. For example, the polynomial function f ðxÞ ¼ x4 1 can be factored using real numbers as ðx2 1Þðx2 þ 1Þ ¼ ðx 1Þðx þ 1Þðx2 þ 1Þ. The factor x2 þ 1 is irreducible because it is factored as ðx iÞðx þ iÞ. We can tell which quadratic factors are irreducible without having to use the quadratic formula. We only need part of the quadratic formula, the part under the square root sign, b2 4ac. When this number is negative, the quadratic factor has two pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ complex zeros, ðb negative numberÞ=2a. When this number is positive, pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ there are two real number solutions, ðb positive pﬃﬃﬃ numberÞ=2a. When this number is zero, there is one real zero, ðb 0Þ=2a ¼ b=2a. For this reason, b2 4ac is called the discriminant. The graphs of some polynomials having irreducible quadratic factors need extra points plotted to get a more accurate graph. The graph in Fig. 9-27 shows the graph of f ðxÞ ¼ x4 3x2 4 plotted using our usual method— plotting the x-intercepts, a point to the left of the smallest x-intercept, a point between each consecutive pair of x-intercepts, and a point to the right of the largest x-intercept.

Fig. 9-27.

See what happens to the graph when we plot the points for x ¼ 1 and x ¼ 1.

339

340

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

Fig. 9-28.

The graph of f ðxÞ ¼ ðx 2Þðx2 þ 6x þ 10Þ is sketched in Fig. 9-29. The graphs we have sketched have several vertices between x-intercepts. When this happens, we need calculus to ﬁnd them.

Fig. 9-29.

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

341

The Fundamental Theorem of Algebra By the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra, every polynomial of degree n has exactly n zeros (some might be counted more than once). Because x ¼ c is a zero implies x c is a factor, every polynomial can be completely factored in the form aðx cn Þðx cn1 Þ ðx c1 Þ, where a is a real number and ci is real or complex. Factors in the form x c are called linear factors. Factors such as 2x þ 1 can be written in the form x c by factoring 2: 2ðx þ 12Þ or 2ðx ð 12ÞÞ. To completely factor a polynomial, we usually need to ﬁrst ﬁnd its zeros. At times, we will use the Rational Zero Theorem, polynomial division, and the quadratic formula. EXAMPLES Find all zeros, real and complex. *

hðxÞ ¼ x4 16 This is the diﬀerence of two squares. x4 16 ¼ ðx2 4Þðx2 þ 4Þ ¼ ðx 2Þðx þ 2Þðx2 þ 4Þ The real zeros are 2 and 2. Find the complex zeros by solving x2 þ 4 ¼ 0. x2 þ 4 ¼ 0 x2 ¼ 4 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ x ¼ 4 ¼ 2i

*

The complex zeros are 2i. x4 þ 6x3 þ 9x2 6x 10 The possible rational zeros are 1ó 2ó 5, and 10. Pð1Þ ¼ 0. 1j 1 1

6 1 7

9 7 16

6 16 10

10 10 0

PðxÞ ¼ ðx 1Þðx3 þ 7x2 þ 16x þ 10Þ

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

342

Because x3 þ 7x2 þ 16x þ 10 has no sign changes, there are no positive zeros; x ¼ 1 is a zero for x3 þ 7x2 þ 16x þ 10. 1j 1

7 1 6

1

16 6 10

10 10 0

PðxÞ ¼ ðx 1Þðx þ 1Þðx2 þ 6x þ 10Þ Solve x2 þ 6x þ 10 ¼ 0 to ﬁnd the complex zeros. pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 6 62 4ð1Þð10Þ 6 4 x¼ ¼ 2 2ð1Þ 6 2i 2ð3 iÞ ¼ ¼ ¼ 3 i 2 2 The zeros are 1ó 3 i. PRACTICE Find all zeros, real and complex. 1. 2. 3. 4.

f ðxÞ ¼ x4 81 hðxÞ ¼ x3 þ 13x 34 f ðxÞ ¼ x4 þ 5x2 þ 4 PðxÞ ¼ x4 6x3 þ 29x2 76x þ 68

SOLUTIONS 1. f ðxÞ ¼ ðx2 9Þðx2 þ 9Þ ¼ ðx 3Þðx þ 3Þðx2 þ 9Þ x2 þ 9 ¼ 0 x2 ¼ 9 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ x ¼ 9 ¼ 3i

2.

The zeros are 3ó 3i. hð2Þ ¼ 0 2j 1 1

0 2 2

hðxÞ ¼ ðx 2Þðx2 þ 2x þ 17Þ

13 4 17

34 34 0

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

343

x2 þ 2x þ 17 ¼ 0

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 22 4ð1Þð17Þ 2 8i x¼ ¼ 2ð1Þ 2 2ð1 4iÞ ¼ ¼ 1 4i 2 The zeros are 2ó 1 4i. ðx4 þ 5x2 þ 4Þ ¼ ðx2 þ 1Þðx2 þ 4Þ 2

3.

x2 þ 1 ¼ 0

4.

x2 þ 4 ¼ 0

x2 ¼ 1

x2 ¼ 4

x ¼ i

x ¼ 2i

The zeros are ió 2i. Pð2Þ ¼ 0 2j 1 1

6 2 4

29 8 21

76 42 34

68 68 0

PðxÞ ¼ ðx 2Þðx3 4x2 þ 21x 34Þ x ¼ 2 is a zero for x3 4x2 þ 21x 34 2j 1 1

4 2 2

21 4 17

34 34 0

PðxÞ ¼ ðx 2Þðx 2Þðx2 2x þ 17Þ

x¼

x2 2x þ 17 ¼ 0 qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ð2Þ ð2Þ2 4ð1Þð17Þ

2ð1Þ 2 8i 2ð1 4iÞ ¼ ¼ ¼ 1 4i 2 2 The zeros are 2ó 1 4i.

¼

2

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 64 2

If we know a complex number is a zero for a polynomial, we automatically know another zero—the complex conjugate is also a zero. This gives us a quadratic factor for the polynomial. Once we have this computed, we can use long division to ﬁnd the quotient, which will be another factor of the polynomial. Each time we factor a polynomial, we are closer to ﬁnding its zeros.

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

344

EXAMPLES Find all zeros, real and complex. *

f ðxÞ ¼ 3x4 þ x3 þ 17x2 þ 4x þ 20 and x ¼ 2i is a zero. Because x ¼ 2i is a zero, its conjugate, 2i is another zero. This tells us that two factors are x 2i and x þ 2i. ðx 2iÞðx þ 2iÞ ¼ x2 þ 2ix 2ix 4i2 ¼ x2 4ð1Þ ¼ x2 þ 4 We will divide f ðxÞ by x2 þ 4 ¼ x2 þ 0x þ 4. 3x2 þ x þ 5 x þ 0x þ 4j 3x4 þ x3 þ 17x2 þ 4x þ 20 ð3x4 þ 0x3 þ 12x2 Þ x3 þ 5x2 þ 4x ðx3 þ 0x2 þ 4xÞ 5x2 þ 0x þ 20 ð5x2 þ 0x þ 20Þ 0 2

*

f ðxÞ ¼ ðx2 þ 4Þð3x2 þ x þ 5Þ. Solving 3x2 þ x þ 5 ¼ 0, we get the solutions pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 1 12 4ð3Þð5Þ 1 59 1 59 i x¼ ¼ ¼ 2ð3Þ 6 6 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ The zeros are 2ió ð1 59 iÞ=6. hðxÞ ¼ 2x3 7x2 þ 170x 246, x ¼ 1 þ 9i is a zero. Because x ¼ 1 þ 9i is a zero, we know that x ¼ 1 9i is also a zero. We also know that x ð1 þ 9iÞ ¼ x 1 9i and x ð1 9iÞ ¼ x 1 þ 9i are factors. We will multiply these two factors. ðx 1 9iÞðx 1 þ 9iÞ ¼ x2 x þ 9ix x þ 1 9i 9ix þ 9i 81i2 ¼ x2 2x þ 1 81ð1Þ ¼ x2 2x þ 82 x2 2x þ 82j

2x 3 2x3 7x2 þ 170x 246 ð2x3 4x2 þ 164xÞ 3x2 þ 6x 246 ð3x2 þ 6x 246Þ 0

hðxÞ ¼ ð2x 3Þðx2 2x þ 82Þ. The zeros are 1 9i and 32 (from 2x 3 ¼ 0).

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions PRACTICE Find all zeros, real and complex. 1. 2. 3.

f ðxÞ ¼ x4 x3 þ 8x2 9x 9; x ¼ 3i is a zero. gðxÞ ¼ x3 5x2 þ 7x þ 13; x ¼ 3 2i is a zero. hðxÞ ¼ x4 8x3 þ 21x2 þ 32x 100; x ¼ 4 þ 3i is a zero.

SOLUTIONS 1. x ¼ 3i is a zero, so x ¼ 3i is also a zero. One factor of f ðxÞ is ðx 3iÞðx þ 3iÞ ¼ x2 þ 9 ¼ x2 þ 0x þ 9. x2 x 1 x þ 0x þ 9j x4 x3 þ 8x2 9x 9 ðx4 þ 0x3 þ 9x2 Þ x3 x2 9x ðx3 þ 0x2 9xÞ x2 þ 0x 9 ðx2 þ 0x 9Þ 0 2

f ðxÞ ¼ ðx2 þ 9Þðx2 x 1Þ. Solve x2 x 1 ¼ 0: qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ ð1Þ ð1Þ2 4ð1Þð1Þ 1 5 x¼ ¼ 2 2ð1Þ pﬃﬃﬃ The zeros are 3ió ð1 5Þ=2. 2. x ¼ 3 2i is a zero, so x ¼ 3 þ 2i is also a zero. One factor of gðxÞ is ðx ð3 2iÞÞðx ð3 þ 2iÞÞ ¼ ðx 3 þ 2iÞðx 3 2iÞ ¼ x2 3x 2ix 3x þ 9 þ 6i þ 2ix 6i 4i2 ¼ x2 6x þ 9 4ð1Þ ¼ x2 6x þ 13: x2 6x þ 13j

xþ 1 x3 5x2 þ 7x þ 13 ðx3 6x2 þ 13xÞ x2 6x þ 13 ðx2 6x þ 13Þ 0

gðxÞ ¼ ðx þ 1Þðx2 6x þ 13Þ. The zeros are 1ó 3 2i.

345

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

346 3.

x ¼ 4 þ 3i is a zero, so x ¼ 4 3i is also a zero. One factor of gðxÞ is ðx ð4 þ 3iÞÞðx ð4 3iÞÞ ¼ ðx 4 3iÞðx 4 þ 3iÞ ¼ x2 4x þ 3ix 4x þ 16 12i 3ix þ 12i 9i2 ¼ x2 8x þ 16 9ð1Þ ¼ x2 8x þ 25: x2 4 x2 8x þ 25j x4 8x3 þ 21x2 þ 32x 100 ðx4 8x3 þ 25x2 Þ 4x2 þ 32x 100 ð4x2 þ 32x 100Þ 0 hðxÞ ¼ ðx2 4Þðx2 8x þ 25Þ. The zeros are 4 3i and 2 (from x2 4 ¼ 0).

A consequence of the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra is that a polynomial of degree n will have n zeros, although not necessarily n diﬀerent zeros. For example, the polynomial f ðxÞ ¼ ðx 2Þ3 ¼ ðx 2Þðx 2Þðx 2Þ has x ¼ 2 as a zero three times. The number of times an x-value is a zero is called its multiplicity. In the above example, x ¼ 2 is a zero with multiplicity 3. EXAMPLE * f ðxÞ ¼ x4 ðx þ 3Þ2 ðx 6Þ x ¼ 0 is a zero with multiplicity 4. (We can think of x4 as ðx 0Þ4 .) x ¼ 3 is a zero with multiplicity 2. x ¼ 6 is a zero with multiplicity 1. PRACTICE State each zero and its multiplicity. 1.

f ðxÞ ¼ x2 ðx þ 4Þðx þ 9Þ6 ðx 5Þ3

SOLUTION 1. x ¼ 0 is a zero with multiplicity 2. x ¼ 4 is a zero with multiplicity 1. x ¼ 9 is a zero with multiplicity 6. x ¼ 5 is a zero with multiplicity 3. Now, instead of ﬁnding the zeros for a given polynomial, we will ﬁnd a polynomial with the given zeros. Because we will know the zeros, we will

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions know the factors. Once we know the factors of a polynomial, we have a fairly good idea of the polynomial. EXAMPLES Find a polynomial with integer coefficients having the given degree and zeros. *

Degree 3 with zeros 1ó 2, and 5. Because x ¼ 1 is a zero, x 1 is a factor. Because x ¼ 2 is a zero, x 2 is a factor. And because x ¼ 5 is a zero, x 5 is a factor. Such a polynomial will be of the form aðx 1Þðx 2Þðx 5Þ, where a is some nonzero number. We will want to choose a so that the coeﬃcients are integers. aðx 1Þðx 2Þðx 5Þ ¼ aðx 1Þ½ðx 2Þðx 5Þ ¼ aðx 1Þðx2 7x þ 10Þ ¼ aðx3 7x2 þ 10x x2 þ 7x 10Þ ¼ aðx3 8x2 þ 17x 10Þ

*

Because the coeﬃcients are already integers, we can let a ¼ 1. One polynomial of degree 3 having integer coeﬃcients and 1ó 2, and 5 as zeros is x3 8x2 þ 17x 10. Degree 4 with zeros 3 and 2 5i, with 3 a zero of multiplicity 2. Because 3 is a zero of multiplicity 2, ðx þ 3Þ2 ¼ x2 þ 6x þ 9 is a factor. Because 2 5i is a zero, 2 þ 5i is another zero. Another factor of the polynomial is ðx ð2 5iÞÞðx ð2 þ 5iÞÞ ¼ ðx 2 þ 5iÞðx 2 5iÞ ¼ x2 2x 5ix 2x þ 4 þ 10i þ 5ix 10i 25i2 ¼ x2 4x þ 4 25ð1Þ ¼ x2 4x þ 29: The polynomial has the form aðx2 þ 6x þ 9Þðx2 4x þ 29Þ, where a is any real number that makes all coeﬃcients integers. aðx2 þ 6x þ 9Þðx2 4x þ 29Þ ¼ aðx4 4x3 þ 29x2 þ 6x3 24x2 þ 174x þ 9x2 36x þ 261Þ ¼ aðx4 þ 2x3 þ 14x2 þ 138x þ 261Þ

347

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

348

Because the coeﬃcients are already integers, we can let a ¼ 1. One polynomial that satisﬁes the given conditions is x4 þ 2x3 þ 14x2 þ 138x þ 261. PRACTICE Find a polynomial with integer coefficients having the given degree and zeros. 1. 2. 3.

Degree 3 with zeros 0ó 4, and 6. Degree 4 with zeros 5i and 3i. Degree 4 with zeros 1 and 6 7i, where x ¼ 1 has multiplicity 2.

SOLUTIONS 1. One polynomial with integer coeﬃcients, with degree 3 and zeros 0ó 4 and 6 is xðx þ 4Þðx 6Þ ¼ xðx2 2x 24Þ ¼ x3 2x2 24x: 2.

One polynomial with integer coeﬃcients, with degree 4 and zeros 5i and 3i is ðx þ 5iÞðx 5iÞðx 3iÞðx þ 3iÞ ¼ ðx2 þ 25Þðx2 þ 9Þ ¼ x4 þ 34x2 þ 225:

3.

One polynomial with integer coeﬃcients, with degree 4 and zeros 1, 6 7i, where x ¼ 1 has multiplicity 2 is ðx þ 1Þ2 ðx ð6 7iÞÞðx ð6 þ 7iÞÞ ¼ ðx þ 1Þ2 ðx 6 þ 7iÞðx 6 7iÞ ¼ ½ðx þ 1Þðx þ 1Þ½ðx2 6x 7ix 6x þ 36 þ 42i þ 7ix 42i 49i2 Þ ¼ ðx2 þ 2x þ 1Þðx2 12x þ 85Þ ¼ x4 12x3 þ 85x2 þ 2x3 24x2 þ 170x þ x2 12x þ 85 ¼ x4 10x3 þ 62x2 þ 158x þ 85:

In the previous problems, there were inﬁnitely many answers because a could be any integer. In the following problems, there will be exactly one polynomial that satisﬁes the given conditions. This means that a will likely be a number other than 1.

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions EXAMPLES Find a polynomial that satisfies the given conditions. Degree 3 with zeros 1ó 2, and 4, where the coeﬃcient for x is 20.

*

aðx þ 1Þðx þ 2Þðx 4Þ ¼ aðx þ 1Þ½ðx þ 2Þðx 4Þ ¼ aðx þ 1Þðx2 2x 8Þ ¼ aðx3 2x2 8x þ x2 2x 8Þ ¼ aðx3 x2 10x 8Þ ¼ ax3 ax2 10ax 8a Because we need the coeﬃcient of x to be 20, we need 10ax ¼ 20x, so we need a ¼ 2 (from 10a ¼ 20). The polynomial that satisﬁes the conditions is 2x3 2x2 20x 16: Degree 3 with zeros 23 and 1 5i, where the coeﬃcient of x2 is 4. If x ¼ 23 is a zero, then 3x 2 is a factor.

*

2 x ¼0 3 2 3 x ¼ 3ð0Þ 3 3x 2 ¼ 0 The other factors are x ð1 5iÞ ¼ x þ 1 þ 5i and x ð1 þ 5iÞ ¼ x þ 1 5i.

ðx þ 1 þ 5iÞðx þ 1 5iÞ ¼ x2 þ x 5ix þ x þ 1 5i þ 5ix þ 5i 25i2 ¼ x2 þ 2x þ 26

að3x 2Þðx2 þ 2x þ 26Þ ¼ að3x3 þ 6x2 þ 78x 2x2 4x 52Þ ¼ að3x3 þ 4x2 þ 74x 52Þ ¼ 3ax3 þ 4ax2 þ 74ax 52a We want 4ax2 ¼ 4x2 , so we need a ¼ 1. The polynomial that satisﬁes the conditions is 3x3 4x2 74x þ 52:

349

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

350

PRACTICE Find the polynomial that satisfies the given conditions. 1. 2. 3.

Degree 3, zeros 4 and 1, with leading coeﬃcient 3. Degree 3 with zeros 35 and 1, where the multiplicity of 1 is 2, and the coeﬃcient of x is 2. Degree 4 with zeros i and 4i, with constant term 8.

SOLUTIONS 1. The factors are x 4, x 1, and x þ 1. aðx 4Þðx 1Þðx þ 1Þ ¼ aðx 4Þ½ðx 1Þðx þ 1Þ ¼ aðx 4Þðx2 1Þ ¼ a½ðx 4Þðx2 1Þ ¼ aðx3 4x2 x þ 4Þ ¼ ax3 4ax2 ax þ 4a

2.

We want the leading coeﬃcient to be 3, so a ¼ 3. The polynomial that satisﬁes the conditions is 3x3 12x2 3x þ 12. Because x ¼ 35 is a zero, 5x þ 3 is a factor. 3 ¼0 x 5 3 5 xþ ¼ 5ð0Þ 5 5x þ 3 ¼ 0 The other factor is ðx 1Þ2 ¼ ðx 1Þðx 1Þ ¼ x2 2x þ 1. að5x þ 3Þðx2 2x þ 1Þ ¼ að5x3 10x2 þ 5x þ 3x2 6x þ 3Þ ¼ að5x3 7x2 x þ 3Þ ¼ 5ax3 7ax2 ax þ 3a We want ax ¼ 2x, so a ¼ 2. The polynomial that satisﬁes the conditions is 10x3 þ 14x2 þ 2x 6.

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions 3.

351

The factors are x þ ió x ió x 4i, and x þ 4i. aðx þ iÞðx iÞðx 4iÞðx þ 4iÞ ¼ a½ðx þ iÞðx iÞ½ðx 4iÞðx þ 4iÞ ¼ aðx2 þ 1Þðx2 þ 16Þ ¼ aðx4 þ 17x2 þ 16Þ ¼ ax4 þ 17ax2 þ 16a We want 16a ¼ 8, so a ¼ 12. The polynomial that satisﬁes the condi2 tions is 12 x4 þ 17 2 x þ 8.

Chapter 9 Review 1.

The graph of a polynomial function whose leading term is 5x4 a) goes up on the left and up on the right. b) goes down on the left and down on the right. c) goes up on the left and down on the right. d) goes down on the left and up on the right.

2.

The zeros for the function f ðxÞ ¼ xðx þ 1Þ2 ðx 2Þ are a) x ¼ 1ó 2 b) x ¼ 0ó 1ó 2 c) x ¼ 1ó 2 d) x ¼ 0ó 1ó 2

3.

The graph in Fig. 9-30 is the graph of what function? a) f ðxÞ ¼ xðx 2Þðx þ 3Þ ¼ x3 þ x2 6x b) f ðxÞ ¼ xðx 2Þðx þ 3Þ ¼ x3 x2 þ 6x c) f ðxÞ ¼ x2 ðx 2Þðx þ 3Þ ¼ x4 þ x3 6x2 d) f ðxÞ ¼ x4 x3 þ 6x2

Fig. 9-30.

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions

352 4.

For the polynomial function f ðxÞ ¼ 3x4 þ 5x3 x 10 a) the degree is 4, and the constant term is 3. b) the degree is 3, and the constant term is 10. c) the degree is 3, and the constant term is 10. d) the degree is 4, and the constant term is 10.

5.

For the polynomial function f ðxÞ ¼ 15 ðx þ 3Þðx 1Þðx 5Þ, which set of points would be best to plot for the graph? a) ð4ó 4:2Þ, ð3ó 0Þ, ð0ó 3Þ, ð1ó 0Þ, ð2ó 3Þ, ð5ó 0Þ b) ð4ó 9Þ, ð3ó 0Þ, ð0ó 3Þ, ð1ó 0Þ, ð2ó 3Þ, ð5ó 0Þ ð6ó 9Þ c) ð4ó 9Þ, ð3ó 0Þ ð2ó 4:2Þ, ð1ó 0Þ, ð2ó 3Þ, ð4ó 4:2Þ, ð5ó 0Þ d) ð2ó 4:2Þ, ð4ó 4:2Þ, ð3ó 0Þ, ð1ó 4:8Þ, ð1ó 0Þ, ð3ó 4:8Þ, ð5ó 0Þ

6.

Find the quotient and remainder for ðx3 þ x þ 1Þ ðx2 1Þ. a) The quotient is x þ 2, and the remainder is 3. b) The quotient is x2 þ x þ 2, and the remainder is 3. c) The quotient is x, and the remainder is 2x þ 1. d) The quotient is x, and the remainder is 1.

7.

Find the quotient and remainder for ð5x2 þ 2x þ 3Þ ð2x þ 1Þ. a) The quotient is 52 x 14, and the remainder is 13 4. 5 9 21 b) The quotient is 2 x þ 4, and the remainder is 4 . c) The quotient is 52 x 12, and the remainder is 52. d) The quotient is 52 x 94, and the remainder is 11 4.

8.

Find the quotient and remainder for ð4x3 2x2 þ x 5Þ ðx 2Þ. a) The quotient is 4x2 10x þ 21, and the remainder is 47. b) The quotient is 4x2 þ 6x þ 13, and the remainder is 21. c) The quotient is 4x2 þ 6x 13, and the remainder is 21. d) The quotient is 4x2 þ 6x þ 13, and the remainder is 31.

9.

What are the solutions for 2x3 x2 5x 2 ¼ 0? a) x ¼ 0ó 1ó 2 b) x ¼ 1ó 12 ó 2 1 c) x ¼ 1ó 2 ó 2 d) Cannot be determined

10.

3 2 What are the zerospfor ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ f ðxÞ ¼ x þ 2x þ 4x þ 3?pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ a) x ¼ 1ó ð1 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 11 iÞ=2 b) x ¼ 1ó ð1 13Þ=2 c) x ¼ 1ó ð3 19 iÞ=2 d) Cannot be determined

11.

According to the Rational Zero Theorem, which of the following is not a possible rational zero for the polynomial PðxÞ ¼ 10x4 6x3 þ x2 þ 6? b) 13 c) 6 d) 1 a) 12

CHAPTER 9 Polynomial Functions 12.

What are the zeros for PðxÞ ¼ 3x3 13x2 32x þ 12? b) x ¼ 3ó 6ó 2 a) x ¼ 13 ó 6ó 2 c) x ¼ 1ó 6ó 2 d) x ¼ 13 ó 6ó 2

13.

Which is a polynomial function having a zero of 2 3i? b) f ðxÞ ¼ x3 5x2 17x þ 13 a) f ðxÞ ¼ x3 5x2 þ 17x 13 3 2 d) f ðxÞ ¼ x3 þ 5x2 þ 17x 13 c) f ðxÞ ¼ x þ 5x 17x 13

14.

Write the quotient for ð5 þ 2iÞ=ð1 þ iÞ in the form a þ bi, where a and b are real numbers. a) 72 þ 72 i b) 72 32 i c) 32 þ 72 i d) 52 þ i

15.

According to Descartes’ Rule of Signs, how many zeros does the polynomial function f ðxÞ ¼ 2x3 þ x2 x 5 have? a) 2 or 0 positive zeros and 0 negative zeros. b) 3 or 1 positive zeros and 2 or 0 negative zeros. c) 2 or 0 positive zeros and 1 negative zero. d) 3 or 1 positive zeros and 1 negative zero.

SOLUTIONS 1. a) 2. d) 9. c) 10. a)

3. b) 11. b)

4. d) 5. b) 6. c) 7. a) 8. b) 12. d) 13. a) 14. b) 15. c)

353

10

CHAPTER

Systems of Equations and Inequalities

A system of equations is a collection of two or more equations whose graphs might or might not intersect (share a common point or points). If the graphs do intersect, then we say that the solution to the system is the point or points where the graphs intersect. For example, the solution to the system xþy ¼4 3x y ¼ 0 is ð1ó 3Þ because the graphs intersect at ð1ó 3Þ. We say that ð1ó 3Þ satisﬁes the system because if we let x ¼ 1 and y ¼ 3 in each equation, they will both be true. 1þ3¼4

This is a true statement

3ð1Þ 3 ¼ 0

This is a true statement

354 Copyright © 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click here for terms of use.

CHAPTER 10

Systems of Equations

355

Fig. 10-1.

There are several methods for solving systems of equations. One of them is by sketching the graphs and seeing where, if anywhere, the graphs intersect. Even with a graphing calculator, though, these solutions might only be approximations. When the equations are lines, matrices can be used. Graphing calculators are also useful for these. We will concentrate on two methods in this book. One of them is called substitution and the other is called elimination by addition. Both methods will work with many kinds of systems of equations, but we will start with systems of linear equations.

Substitution Substitution works by solving for one variable in one equation and making a substitution in the other equation. Technically, it does not matter which variable we use or which equation we begin with, but some choices are easier than others. EXAMPLES Solve the systems of equations. Put your solutions in the form of a point, ðxó yÞ. xþy ¼5 * 2x þ y ¼ 1 We have four places to start. 1. 2. 3. 4.

Solve Solve Solve Solve

for for for for

x in the ﬁrst equation: x ¼ 5 y y in the ﬁrst equation: y ¼ 5 x x in the second equation: x ¼ 12 þ 12 y y in the second equation: y ¼ 2x 1

CHAPTER 10 Systems of Equations

356

The third option looks like it would be the most trouble, so we will use one of the others. We will use the ﬁrst option. Because x ¼ 5 y came from the ﬁrst equation, we will substitute it for x in the second equation. Then 2x þ y ¼ 1 becomes 2ð5 yÞ þ y ¼ 1. This is the substitution step, substituting what x is equal to, namely 5 y, for x. Now we can solve the equation 2ð5 yÞ þ y ¼ 1. 2ð5 yÞ þ y ¼ 1 10 þ 2y þ y ¼ 1 3y ¼ 9 y¼3 Now that we know y ¼ 3, we could use any of the equations above to ﬁnd x. We know that x ¼ 5 y, so we will use this. x¼53¼2 The solution is x ¼ 2 and y ¼ 3 or the point ð2ó 3Þ. It is a good idea to check the solution. 2þ3¼5 2ð2Þ þ 3 ¼ 1 *

This is true. This is true.

4x y ¼ 12 A 3x þ y ¼ 2 B

We will solve for y in equation B: y ¼ 2 3x. Next we will substitute 2 3x for y in equation A and solve for x. 4x y ¼ 12 4x ð2 3xÞ ¼ 12 4x 2 þ 3x ¼ 12 7x ¼ 14 x¼2 Now that we know x ¼ 2, we will put x ¼ 2 in one of the above equations. We will use y ¼ 2 3x: y ¼ 2 3ð2Þ ¼ 4. The solution is x ¼ 2, y ¼ 4, or ð2ó 4Þ. The graphs in Fig. 10-2 verify that the solution ð2ó 4Þ is on both lines.

CHAPTER 10

Systems of Equations

Fig. 10-2.

(

y ¼ 4x þ 1

A

*

y ¼ 3x þ 2 B Both equations are already solved for y, so all we need to do is to set them equal to each other. 4x þ 1 ¼ 3x þ 2 x¼1 Use either equation A or equation B to ﬁnd y when x ¼ 1. We will use A: y ¼ 4x þ 1 ¼ 4ð1Þ þ 1 ¼ 5. The solution is x ¼ 1 and y ¼ 5, or ð1ó 5Þ. We can see from the graphs in Fig. 10-3 that ð1ó 5Þ is the solution to the system.

Fig. 10-3.

357

CHAPTER 10 Systems of Equations

358

PRACTICE Solve the systems of equations. Put your solutions in the form of a point, ðxó yÞ. 1.

2.

3.

4.

2x þ 3y ¼ 1 A x 2y ¼ 3 B

xþy ¼3 A x þ 4y ¼ 0 B

2x þ y ¼ 2 A 3x þ 2y ¼ 4 B

y ¼xþ1 3x þ 2y ¼ 2

A B

SOLUTIONS 1. Solve for x in B: x ¼ 3 þ 2y and substitute this for x in A. 2x þ 3y ¼ 1 2ð3 þ 2yÞ þ 3y ¼ 1 6 þ 4y þ 3y ¼ 1 7y ¼ 7 y¼1

Put y ¼ 1 in x ¼ 3 þ 2y

x ¼ 3 þ 2ð1Þ ¼ 1 2.

The solution is ð1ó 1Þ. Solve for x in B: x ¼ 4y and substitute this for x in A. xþy¼3 4y þ y ¼ 3 3y ¼ 3 y ¼ 1

Put y ¼ 1 in x ¼ 4y

x ¼ 4ð1Þ ¼ 4 The solution is ð4ó 1Þ.

CHAPTER 10 3.

Systems of Equations

359

Solve for y in A: y ¼ 2 2x and substitute for y in B. 3x þ 2y ¼ 4 3x þ 2ð2 2xÞ ¼ 4 3x 4 4x ¼ 4 7x ¼ 0 x¼0

Put x ¼ 0 in y ¼ 2 2x

y ¼ 2 2ð0Þ ¼ 2 4.

The solution is ð0ó 2Þ Equation A is already solved for y. Substitute x þ 1 for y in B. 3x þ 2y ¼ 2 3x þ 2ðx þ 1Þ ¼ 2 3x þ 2x þ 2 ¼ 2 x ¼ 4 x¼4

Put x ¼ 4 in A

y¼xþ1¼4þ1¼5 The solution is ð4ó 5Þ.

Elimination by Addition Solving a system of equations by substitution can be more diﬃcult when none of the coeﬃcients is 1. Fortunately, there is another way. We can always add the two equations to eliminate one of the variables. Sometimes, though, we might need to multiply one or both equations by a number to make it work. EXAMPLE Solve the systems of equations. Put your solutions in the form of a point, ðxó yÞ. 2x 3y ¼ 16 A * 5x þ 3y ¼ 2 B Add the equations by adding like terms. Because we will be adding 3y to 3y, the y-term will cancel, leaving one equation with only one variable.

CHAPTER 10 Systems of Equations

360

2x 3y ¼ 16 5x þ 3y ¼ 2 7x þ 0y ¼ 14 x¼2 We can put x ¼ 2 into either A or B to ﬁnd y. We will put x ¼ 2 into A. 2x 3y ¼ 16 2ð2Þ 3y ¼ 16 3y ¼ 12 y ¼ 4 The solution is ð2ó 4Þ. PRACTICE Solve the systems of equations. Put your solutions in the form of a point, ðxó yÞ. 1.

2x þ 7y 2x 4y

2.

3.

¼ 19 A ¼ 10 B

15x y ¼ 9 2x þ y ¼ 8

A B

5x þ 4y ¼ 3 A 3x 4y ¼ 11 B

SOLUTIONS 1. 2x þ 7y ¼ 19 2x 4y ¼ 10

A +B

3y ¼ 9 y¼3 2x þ 7ð3Þ ¼ 19 Put y ¼ 3 in A x¼1 The solution is ð1ó 3Þ.

CHAPTER 10

Systems of Equations

2. 15x y ¼ 9

A

2x þ y ¼ 8

+B

17x ¼ 17 x¼1 15ð1Þ y ¼ 9

Put x ¼ 1 in A

y¼6 The solution is ð1ó 6Þ. 3. 5x þ 4y ¼ 3 3x 4y ¼ 11

A +B

8x ¼ 8 x ¼ 1 5ð1Þ þ 4y ¼ 3

Put x ¼ 1 in A

y ¼ 2 The solution is ð1ó 2Þ. Sometimes we need to multiply one or both equations by some number or numbers so that one of the variables cancels. Multiplying both sides of any equation by a nonzero number never changes the solution. EXAMPLES 3x þ 6y * 2x þ 6y

¼ 12 A ¼ 14 B

Because the coeﬃcients on y are the same, we only need to make one of them negative. Multiply either A or B by 1, then add. 3x 6y ¼ 12 2x þ 6y ¼ 14

A +B

x ¼ 2 x¼2 3ð2Þ þ 6y ¼ 12 Put x ¼ 2 in A y ¼ 3 The solution is ð2ó 3Þ.

361

CHAPTER 10 Systems of Equations

362 *

2x þ 7y ¼ 1 A 4x 2y ¼ 18 B

Several options will work. We could multiply A by 2 so that we could add 4x (in 2A) to 4x in B. We could multiply A by 2 and multiply B by 7 so that we could add 14y (in 2A) to 14y (in 7B). We could also divide B by 2 so that we could add 2x (in A) to 2x (in 12B). We will add 2A þ B. 4x 14y ¼ 2 2A 4x 2y ¼ 18

+B

16y ¼ 16 y ¼ 1 2x þ 7ð1Þ ¼ 1 Put y ¼ 1 in A x¼4 The solution is ð4ó 1Þ. PRACTICE Solve the systems of equations. 1.

2.

3.

3x þ 2y ¼ 12 4x þ 2y ¼ 2

6x 5y ¼ 1 3x 2y ¼ 1

15x þ 4y 5x þ 2y

SOLUTIONS 1. We will add A þ B. 3x 2y ¼ 12 4x þ 2y ¼ 2

A B A B

¼ 1 A ¼ 3 B

A +B

7x ¼ 14 x ¼ 2 3ð2Þ þ 2y ¼ 12 Put x ¼ 2 in A y¼3 The solution is ð2ó 3Þ.

CHAPTER 10 2.

Systems of Equations

We will compute A2B. 6x 5y ¼ 1 6x þ 4y ¼ 2

A 2B

y ¼ 1 y¼1 6x 5ð1Þ ¼ 1 Put y ¼ 1 in A x¼1 3.

The solution is ð1ó 1Þ. We will compute A2B. 15x þ 4y ¼ 1 10x 4y ¼ 6

A 2B

5x ¼ 5 x¼1 15ð1Þ þ 4y ¼ 1

Put x ¼ 1 in A

y ¼ 4 The solution is ð1ó 4Þ. Both equations in each of the following systems will need to be changed to eliminate one of the variables. EXAMPLES 8x 5y * 3x þ 2y

¼ 2 ¼7

A B

There are many options. Some are 3A 8B, 3A þ 8B, and 2A þ 5B. We will compute 2A þ 5B. 16x 10y ¼ 4

2A

15x þ 10y ¼ 35

+5B

31x ¼ 31 x¼1 8ð1Þ 5y ¼ 2 y¼2 The solution is ð1ó 2Þ.

Put x ¼ 1 in A

363

CHAPTER 10 Systems of Equations

364 ( *

2 3x 1 2x

14 y þ 25 y

¼ 25 72 1 ¼ 30

A B

First, we will eliminate the fractions. The lowest common denominator for A is 72, and the lowest common denominator for B is 30. 48x 18y ¼ 25

72A

15x þ 12y ¼ 1

30B

Now we will multiply the ﬁrst equation by 2 and the second by 3. 96x 36y ¼ 50 45x þ 36y ¼ 3 141x ¼ 47 47 1 x¼ ¼ 141 3 1 96 36y ¼ 50 3 1 y¼ 2 The solution is ð13 ó 12Þ. PRACTICE Solve the systems of equations. Put your solutions in the form of a point, ðxó yÞ. 1.

2.

3.

4.

5x 9y 3x þ 2y

¼ 26 A ¼ 14 B

7x þ 2y 2x þ 3y

¼1 ¼ 7

A B

3x þ 8y 5x þ 6y

¼ 12 ¼ 2

A B

(3

4x

þ 15 y

¼ 23 60

A

1 6x

14 y

¼ 19

B

CHAPTER 10

Systems of Equations

SOLUTIONS 1. 15x 27y ¼ 78

3A

15x 10y ¼ 70

5B

37y ¼ 148 y¼4 5x 9ð4Þ ¼ 26

Put y ¼ 4 in A

x¼2 The solution is ð2ó 4Þ. 2. 21x þ 6y ¼ 3 4x 6y ¼ 14

3A 2B

17x ¼ 17 x¼1 7ð1Þ þ 2y ¼ 1

Put x ¼ 1 in A

y ¼ 3 The solution is ð1ó 3Þ. 3. 9x þ 24y ¼ 36 20x 24y ¼ 8

3A 4B

11x ¼ 44 x ¼ 4 3ð4Þ þ 8y ¼ 12 Put x ¼ 4 in A y¼3 4.

The solution is ð4ó 3Þ. First clear the fractions. 45x þ 12y ¼ 23

60A

6x 9y ¼ 4

36B

365

CHAPTER 10 Systems of Equations

366

Add 3 times the ﬁrst to 4 times the second. 135x þ 36y ¼ 69 24x 36y ¼ 16 159x ¼ 53 x¼

53 1 ¼ 159 3

1 þ 12y ¼ 23 45 3 y¼

2 3

The solution is ð13 ó 23Þ.

Application to Problems Systems of two linear equations can be used to solve many kinds of word problems. In these problems, two facts will be given about two variables. Each pair of facts can be represented by a linear equation. EXAMPLES * A movie theater charges $4 for each child’s ticket and $6.50 for each adult’s ticket. One night 200 tickets were sold, amounting to $1100 in ticket sales. How many of each type of ticket was sold? Let x represent the number of child tickets sold and y the number of adult tickets sold. One equation comes from the fact that a total of 200 adult and child tickets were sold, giving us x þ y ¼ 200. The other equation comes from the fact that the ticket revenue was $1100. The ticket revenue from child tickets is 4x, and the ticket revenue from adult tickets is 6:50y. Their sum is 1100 giving us 4x þ 6:50y ¼ 1100.

4x þ 6:50y ¼ 1100 A xþy

¼ 200

B

CHAPTER 10

Systems of Equations

We could use either substitution or addition to solve this system. Substitution is a little faster. We will solve for x in B. x ¼ 200 y 4ð200 yÞ þ 6:50y ¼ 1100 Put 200 y into A 800 4y þ 6:50y ¼ 1100 y ¼ 120 x ¼ 200 y ¼ 200 120 ¼ 80

*

Eighty child tickets were sold, and 120 adult tickets were sold. A farmer had a soil test performed. The farmer was told that a ﬁeld needed 1080 pounds of Mineral A and 920 pounds of Mineral B. Two mixtures of fertilizers provide these minerals. Each bag of Brand I provides 25 pounds of Mineral A and 15 pounds of Mineral B. Brand II provides 20 pounds of Mineral A and 20 pounds of Mineral B. How many bags of each brand should the farmer buy? Let x represent the number of bags of Brand I and y represent the number of bags of Brand II. Then the number of pounds of Mineral A obtained from Brand I is 25x and the number of pounds of Mineral B is 15x. The number of pounds of Mineral A obtained from Brand II is 20y and the number of pounds of Mineral B is 20y. The farmer needs 1080 pounds of Mineral A, 25x pounds will come from Brand I and 20y will come from Brand II. This gives us the equation 25x þ 20y ¼ 1080. The farmer needs 920 pounds of Mineral B, 15x will come from Brand I and 20y will come from Brand II. This gives us the equation 15x þ 20y ¼ 920. 25x þ 20y ¼ 1080 A 15x þ 20y ¼ 920 B We will compute AB. 25x þ 20y ¼ 1080

A

15x 20y ¼ 920

B

10x ¼ 160 x ¼ 16 25ð16Þ þ 20y ¼ 1080 y ¼ 34 The farmer needs 16 bags of Brand I and 34 bags of Brand II.

367

CHAPTER 10 Systems of Equations

368 *

A furniture manufacturer has some discontinued fabric and trim in stock. It can use them on sofas and chairs. There are 160 yards of fabric and 110 yards of trim. Each sofa takes 6 yards of fabric and 4.5 yards of trim. Each chair takes 4 yards of fabric and 2 yards of trim. How many sofas and chairs should be produced in order to use all the fabric and trim? Let x represent the number of sofas to be produced and y the number of chairs. The manufacturer needs to use 160 yards of fabric, 6x will be used on sofas and 4y yards on chairs. This gives us the equation 6x þ 4y ¼ 160. There are 110 yards of trim, 4:5x yards will be used on the sofas and 2y on the chairs. This gives us the equation 4:5x þ 2y ¼ 110. 6x þ 4y ¼ 160 F 4:5x þ 2y ¼ 110 T We will compute F2T. 6x þ 4y ¼ 160 9x 4y ¼ 220

F 2T

3x ¼ 60 x ¼ 20 6ð20Þ þ 4y ¼ 160 y ¼ 10 The manufacturer needs to produce 20 sofas and 10 chairs. PRACTICE 1. A grocery store sells two diﬀerent brands of milk. The price for the name brand is $3.50 per gallon, and the price for the store’s brand is $2.25 per gallon. On one Saturday, 4500 gallons of milk were sold for sales of $12,875. How many of each brand were sold? 2. A cable company oﬀers two services—basic cable and premium cable. It charges $25 per month for the basic service and $45 per month for the premium service. Last month, it had 94,000 subscribers and had $3,030,000 in billing. How many subscribers used the premium service? 3. A gardener wants to add 39 pounds of Nutrient A and 16 pounds of Nutrient B to a garden. Each bag of Brand X provides 3 pounds of Nutrient A and 2 pounds of Nutrient B. Each bag of Brand Y

CHAPTER 10

4.

Systems of Equations

provides 4 pounds of Nutrient A and 1 pound of Nutrient B. How many bags of each brand should be bought? A clothing manufacturer has 70 yards of a certain fabric and 156 buttons in stock. It manufactures jackets and slacks that use this fabric and button. Each jacket requires 1 13 yards of fabric and 4 buttons. Each pair of slacks required 1 34 yards of fabric and 3 buttons. How many jackets and pairs of slacks should the manufacturer produce to use all the available fabric and buttons?

SOLUTIONS 1. Let x represent the number of gallons of the name brand sold and y represent the number of gallons of the store brand sold. The total number of gallons sold is 4500, giving us x þ y ¼ 4500. Revenue from the name brand is 3:50x and is 2:25y for the store brand. Total revenue is $12,875, giving us the equation 3:50x þ 2:25y ¼ 12ó875.

xþy

¼ 4500

3:50x þ 2:25y

¼ 12ó875

We will use substitution. x ¼ 4500 y 3:50ð4500 yÞ þ 2:25y ¼ 12ó875 y ¼ 2300 x ¼ 4500 y ¼ 4500 2300 ¼ 2200

2.

The store sold 2200 gallons of the name brand and 2300 gallons of the store brand. Let x represent the number of basic service subscribers and y the number of premium service subscribers. The total number of subscribers is 94,000, so x þ y ¼ 94ó000. Revenue from basic services is 25x and 45y from premium services. Billing was $3,030,000, giving us 25x þ 45y ¼ 3ó030ó000.

94ó000

xþy

¼

25x þ 45y

¼ 3ó030ó000

369

CHAPTER 10 Systems of Equations

370

We will use substitution. x ¼ 94ó000 y 25ð94ó000 yÞ þ 45y ¼ 3ó030ó000 y ¼ 34ó000 3.

There are 34,000 premium service subscribers. Let x represent the number of bags of Brand X and y the number of bags of Brand Y. The gardener will get 3x pounds of Nutrient A from x bags of Brand X and 4y pounds from y bags of Brand Y, so we need 3x þ 4y ¼ 39. The gardener will get 2x pounds of Nutrient B from x bags of Brand X and 1y pounds of Nutrient B from y bags of Brand Y, so we need 2x þ y ¼ 16. We will use substitution. y ¼ 16 2x 3x þ 4ð16 2xÞ ¼ 39 x¼5 y ¼ 16 2x ¼ 16 2ð5Þ ¼ 6

4.

The gardener needs to buy 5 bags of Brand X and 6 bags of Brand Y. Let x represent the number of jackets to be produced and y the number of pairs of slacks. To use 70 yards of fabric, we need 1 13 x þ 1 34 y ¼ 70. To use 156 buttons, we need 4x þ 3y ¼ 156. 4 7 x þ y ¼ 70 3 4

F

4x þ 3y ¼ 156

B

16x þ 21y ¼ 840

12F

16x 12y ¼ 624

4B

9y ¼ 216 y ¼ 24 4x þ 3ð24Þ ¼ 156 x ¼ 21 The manufacturer should produce 21 jackets and 24 pairs of slacks.

CHAPTER 10

Systems of Equations

371

Systems with No Solutions Two lines in the plane either intersect in one point, are parallel, or are really the same line. Until now, our lines have intersected in one point. When solving a system of two linear equations that are parallel or are the same line, both variables will cancel and we are left with a true statement such as ‘‘3 ¼ 3’’ or a false statement such as ‘‘5 ¼ 1.’’ We will get a true statement when the two lines are the same and a false statement when they are parallel. EXAMPLES 2x 3y

¼6

A

4x þ 6y ¼ 8

B

*

4x 6y ¼ 12 2A 4x þ 6y ¼ 8

+B

0 ¼ 20 This is a false statement, so the lines are parallel. They are sketched in Fig. 10-4.

Fig. 10-4.

*

y ¼ 23 x 1 2x 3y ¼ 3

CHAPTER 10 Systems of Equations

372

We will use substitution. 2 2x 3 x 1 ¼ 3 3 2x 2x þ 3 ¼ 3 0¼0 Because 0 ¼ 0 is a true statement, these lines are the same.

Systems Containing Nonlinear Equations When the system of equations is not a pair of lines, there could be no solutions, one solution, or more than one solution. The same methods used for pairs of lines will work with other kinds of systems. EXAMPLES y ¼ x2 2x 3 * 3x y ¼ 7

A B

Elimination by addition would not work to eliminate x2 because B has no x2 term to cancel x2 in A. Solving for x in B and substituting it in for x in A would work to eliminate x. Both addition and substitution will work to eliminate y. We will use addition to eliminate y. y ¼ x2 2x 3

A

3x y ¼ 7

B

3x ¼ x2 2x þ 4 0 ¼ x2 5x þ 4 0 ¼ ðx 1Þðx 4Þ The solutions occur when x ¼ 1 or x ¼ 4. We need to ﬁnd two y-values. We will let x ¼ 1 and x ¼ 4 in A. y ¼ 12 2ð1Þ 3 ¼ 4;

(1, 4) is one solution.

y ¼ 42 2ð4Þ 3 ¼ 5;

(4, 5) is the other solution.

CHAPTER 10

Systems of Equations

373

We can see from the graphs in Fig. 10-5 that these solutions are correct.

Fig. 10-5.

(

x2 þ y2 ¼ 25

*

y¼

13 x2

þ7

A B

We could solve for x2 in A and substitute this in B. We cannot add the equations to eliminate y or y2 because A does not have a y term to cancel y in B and B does not have a y2 term to cancel y2 in A. We will move 13 x2 to the left side of B and multiply B by 3. Then we can add this to A to eliminate x2 . 1 2 x þy¼7 3

B

x2 þ y2 ¼ 25

A

x2 3y ¼ 21 y2 3y ¼ 4 y2 3y 4 ¼ 0 ð y 4Þð y þ 1Þ ¼ 0

3B

CHAPTER 10 Systems of Equations

374

The solutions occur when y ¼ 4ó 1. Put y ¼ 4ó 1 in A to ﬁnd their x-values. x2 þ 42 ¼ 25 x2 ¼ 9 x ¼ 3; 2

(3, 4) and (3, 4) are solutions.

2

x þ ð1Þ ¼ 25 x2 ¼ 24 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ x ¼ 24 ¼ 2 6; *

x2 þ y2 ¼ 4 y ¼ 2=x

pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ ð2 6ó 1Þ and (2 6ó 1) are solutions.

A B

Addition will not work on this system but substitution will. We will substitute y ¼ 2=x for y in A. 2 2 ¼4 x þ x 2

4 ¼4 x2 4 x2 x2 þ 2 ¼ x2 ð4Þ x x2 þ

x4 þ 4 ¼ 4x2 x4 4x2 þ 4 ¼ 0 ðx2 2Þðx2 2Þ ¼ 0 x2 ¼ 2 pﬃﬃﬃ x¼ 2 pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ We will put x ¼ 2 and x ¼ 2 in y ¼ 2=x. pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ 2 2 2 2 2 pﬃﬃﬃ y ¼ pﬃﬃﬃ ¼ pﬃﬃﬃpﬃﬃﬃ ¼ ¼ 2; ð 2ó 2Þ is a solution. 2 2 2 2 pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ 2 2 2 2 2 ¼ 2; ð 2ó 2 ) is a solution. y ¼ pﬃﬃﬃ ¼ pﬃﬃﬃpﬃﬃﬃ ¼ 2 2 2 2

CHAPTER 10

Systems of Equations

375

PRACTICE Solve the systems of equations. Put your solutions in the form of a point, ðxó yÞ. 1.

2.

3.

A B

x2 þ y2 þ 6x 2y ¼ 5 y ¼ 2x 5

4.

y ¼ x2 4 xþy¼8

x2 y2 x2 þ y2

¼16 ¼16

A B

4x2 þ y2 ¼ 5 y ¼ 1=x

A B

A B

SOLUTIONS 1. y ¼ x2 4 x y ¼ 8

A B

x ¼ x2 12 0 ¼ x2 þ x 12 ¼ ðx þ 4Þðx 3Þ There are solutions for x ¼ 4 and x ¼ 3. Put these in A. y ¼ ð4Þ2 4 ¼ 12; y ¼ 32 4 ¼ 5; 2.

ð4ó 12Þ is a solution.

ð3ó 5Þ is a solution.

Substitute 2x 5 for y in A. x2 þ ð2x 5Þ2 þ 6x 2ð2x 5Þ ¼ 5 x2 þ 4x2 þ 20x þ 25 þ 6x þ 4x þ 10 ¼ 5 5x2 þ 30x þ 40 ¼ 0 Divide by 5 x2 þ 6x þ 8 ¼ 0 ðx þ 4Þðx þ 2Þ ¼ 0

CHAPTER 10 Systems of Equations

376

There are solutions for x ¼ 4 and x ¼ 2. We will put these in B instead of A because there is less computation to do in B. y ¼ 2ð4Þ 5 ¼ 3;

ð4ó 3Þ is a solution.

y ¼ 2ð2Þ 5 ¼ 1;

ð2ó 1Þ is a solution.

3. x2 y2 ¼ 16

A

x2 þ y2 ¼ 16

+B

2x2 ¼ 32 x2 ¼ 16 x ¼ 4 Put x ¼ 4 and x ¼ 4 in A.

4.

ð4Þ2 y2 ¼ 16

42 y2 ¼ 16

16 y2 ¼ 16

16 y2 ¼ 16

y2 ¼ 0

y2 ¼ 0

y¼0

y¼0

The solutions are ð4ó 0Þ and ð4ó 0Þ. Substitute 1=x for y in A. 2 1 ¼5 x 1 2 2 x 4x þ 2 ¼ x2 ð5Þ x 4x2 þ

4x4 þ 1 ¼ 5x2 4x4 5x2 þ 1 ¼ 0 ð4x2 1Þðx2 1Þ ¼ 0 ð2x 1Þð2x þ 1Þðx 1Þðx þ 1Þ ¼ 0

CHAPTER 10

Systems of Equations

377

The solutions are x ¼ 12 (from 2x 1 ¼ 0 and 2x þ 1 ¼ 0) and x ¼ 1. Put these in B. 1 1 ¼ 2; ó 2 is a solution. y¼ 1=2 2 1 1 y¼ ¼ 2; ó 2 is a solution. ð1=2Þ 2 1 y ¼ ¼ 1; ð1ó 1Þ is a solution. 1 1 y¼ ¼ 1; ð1ó 1Þ is a solution. 1

Systems of Inequalities The solution (if any) for a system of inequalities is usually a region in the plane. The solution to a polynomial inequality (the only kind considered in this book) is the region above or below the curve. We will begin with linear inequalities. When sketching the graph for an inequality, we will use a solid graph for ‘‘’’ and ‘‘’’ inequalities, and a dashed graph for ‘‘’’ inequalities. We can decide which side of the graph to shade by choosing any point not on the graph itself. We will put this point into the inequality. If it makes the inequality true, then we will shade the side that has that point. If it makes the inequality false, we will shade the other side. EXAMPLES * 2x þ 3y 6 We will sketch the line 2x þ 3y ¼ 6, using a solid line because the inequality is ‘‘.’’

Fig. 10-6.

CHAPTER 10 Systems of Equations

378

We will always use the origin ð0ó 0Þ in our inequalities unless the graph goes through the origin. Does ð0ó 0Þ make 2x þ 3y 6 true? 2ð0Þ þ 3ð0Þ 6 is a true statement, so we will shade the side that has the origin.

Fig. 10-7.

*

x 2y > 4 We will sketch the line x 2y ¼ 4 using a dashed line because the inequality is ‘‘>.’’

Fig. 10-8.

Now we need to decide which side of the line to shade. When we put ð0ó 0Þ in x 2y > 4, we get the false statement 0 2ð0Þ > 4. We need to shade the side of the line that does not have the origin.

CHAPTER 10

Systems of Equations

Fig. 10-9.

*

Every point in the shaded region is a solution to the inequality. y < 3x We use a dashed line to sketch the line y ¼ 3x. Because the line goes through ð0ó 0Þ, we cannot use it to determine which side of the line to shade. This is because any point on the line makes the equality true. We want to know where the inequality is true. The point ð1ó 0Þ is not on the line, so we can use it. 0 < 3ð1Þ is true so we will shade the side of the line that has the point ð1ó 0Þ, which is the right-hand side.

Fig. 10-10.

*

x 3 The line x ¼ 3 is a vertical line through x ¼ 3. Because we want x 3 we will shade to the right of the line.

379

CHAPTER 10 Systems of Equations

380

Fig. 10-11. *

y1 y 1

SOLUTIONS 1.

Fig. 10-13.

2.

Fig. 10-14.

381

CHAPTER 10 Systems of Equations

382 3.

Fig. 10-15.

4.

Fig. 10-16.

5.

Fig. 10-17.

CHAPTER 10

Systems of Equations

Graphing the solution region for nonlinear inequalities is done the same way—graph the inequality, using a solid graph for ‘‘’’ and ‘‘’’ inequalities and a dashed graph for ‘‘’’ inequalities, then check a point to see which side of the graph to shade. EXAMPLES * y x2 x 2 The equality is y ¼ x2 x 2 ¼ ðx 2Þðx þ 1Þ. The graph for this equation is a parabola.

Fig. 10-18.

Because ð0ó 0Þ is not on the graph, we can use it to decide which side to shade; 0 02 0 2 is false, so we shade below the graph, the side that does not contain ð0ó 0Þ.

Fig. 10-19. *

y > ðx þ 2Þðx 2Þðx 4Þ When we check ð0ó 0Þ in the inequality, we get the false statement 0 > ð0 þ 2Þð0 2Þðx 4Þ. We will shade above the graph, the region that does not contain ð0ó 0Þ.

383

CHAPTER 10 Systems of Equations

384

Fig. 10-20.

PRACTICE Graph the solution. 1. 2. 3. 4.

y x2 4 y > x3 y < jxj y ðx 3Þðx þ 1Þðx þ 3Þ

SOLUTIONS 1.

Fig. 10-21.

CHAPTER 10

Systems of Equations

2.

Fig. 10-22.

3.

Fig. 10-23.

385

CHAPTER 10 Systems of Equations

386 4.

Fig. 10-24.

The solution (if there is one) to a system of two or more inequalities is the region that is part of each solution for the individual inequalities. For example, if we have a system of two inequalities and shade the solution to one inequality in blue and the other in yellow, then the solution to the system would be the region in green. EXAMPLES xy 1 Sketch the solution for each inequality.

Fig. 10-25.

CHAPTER 10

Systems of Equations

Fig. 10-26.

The region that is in both solutions is above and between the lines.

Fig. 10-27.

(

y 4 x2

*

x 7y 4 The ﬁrst inequality is shaded vertically and the second, horizontally (see Fig. 10-28). The region that is in both solutions is above the line and inside the parabola (see Fig. 10-29). Because a solid line indicates that the points on the graph are also solutions, to be absolutely accurate, the correct solution uses dashes for the parts of the graphs that are not on the border of the shaded region (see Fig. 10-30). We will not quibble with this technicality here.

387

388

CHAPTER 10 Systems of Equations

Fig. 10-28.

Fig. 10-29.

Fig. 10-30.

CHAPTER 10

*

Systems of Equations

8 > < 2x þ y 5 x0 > : y0 The inequalities x 0 and y 0 mean that we only need the top right corner of the graph. These inequalities are common in word problems.

Fig. 10-31.

The solution to the system is the region in the top right corner of the graph below the line 2x þ y ¼ 5.

Fig. 10-32.

389

CHAPTER 10 Systems of Equations

390

PRACTICE Sketch the solutions to the inequalities. 1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

xþy4

2x y 6 x3

y > x2 þ 2x 3 xþy <x þ y 4 *

> :

x1

yx

Fig. 10-39.

The region for x 1 is to the right of the line x ¼ 1, so we will erase the region to the left of x ¼ 1.

Fig. 10-40.

393

CHAPTER 10 Systems of Equations

394

The solution to y x is the region below the line y ¼ x, so we will erase the shading above the line y ¼ x. The shaded region in Fig. 10-41 is the solution for the system.

Fig. 10-41.

*

8 > y > x2 16 > > > > <x < 2 > > y < 5 > > > : x þ y < 8 We will begin with y ¼ x2 16.

Fig. 10-42.

CHAPTER 10

Systems of Equations

The solution to x < 2 is the region to the left of the line x ¼ 2. We will erase the shading to the right of x ¼ 2.

Fig. 10-43.

The solution to y < 5 is the region below the line y ¼ 5. We will erase the shading above the line y ¼ 5.

Fig. 10-44.

The solution to x þ y < 8 is the region below the line x þ y ¼ 8, so we will erase the shading above the line. The solution to the system is shown in Fig. 10-45.

395

CHAPTER 10 Systems of Equations

396

Fig. 10-45.

PRACTICE Sketch the solutions to the inequalities. 1. 8 < 2x þ y 1 x þ 2y 4 : 5x 3y 15 2. 8 < x þ 2y 6 yx : 5x þ 2y 10 3.

8 2 > : y x

4. 8 x þ 2y < 10 > > > > > < 2x þ y < 8 y<x > > > x0 > > : y0

CHAPTER 10

Systems of Equations

SOLUTIONS 1.

Fig. 10-46.

2.

Fig. 10-47.

397

CHAPTER 10 Systems of Equations

398 3.

Fig. 10-48.

4.

Fig. 10-49.

Chapter 10 Review In some of the following problems, you will be asked to ﬁnd such quantities as x þ 2y for a system of equations. Solve the system and put the solution in

CHAPTER 10

Systems of Equations

399

the formula. For example, if the solution is x ¼ 3 and y ¼ 5, x þ 2y becomes 3 þ 2ð5Þ ¼ 13. 1.

What is x þ y for the system? x 2y

¼ 1

4x þ 2y ¼ 16 a) 2 2.

b) 3

c) 4

d) 5

What is x þ y for the system? y ¼ 4x 10 x þ 2y ¼ 11 a) 4

3.

b) 5

c) 6

d) 7

What is 2x þ y for the system? y ¼ 3x þ 1 ¼xþ9

y a) 3 4.

b) 4

c) 5

d) 6

What is x þ 2y for the system? 4x 3y ¼ 1 2x þ 5y ¼ 7 a) 3

5.

b) 4

d) 6

What is x þ y for the system? ( x2 þ y2

¼9

x2 y2

¼9

a) 2 and 5 6.

c) 5

b) 3 and 3

What is x þ y for the system? 2x y y a) 2

7.

b) 3

c) 4

c) 4 and 4

d) 1 and 3

¼ 5 ¼ 4 x2

d) 5

The graph in Fig. 10-50 is the solution to which inequality? a) y > 2x þ 2 b) y 2x þ 2 c) y < 2x þ 2 d) y 2x þ 2

CHAPTER 10 Systems of Equations

400

Fig. 10-50.

8.

The graph in Fig. 10-51 is the solution to which inequality? b) y x2 2x þ 1 a) y > x2 2x þ 1 2 d) y x2 2x þ 1 c) y < x 2x þ 1

Fig. 10-51.

9.

The graph in Fig. 10-52 is the solution to which system? a) ( y x2 þ 4x yx

CHAPTER 10

Systems of Equations

b)

(

401

y x2 þ 4x yx

c)

(

y x2 þ 4x yx

d)

(

y x2 þ 4x yx

Fig. 10-52.

SOLUTIONS 1. d) 2. b)

3. a)

4. a)

5. b)

6. a)

7. c)

8. b)

9. a)

11

CHAPTER

Exponents and Logarithms

Many things in nature and business grow (and decay) exponentially. To see how exponential growth and decay work, let us imagine a small country where no one moves away, no one moves in, and everyone marries and stays married. Suppose the population this year is 100,000. What will the population be in two generations if every couple has exactly two children? The population remains 100,000 in the next generation and 100,000 in the generation after that. If every couple has exactly one child, the population would decrease to 50,000 (a loss of 50,000) in the next generation and would decrease to 25,000 (a loss of 25,000) in the following generation. If every couple has four children, the population would increase to 200,000 (an increase of 100,000) in the next generation and 400,000 (an increase of 200,000) in the generation after that. The decreases get smaller with each generation, and the increases get larger. This eﬀect is called exponential growth and decay.

402 Copyright © 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click here for terms of use.

CHAPTER 11

Exponents and Logarithms

An investment of money with compounded interest works the same way. For a ﬁxed percentage increase per year, the exponential growth formula is A ¼ Pð1 þ rÞt , where P is the initial amount, r is the percentage increase (as a decimal number), and t is the number of years. The formula for exponential decay is the same, except r is negative. The following example will illustrate how compounding works. Suppose $100 is deposited in an account that earns 5% interest, compounded annually. Compounded annually means that interest is paid at the end of one year and that this interest earns interest in the next year. How much would be in this account after four years? After one year, the account has grown to 100 þ 0:05ð100Þ ¼ 100 þ 5 ¼ $105. In the second year, the original $100 earns 5% interest plus the $5 earns 5% interest: 105 þ ð105Þð0:05Þ ¼ $110:25. Now this amount earns interest in the third year: 110:25 þ ð110:25Þð0:05Þ ¼ $115:76. Finally, this amount earns interest in the fourth year: 115:76 þ ð115:76Þð0:05Þ ¼ $121:55. If interest is not compounded, that is, the interest does not earn interest, the account would only be worth $120. The extra $1.55 is interest earned on interest. Compound growth is not dramatic over the short term but it is over time. If $100 is left in an account earning 5% interest, compounded annually, for 20 years instead of four years, the diﬀerence between the compound growth and noncompound growth is a little more interesting. After 20 years, the compound amount is $265.33 compared to $200 for simple interest (noncompound growth). A graph of the growth of each type over 40 years is given in Fig. 11-1. The line is the growth for simple interest, and the curve is the growth for compound interest.

Fig. 11-1.

403

CHAPTER 11 Exponents and Logarithms

404

EXAMPLES Find the compound amount. *

$5000 after three years, earning 6% interest, compounded annually We will use the formula A ¼ Pð1 þ rÞt . P ¼ 5000, r ¼ 0:06, and t ¼ 3. We want to know A, the compound amount. A ¼ 5000ð1 þ 0:06Þ3 ¼ 5000ð1:06Þ3 ¼ 5000ð1:191016Þ 5955:08

*

The compound amount is $5955.08. $10,000 after eight years, 7 14% interest, compounded annually A ¼ 10;000ð1 þ 0:0725Þ8 ¼ 10;000ð1:0725Þ8 10;000ð1:7505656Þ 17;505:66: The compound amount is $17,505.66

PRACTICE Find the compound amount. 1. 2. 3.

$800 after ten years, 6 12% interest, compounded annually $1200 after six years, 9 12% interest, compounded annually A 20-year-old college student opens a retirement account with $2000. If her account pays 8 14% interest, compounded annually, how much will be in the account when she reaches age 65?

SOLUTIONS 1. A ¼ 800ð1 þ 0:065Þ10 ¼ 800ð1:065Þ10 800ð1:877137Þ 1501:71 The compound amount is $1501.71. 2. A ¼ 1200ð1 þ 0:095Þ6 ¼ 1200ð1:095Þ6 1200ð1:72379Þ 2068:55 The compound amount is $2068.55. 3. A ¼ 2000ð1 þ 0:0825Þ45 ¼ 2000ð1:0825Þ45 2000ð35:420585Þ 70;841:17 The account will be worth $70,841.17.

CHAPTER 11

Exponents and Logarithms

Many investments pay more often than once a year, some paying interest daily. Instead of using the annual interest rate, we need to use the interest rate per period, and instead of using the number of years, we need to use the number of periods. If there are n compounding periods per year, then the interest rate per period is r=n and the total number of periods is nt. The compound amount formula becomes

r nt : A¼P 1þ n EXAMPLES Find the compound amount. *

$5000 after three years, earning 6% annual interest (a) compounded semiannually (b) compounded monthly For (a), interest compounded semiannually means that it is compounded twice each year, so n ¼ 2. 0:06 2ð3Þ A ¼ 5000 1 þ ¼ 5000ð1:03Þ6 5000ð1:194052Þ 5970:26 2 The compound amount is $5970.26. For (b), interest compounded monthly means that it is compounded 12 times each year, so n ¼ 12. 0:06 12ð3Þ ¼ 5000ð1:005Þ36 5000ð1:19668Þ 5983:40 A ¼ 5000 1 þ 12

*

The compound amount is $5983.40. $10,000 after eight years, earning 7 14% annual interest, compounded weekly. Interest that is paid weekly is paid 52 times each year, so n ¼ 52. 0:0725 52ð8Þ A ¼ 10;000 1 þ 52 10;000ð1:001394231Þ416 10;000ð1:785317Þ 17;853:17 The compound amount is $17,853.17.

405

CHAPTER 11 Exponents and Logarithms

406

PRACTICE Find the compound amount. 1.

2. 3.

$800 after ten years, earning 6 14% annual interest (a) compounded quarterly (b) compounded weekly $9000 after ﬁve years, earning 6 34% annual interest, compounded daily (assume 365 days per year). A 20-year-old college student opens a retirement account with $2000. If she earns 8 14% annual interest, compounded daily, how much will be in the account when she is 65? (Assume 365 days per year.)

SOLUTIONS 1. (a) n ¼ 4 0:0625 4ð10Þ A ¼ 800 1 þ 4 ¼ 800ð1:015625Þ40 800ð1:85924Þ 1487:39 The compound amount is $1487.39. (b) n ¼ 52 0:0625 52ð10Þ A ¼ 800 1 þ 52 ¼ 800ð1:00120192Þ520 800ð1:86754Þ 1494:04 2.

The compound amount is $1494.04. n ¼ 365 0:0675 365ð5Þ A ¼ 9000 1 þ 365 9000ð1:000184932Þ1825 9000ð1:4013959Þ 12;612:56 The compound amount is $12,612.56.

3. 0:0825 365ð45Þ 2000ð1:000226027Þ16;425 2000 1 þ 365 2000ð40:93889Þ 81;877:78 The $2000 investment will be worth $81,877.78 when she is 65 years old.

CHAPTER 11

Exponents and Logarithms

The more often interest is compounded per year, the more interest is earned. An amount of $1000 earning 8% annual interest, compounded annually, is worth $1080 after one year. If interest is compounded quarterly, it is worth $1081.60 after one year. And if interest is compounded daily, it is worth $1083.28 after one year. What if interest is compounded each hour? Each second? It turns out that the most this investment could be worth (at 8% interest) is $1083.29, when interest is compounded each and every instant of time. Each instant of time, a tiny amount of interest is earned. This is called continuous compounding. The formula for the compound amount for interest compounded continuously is A ¼ Pert , where Aó Pó r, and t are the same quantities as before. The letter e stands for a constant called Euler’s number. It is approximately 2.718281828. You probably have an e or ex key on your calculator. Although e is irrational, it can be approximated by rational numbers of the form

1 1þ m

m ó

where m is a large rational number. The larger m is, the better the approximation for e. If we make the substitution m ¼ n=r and use some algebra, we can see how ð1 þ r=nÞnt is very close to ert , for large values of n. If interest is compounded every minute, n would be 525,600, a rather large number! EXAMPLE * Find the compound amount of $5000 after eight years, earning 12% annual interest, compounded continuously. A ¼ 5000e0:12ð8Þ ¼ 5000e0:96 5000ð2:611696Þ 13;058:48 The compound amount is $13,058.48. PRACTICE Find the compound amount. 1. 2. 3.

$800 after 10 years, earning 6 12% annual interest, compounded continuously. $9000, after 5 years, earning 6 34% annual interest, compounded continuously. A 20-year-old college student opens a retirement account with $2000. If she earns 8 14% annual interest, compounded continuously, how much will the account be worth by the time she is 65?

407

CHAPTER 11 Exponents and Logarithms

408 SOLUTIONS 1.

A ¼ 800e0:065ð10Þ ¼ 800e0:65 800ð1:915540829Þ 1532:43 The compound amount is $1532.43. 2. A ¼ 9000e0:0675ð5Þ ¼ 9000e0:3375 9000ð1:401439608Þ 12;612:96 The compound amount is =$12;612:96. 3. A ¼ 2000e0:0825ð45Þ ¼ 2000e3:7125 2000ð40:95606882Þ 81;912:14 The account will be worth $81,912.14 by the time she is 65. The compound growth formula for continuously compounded interest is used for other growth and decay problems. The general exponential growth model is nðtÞ ¼ n0 ert , where nðtÞ replaces A and n0 replaces P. Their meanings are the same—nðtÞ is still the compound growth, and n0 is still the beginning amount. The variable t represents time in this formula; however, time will not always be measured in years. The growth rate and t need to have the same unit of measure. If the growth rate is in days, then t needs to be in days. If the growth rate is in hours, then t needs to be in hours, and so on. If the ‘‘population’’ is getting smaller, then the formula is nðtÞ ¼ n0 ert . EXAMPLES * The population of a city is estimated to be growing at the rate of 10% per year. In 2000, its population was 160,000. Estimate its population in the year 2005. The year 2000 corresponds to t ¼ 0, so the year 2005 corresponds to t ¼ 5; n0 , the population in year t ¼ 0, is 160,000. The population is growing at the rate of 10% per year, so r ¼ 0:10. The formula nðtÞ ¼ n0 ert becomes nðtÞ ¼ 160;000e0:10t . We want to ﬁnd nðtÞ for t ¼ 5. nð5Þ ¼ 160;000e0:10ð5Þ 263;795

*

The city’s population is expected to be 264,000 in the year 2005 (estimates and projections are normally rounded oﬀ ). A county is losing population at the rate of 0:7% per year. If the population in 2001 is 1,000,000, what is it expected to be in the year 2008?

CHAPTER 11

Exponents and Logarithms

409

n0 ¼ 1ó000ó000, t ¼ 0 is the year 2001, t ¼ 7 is the year 2008, and r ¼ 0:007. Because the county is losing population, we will use the decay model: nðtÞ ¼ n0 ert . The model for this county’s population is nðtÞ ¼ 1ó000ó000e0:007t . We want to ﬁnd nðtÞ for t ¼ 7. nð7Þ ¼ 1ó000ó000e0:007ð7Þ 952ó181

*

The population is expected to be 952,000 in the year 2008. In an experiment, a culture of bacteria grew at the rate of 35% per hour. If 1000 bacteria were present at 10:00, how many were present at 10:45? n0 ¼ 1000, r ¼ 0:35, t is the number of hours after 10:00. The growth model becomes nðtÞ ¼ 1000e0:35t . We want to ﬁnd nðtÞ for 45 minutes, or t ¼ 0:75 hours. nð0:75Þ ¼ 1000e0:35ð0:75Þ ¼ 1000e0:2625 1300 At 10:45, there were approximately 1300 bacteria present in the culture.

PRACTICE 1. The population of a city in the year 2002 is 2,000,000 and is expected to grow at 1.5% per year. Estimate the city’s population for the year 2012. 2. A school is built for a capacity of 1500 students. The student population is growing at the rate of 6% per year. If 1000 students attend when it opens, will the school be at capacity in seven years? 3. A construction company estimates that a piece of equipment is worth $150,000 when new. If it lost value continuously at an annual rate of 10%, what would its value be in 10 years? 4. Under certain conditions a culture of bacteria grows at the rate of about 200% per hour. If 8000 bacteria are present in a dish, how many will be in the dish after 30 minutes? SOLUTIONS 1. n0 ¼ 2ó000ó000, r ¼ 0:015 The growth formula 0:015t and we want to ﬁnd nðtÞ when t ¼ 10. 2ó000ó000e

is

nðtÞ ¼

nð10Þ ¼ 2ó000ó000e0:015ð10Þ 2ó323ó668 The population in the year 2012 is expected to be about 2.3 million.

CHAPTER 11 Exponents and Logarithms

410 2.

n0 ¼ 1000, r ¼ 0:06 The growth formula is nðtÞ ¼ 1000e0:06t . We want to ﬁnd nðtÞ when t ¼ 7. nð7Þ ¼ 1000e0:06ð7Þ 1522

3.

Yes, the school will be at capacity in seven years. n0 ¼ 150ó000, r ¼ 0:10 We will use the decay formula because value is being lost. The formula is nðtÞ ¼ 150ó000e0:10t . We want to ﬁnd nðtÞ when t ¼ 10. nð10Þ ¼ 150ó000e0:10ð10Þ 55ó181:92

4.

The equipment will be worth about $55,000 after 10 years. n0 ¼ 8000, r ¼ 2 The growth formula is nðtÞ ¼ 8000e2t . We want to ﬁnd nðtÞ when t ¼ 0:5. nð0:5Þ ¼ 8000e2ð0:5Þ 21ó746 About 21,700 bacteria will be present after 30 minutes.

A basic exponential function is of the form f ðxÞ ¼ ax , where a is any positive number except 1. The graph of f ðxÞ ¼ ax comes in two shapes depending whether 0 < a < 1 (a is positive but smaller than 1) or a > 1. Figure 11-2 shows the graph of f ðxÞ ¼ ð12Þx and Fig. 11-3 is the graph of f ðxÞ ¼ 2x . We can sketch the graph of f ðxÞ ¼ ax by plotting points for x ¼ 3ó x ¼ 2ó x ¼ 1ó x ¼ 0ó x ¼ 1ó x ¼ 2, and x ¼ 3. If a is too large or too small, points for x ¼ 3 and x ¼ 3 might be too awkward to graph because

Fig. 11-2.

CHAPTER 11

Exponents and Logarithms

Fig. 11-3.

their y-values are too large or too close to 0. Before we begin sketching graphs, we will review the following exponent laws. n 1 1 n ¼ an a ¼ n a a EXAMPLE Sketch the graphs. *

f ðxÞ ¼ 2:5x We will begin with x ¼ 3ó 2ó 1ó 0ó 1ó 2, and 3 in a table of values (Table 11-1). Table 11-1 x 3

f ðxÞ 0:064 ð2:53 ¼ 2:51 3 Þ (Too hard to plot)

2

0:16 ð2:52 ¼ 2:51 2 Þ

1

1 0:40 ð2:51 ¼ 2:5 Þ

0

1

1

2:5

2

6:25

3

15:625

411

CHAPTER 11 Exponents and Logarithms

412

Fig. 11-4. *

gðxÞ ¼ ð13Þx The values plotted are given in Table 11-2. Table 11-2 x

f ðxÞ

3

27 (ð13Þ3 ¼ 33 Þ

2

9 (ð13Þ2 ¼ 32 Þ

1

3 (ð13Þ1 ¼ 31 Þ

0

1

1

0:33

2

0:11

3

0:037 (too hard to plot)

Fig. 11-5.

CHAPTER 11

Exponents and Logarithms

PRACTICE Sketch the graphs. 1. 2. 3.

f ðxÞ ¼ ð32Þx gðxÞ ¼ ð23Þx hðxÞ ¼ ex (Use the e or ex key on your calculator.)

SOLUTIONS 1. The values plotted are given in Table 11-3 Table 11-3

2.

x

f ðxÞ

3

8 Þ 0:30 ðð32Þ3 ¼ ð23Þ3 ¼ 27

2

0:44 ðð32Þ2 ¼ ð23Þ2 ¼ 49Þ

1

0:67 ðð32Þ1 ¼ 23Þ

0

1

1

1:5

2

2:25

3

3:375

Fig. 11-6.

The values plotted are given in Table 11-4. Table 11-4 x

f ðxÞ

3

3:375 ðð23Þ3 ¼ ð32Þ3 Þ

2

2:25 ðð23Þ2 ¼ ð32Þ2 Þ

1

1:5 ðð23Þ1 ¼ 32Þ

0

1

1

0:67

2

0:44

3

0:30

413

CHAPTER 11 Exponents and Logarithms

414

Fig. 11-7.

3.

The values plotted are given in Table 11-5. Table 11-5 x

f ðxÞ

3

0:05

2

0:14

1

0:37

0

1

1

2:72

2

7:39

3

20:09

Fig. 11-8.

CHAPTER 11

Exponents and Logarithms

415

Transformations of the graphs of exponential functions behave in the same way as transformations of other functions. *

*

* *

The graph of f ðxÞ ¼ 2x is the graph of y ¼ 2x reﬂected about the x-axis (ﬂipped upside down). The graph of gðxÞ ¼ 2x is the graph of y ¼ 2x reﬂected about the y-axis (ﬂipped sideways). The graph of hðxÞ ¼ 2xþ1 is the graph of y ¼ 2x shifted to the left 1 unit. The graph of f ðxÞ ¼ 3 þ 2x is the graph of y ¼ 2x shifted down 3 units.

Present Value Suppose a couple wants to give their newborn grandson a gift of $50,000 on his 20th birthday. They can earn 7 12% interest, compounded annually. How much should they deposit now so that it grows to $50,000 in 20 years? To answer this question, we will use the formula A ¼ Pð1 þ rÞt , where we know that A ¼ 50ó000 but are looking for P. 50ó000 ¼ Pð1 þ 0:075Þ20 ¼ Pð1:075Þ20 50ó000 ¼ P ¼ 11;770:66 ð1:075Þ20 The couple should deposit $11,770.66 now so that the investment grows to $50,000 in 20 years. We say that $11,770.66 is the present value of $50,000 due in 20 years, earning 7 12% interest, compounded annually. The present value formula is P ¼ Að1 þ rÞt for interest compounded annually, and P ¼ Að1 þ ðr=nÞÞnt for interest compounded n times per year. EXAMPLE * Find the present value of $20,000 due in 8 12 years, earning 6% annual interest, compounded monthly. 0:06 12ð8:5Þ ¼ 20ó000ð1:005Þ102 12ó025:18 P ¼ 20ó000 1 þ 12 The present value is $12,025.18.

CHAPTER 11 Exponents and Logarithms

416

PRACTICE 1. Find the present value of $9000 due in ﬁve years, earning 7% annual interest, compounded annually. 2. Find the present value of $50,000 due in 10 years, earning 4% annual interest, compounded quarterly. 3. Find the present value of $125,000 due in 4 12 years, earning 6 12% annual interest, compounded weekly. SOLUTIONS 1. P ¼ 9000ð1:07Þ5 6416:88 The present value is $6416.88. 2. 0:04 4ð10Þ P ¼ 50ó000 1 þ ¼ 50ó000ð1:01Þ40 33ó582:66 4 The present value is $33,582.66. 3. 0:065 52ð4:5Þ P ¼ 125ó000 1 þ 52 ¼ 125ó000ð1:00125Þ234 93ó316:45 The present value is $93,316.45.

Logarithms A common question for investors is, ‘‘How long will it take for my investment to double?’’ If $1000 is invested so that it earns 8% interest, compounded annually, how long will it take to grow to $2000? To answer the question using the compound growth formula, we need to solve for t in the equation 2000 ¼ 1000ð1:08Þt . We will divide both sides of the equation by 1000 to get 2 ¼ ð1:08Þt . Now what? It does not make sense to ‘‘take the tth root’’of both sides. We need to use logarithms. Logarithms ‘‘cancel’’ exponentiation in the same way subtraction ‘‘cancels’’ addition and division ‘‘cancels’’ multiplication. Logarithms (or logs) are very useful in solving many science and business problems.

CHAPTER 11

Exponents and Logarithms

The logarithmic equation loga x ¼ y is another way of writing the exponential equation ay ¼ x. Verbally, we say, ‘‘log base a of x is (or equals) y.’’ For loga x, we say, ‘‘(the) log base a of x.’’ EXAMPLES Rewrite the logarithmic equation as an exponential equation. *

log3 9 ¼ 2 The base of the logarithm is the base of the exponent, so 3 will be raised to a power. The number that is equal to the log is the power, so the power on 3 is 2. log3 9 ¼ 2 rewritten as an exponent is 32 ¼ 9

*

log2 18 ¼ 3 The base is 2 and the power is 3. 23 ¼

*

1 8

log9 3 ¼ 12 The base is 9 and the power is 12. 1

92 ¼ 3 PRACTICE Rewrite the logarithmic equation as an exponential equation. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

log4 16 ¼ 2 log3 81 ¼ 4 log100 10 ¼ 12 loga 4 ¼ 3 loge 2 ¼ 0:6931 logðxþ1Þ 9 ¼ 2 1 log7 49 ¼ 2 log8 4 ¼ 23

SOLUTIONS 1. log4 16 ¼ 2 rewritten as an exponential equation is 42 ¼ 16 2. log3 81 ¼ 4 rewritten as an exponential equation is 34 ¼ 181 3. log100 10 ¼ 12 rewritten as an exponential equation is 1002 ¼ 10 4. loga 4 ¼ 3 rewritten as an exponential equation is a3 ¼ 4

417

CHAPTER 11 Exponents and Logarithms

418 5. 6. 7. 8.

loge 2 ¼ 0:6931 rewritten as an exponential equation is e0:6931 ¼ 2 logðxþ1Þ 9 ¼ 2 rewritten as an exponential equation is ðx þ 1Þ2 ¼ 9 1 1 log7 49 ¼ 2 rewritten as an exponential equation is 72 ¼ 49 2=3 log8 4 ¼ 23 rewritten as an exponential equation is 8 ¼ 4

Now we will work in the other direction, rewriting exponential equations as logarithmic equations. The equation 43 ¼ 64 written as a logarithmic equation is log4 64 ¼ 3. PRACTICE Rewrite the exponential equation as a logarithmic equation. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

52 ¼ 25 40 ¼ 1 71 ¼ 17 1251=3 104 ¼ 0:0001 e1=2 ¼ 1:6487 8x ¼ 5

SOLUTIONS 1. 52 ¼ 25 rewritten as a logarithmic equation is log5 25 ¼ 2 2. 40 ¼ 1 rewritten as a logarithmic equation is log4 1 ¼ 0 3. 71 ¼ 17 rewritten as a logarithmic equation is log7 17 ¼ 1 4. 1251=3 ¼ 5 rewritten as a logarithmic equation is log125 5 ¼ 13 5. 104 ¼ 0:0001 rewritten as a logarithmic equation is log10 0:0001 ¼ 4 6. e1=2 ¼ 1:6487 rewritten as a logarithmic equation is loge 1:6487 ¼ 12 7. 8x ¼ 5 rewritten as a logarithmic equation is log8 5 ¼ x

Logarithm Properties The ﬁrst two logarithm properties we will learn are the cancelation properties. They come directly from rewriting one form of an equation in the other form. loga ax ¼ x

and

aloga x ¼ x

When the bases of the exponent and logarithm are the same, they cancel. Let us see why these properties are true. What would the expression loga ax

CHAPTER 11

Exponents and Logarithms

be? We will rewrite the equation loga ax ¼ ? as an exponential equation: a? ¼ ax . Now we can see that ‘‘?’’ is x. This is why loga ax ¼ x. What would aloga x be? Rewrite aloga x ¼ ? as a logarithmic equation: loga ? ¼ loga x, so ‘‘?’’ is x, and aloga x ¼ x. EXAMPLE * 5log5 2 The bases of the logarithm and exponent are both 5, so 5log5 2 simpliﬁes to 2. * * * 10log10 8 ¼ 8 4log4 x ¼ x eloge 6 ¼ 6 log29 1 r * * * 29 ¼1 logm m ¼ r log7 7ab ¼ ab * * * log9 93 ¼ 3 log16 164 ¼ 4 log10 10x ¼ x PRACTICE Use logarithm properties to simplify the expression. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

9log9 3 10log10 14 5log5 x log15 152 log10 108 loge ex

SOLUTIONS 1. 9log9 3 ¼ 3 2. 10log10 14 ¼ 14 3. 5log5 x ¼ x 4. log15 152 ¼ 2 5. log10 108 ¼ 8 6. loge ex ¼ x Sometimes we will need to use exponent properties before using the property loga ax ¼ x. ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ p 1 n am ¼ am=n and m ¼ am a EXAMPLES *

log9 3 ¼ log9 ¼ 12

pﬃﬃﬃ 9 ¼ log9 91=2

*

1 log7 49 ¼ log7 712 ¼ log7 72 ¼ 2

419

CHAPTER 11 Exponents and Logarithms

420 *

log10

p ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 4 10 ¼ log10 101=4 ¼ 14

*

log10

p ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ p ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 5 5 100 ¼ log10 102 ¼ log10 102=5 ¼ 25

PRACTICE Use logarithm properties to simplify the expression. pﬃﬃﬃ 1. log7 7 2. log5 15 3. log3 p1ﬃﬃ3 4. 5. 6. 7.

1 log4 16 log25 15 log8 12pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ log10 1000

SOLUTIONS 1. log7

pﬃﬃﬃ 1 7 ¼ log7 71=2 ¼ 2

2. 1 log5 ¼ log5 51 ¼ 1 5 3. 1 1 1 log3 pﬃﬃﬃ ¼ log3 1=2 ¼ log3 31=2 ¼ 2 3 3 4. log4

1 1 ¼ log4 2 ¼ log4 42 ¼ 2 16 4

5.

6.

1 1 1 1 log25 ¼ log25 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ¼ log25 1 ¼ log25 251=2 ¼ 5 2 25 252 ﬃﬃ ﬃ p 2¼ 38 1 1 1 1 ﬃﬃﬃ ¼ log8 1 ¼ log8 81=3 ¼ log8 ¼ log8 p 3 2 3 3 8 8

CHAPTER 11 7.

Exponents and Logarithms

1000 ¼ 103 log10

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 3 1000 ¼ log10 103 ¼ log10 103=2 ¼ 2

Two types of logarithms occur frequently enough to have their own notation. They are loge and log10 . The notation for loge is ‘‘ln’’, pronounced ‘‘ell-in,’’ and is called the natural log. The notation for log10 is ‘‘log’’ (no base is written) and is called the common log. The cancelation properties for these special logarithms are ln ex ¼ x

eln x ¼ x

and log 10x ¼ x

EXAMPLES * ln e15 ¼ 15 * eln 14 ¼ 14 * ln e4 ¼ 4

* * *

PRACTICE Simplify. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

ln e5 pﬃﬃ log 10 x 10log 9 eln 6 log 103x1 ln exþ1

SOLUTIONS 1. ln e5 ¼pﬃﬃ5 pﬃﬃﬃ 2. log 10 x ¼ x 3. 10log 9 ¼ 9 4. eln 6 ¼ 6 5. log 103x1 ¼ 3x 1 6. ln exþ1 ¼ x þ 1

10log x ¼ x:

10log 5 ¼ 5 log 101=2 ¼ 12 log 104 ¼ 4

421

CHAPTER 11 Exponents and Logarithms

422

Three More Important Logarithm Properties The following three logarithm properties come directly from the exponent properties am an ¼ amþn , am =an ¼ amn , and amn ¼ ðam Þn . 1. 2. 3.

logb mn ¼ logb m þ logb n logb m=n ¼ logb m logb n logb mt ¼ t logb m

We will see why Property 1 works. Let x ¼ logb m and y ¼ logb n. Rewriting these equations as exponential equations, we get bx ¼ m and by ¼ n. Multiplying m and n, we have mn ¼ bx by ¼ bxþy . Rewriting the equation mn ¼ bxþy as a logarithmic equation, we get logb mn ¼ x þ y. Because x ¼ logb m and y ¼ logb n, logb mn ¼ x þ y becomes logb mn ¼ logb m þ logb n. EXAMPLE Use Property 1 to rewrite the logarithms. * *

*

log4 7x ¼ log4 7 þ log4 x log6 19t2 ¼ log6 19 þ log6 t2

*

log9 3 þ log9 27 ¼ log9 3ð27Þ ¼ log9 81 ¼ 2

*

*

ln 15t ¼ ln 15 þ ln t log 100y4 ¼ log 102 þ log y4 ¼ 2 þ log y4 pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ ln x þ ln y ¼ ln x y

PRACTICE Use Property 1 to rewrite the logarithms. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

ln 59t log 0:10y log30 148x2 log6 3 þ log6 12 log5 9 þ log5 10 log 5 þ log 20

SOLUTIONS 1. ln 59t ¼ ln 59 þ ln t 2. log 0:10y ¼ log 0:10 þ log y ¼ log 101 þ log y ¼ 1 þ log y 3. log30 148x2 ¼ log30 148 þ log30 x2 4. log6 3 þ log6 12 ¼ log6 ð3 12Þ ¼ log6 36 ¼ log6 62 ¼ 2 5. log5 9 þ log5 10 ¼ log5 ð9 10Þ ¼ log5 90 6. log 5 þ log 20 ¼ logð5 20Þ ¼ log 100 ¼ log 102 ¼ 2

CHAPTER 11

Exponents and Logarithms

EXAMPLES Use Property 2 to rewrite the logarithms. * * *

logðx=4Þ ¼ log x log 4 log15 3 log15 2 ¼ log15 32 log4 43 ¼ log4 4 log4 3 ¼ 1 log4 3

* *

lnð5=xÞ ¼ ln 5 ln x ln 16 ln t ¼ ln ð16=tÞ

PRACTICE Use Property 2 to rewrite the logarithms. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

log4 10=9x log2 78 ln t=4 log 100=x2 log7 2 log7 4 log8 x log8 3

SOLUTIONS 1. log4

10 ¼ log4 10 log4 9x 9x

2. 7 log2 ¼ log2 7 log2 8 ¼ log2 7 log2 23 ¼ ðlog2 7Þ 3 8 3. t ln ¼ ln t ln 4 4 4. log

100 ¼ log 100 log x2 ¼ log 102 log x2 ¼ 2 log x2 x2

5. 2 1 log7 2 log7 4 ¼ log7 ¼ log7 4 2

423

CHAPTER 11 Exponents and Logarithms

424 6.

log8 x log8 3 ¼ log8

x 3

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ The exponent property n am ¼ am=n allows us to apply the third logarithm property to roots as well as to powers. The third logarithm property is especially useful in science and business applications. EXAMPLE Use Property 3 to rewrite the logarithms. * * *

log4 3x ¼ x log4 3 1 ¼ ln t1=3 3 ln t p ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ log6 2x ¼ log6 ð2xÞ1=2 ¼ 12 log6 2x

* * *

log x2 ¼ 2 log x 3plog 8 ¼ log 83 ﬃﬃﬃﬃ 4 ln t3 ¼ lnt3=4 ¼ 34 lnt

PRACTICE Use Property 3 to rewrite the logarithms. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

ln 5x pﬃﬃﬃ 3ﬃ log12 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ log 16x log5 6t 2 log8 3 ðx þ 6Þ log4 3 log16 102x 2 log4 5

SOLUTIONS 1. ln 5x ¼ pﬃﬃxﬃ ln 5 2. log12 3 ¼ log12 31=2 ¼ 12 log12 3 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 3. log 16x ¼ logð16xÞ1=2 ¼ 12 log 16x 4. log5 6t ¼ t log5 6 5. 2 log8 3 ¼ log8 32 ¼ log8 9 6. ðx þ 6Þ log4 3 ¼ log4 3xþ6 7. log16 102x ¼ 2x log16 10 1 8. 2 log4 5 ¼ log4 52 ¼ log4 512 ¼ log4 25 Sometimes we will need to use several logarithm properties to rewrite more complicated logarithms. The hardest part of this is to use the properties in the correct order. For example, which property should be used ﬁrst on log ðx=y3 Þ? Do we ﬁrst use the third property or the second property? We need to use the

CHAPTER 11

Exponents and Logarithms

425

second property ﬁrst. For the expression logðx=yÞ3 , we would use the third property ﬁrst. Going in the other direction, we need to use all three properties in the expression log2 9 log2 x þ 3 log2 y. We need to use the second property to combine the ﬁrst two terms. 9 log2 9 log2 x þ 3 log2 y ¼ log2 þ 3 log2 y x We cannot use the ﬁrst property on log2 ð9=xÞ þ 3 log2 y until we have used the third property to move the 3. 9 9 9 9y3 log2 þ 3 log2 y ¼ log2 þ log2 y3 ¼ log2 y3 ¼ log2 x x x x EXAMPLES Rewrite as a single logarithm. *

log2 3x 4 log2 y We need use the third property to move the 4, then we can use the second property. log2 3x 4 log2 y ¼ log2 3x log2 y4 ¼ log2

*

3x y4

3 log 4x þ 2 log 3 2 log y

3 log 4x þ 2 log 3 2 log y ¼ logð4xÞ3 þ log 32 log y2 3 3

2

¼ log 4 x 3 log y

2

Property 1

¼ log 576x3 log y2 ¼ log *

*

576x3 y2

t ln 4 þ ln 5 t ln 4 þ ln 5 ¼ ln 4t þ ln 5 ¼ lnð5 4t Þ

Property 3

ðnot ln 20t Þ

Expand each logarithm. pﬃﬃﬃ ln 3 x=y2 pﬃﬃﬃ 3 x ln 2 ¼ ln 3ðx1=2 Þ ln y2 ¼ ln 3 þ ln x1=2 ln y2 y 1 ¼ ln 3 þ ln x 2 ln y 2

Property 2

CHAPTER 11 Exponents and Logarithms

426 *

log7 4=10xy2 log7

4 ¼ log7 4 log7 10xy2 10xy2 ¼ log7 4 ðlog7 10 þ log7 x þ log7 y2 Þ ¼ log7 4 ðlog7 10 þ log7 x þ 2 log7 yÞ or log7 4 log7 10 log7 x 2 log7 y

PRACTICE For 1–5, rewrite each as a single logarithm. For 6–10, expand each logarithm. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

2 log x þ 3 log y log6 2x 2 log6 3 3 ln t ln 4 þ 2 ln 5 t ln 6 þ 2 ln 5 1 2 log x 2 log 2y þ 3 log z log 4x=y pﬃﬃﬃ ln 6= y pﬃﬃﬃ log4 10x= 3 z pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ln 4x=5y2 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ log 2y3 =x

SOLUTIONS 1. 2 log x þ 3 log y ¼ log x2 þ log y3 ¼ log x2 y3 2. log6 2x 2 log6 3 ¼ log6 2x log6 32 ¼ log6 2x log6 9 ¼ log6 3. 3 ln t ln 4 þ 2 ln 5 ¼ ln t3 ln 4 þ ln 52 t3 þ ln 25 4 t3 25t3 ¼ ln 25 ¼ ln 4 4 ¼ ln

2x 9

CHAPTER 11

Exponents and Logarithms

4. t ln 6 þ 2 ln 5 ¼ ln 6t þ ln 52 ¼ ln½25ð6t Þ 5. 1 log x 2 log 2y þ 3 log z ¼ log x1=2 logð2yÞ2 þ log z3 2 ¼ log x1=2 log 22 y2 þ log z3 ¼ log x1=2 log 4y2 þ log z3 1=2 x1=2 3 3x þ log z ¼ log z 4y2 4y2 p ﬃﬃﬃ z3 x1=2 z3 x ¼ log or log 4y2 4y2

¼ log

6. log

4x ¼ log 4x log y ¼ log 4 þ log x log y y

7. 6 1 pﬃﬃﬃ ln pﬃﬃﬃ ¼ ln 6 ln y ¼ ln 6 ln y1=2 ¼ ln 6 ln y 2 y 8. pﬃﬃﬃ 10x ﬃﬃﬃ ¼ log4 10x log4 3 z ¼ log4 10x log4 z1=3 log4 p 3 z 1 ¼ log4 10 þ log4 x log4 z 3 9. pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 4x ln 2 ¼ ln 4x ln 5y2 ¼ lnð4xÞ1=2 ln 5y2 5y 1 1 ¼ ln 4x ðln 5 þ ln y2 Þ ¼ ðln 4 þ ln xÞ ðln 5 þ 2 ln yÞ 2 2 1 1 or ln 4 þ ln x ln 5 2 ln y 2 2

427

CHAPTER 11 Exponents and Logarithms

428 10.

sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ !1=2 2y3 2y3 1 2y3 log ¼ log ¼ log 2 x x x 1 1 ¼ ðlog 2y3 log xÞ ¼ ðlog 2 þ log y3 log xÞ 2 2 1 1 3 1 ¼ ðlog 2 þ 3 log y log xÞ or log 2 þ log y log x 2 2 2 2 With these logarithm properties we can solve some logarithm and exponent equations. We can use these properties to rewrite equations either in the form ‘‘log ¼ log’’ or ‘‘log ¼ number.’’ When the equation is in the form ‘‘log ¼ log,’’ the logs cancel. When the equation is in the form ‘‘log ¼ number,’’ we can rewrite the equation as an exponential equation.

The Change of Base Formula There are countless bases for logarithms but calculators usually have only two logarithms—log and ln. How can we use our calculators to approximate log2 5? We can use the change of base formula; but ﬁrst, let us use logarithm properties to ﬁnd this number. Let x ¼ log2 5. Then 2x ¼ 5. Take the common log of each side. log 2x ¼ log 5

Now use the third logarithm property.

x log 2 ¼ log 5 Divide both sides by the number log 2. log 5 0:698970004 x¼ 2:321928095 log 2 0:301029996 This means that 22:321928095 is very close to 5. We just proved that log2 5 ¼ log10 5= log10 2. Replace 2 with b, 5 with x, and 10 with a and we have the change of base formula. logb x ¼

loga x loga b

This formula converts a logarithm with old base b to new base a. Usually, the new base is either e or 10.

CHAPTER 11

Exponents and Logarithms

EXAMPLE * Evaluate log7 15. Give your solution accurate to four decimal places. log 15 1:176091259 1:3917 log 7 0:84509804 ln 15 2:708050201 ¼ 1:3917 ln 7 1:945910149

log7 15 ¼

PRACTICE Evaluate the logarithms. Give your solution accurate to four decimal places. 1. 2.

log6 25 log20 5

SOLUTIONS 1. log6 25 ¼ ¼

ln 25 3:218875825 1:7965 ln 6 1:791759469 log 25 1:397940009 1:7965 log 6 0:7781525

2. log20 5 ¼ ¼

ln 5 1:609437912 0:5372 ln 20 2:995732274 log 5 0:698970004 0:5372 log 20 1:301029996

The change of base formula can be used to solve equations like 42xþ1 ¼ 8 by rewriting the equation in logarithmic form and using the change of base formula. The equation becomes log4 8 ¼ 2x þ 1. Because log4 8 ¼ ln 8= ln 4, the equation can be written as 2x þ 1 ¼ ln 8= ln 4. 2x þ 1 ¼

ln 8 ln 4

ln 8 2x ¼ 1 þ ln 4 1 ln 8 1 x¼ 1 þ ¼ 2 ln 4 4

429

CHAPTER 11 Exponents and Logarithms

430

Chapter 11 Review 1.

$1200 is deposited into an account that earns 712% annual interest, compound monthly. How much will be in the account in ten years? a) $2534.48 b) $2473.24 c) $2941.63 d) $1277.14

2.

How much is an investment worth if $10,000 is invested for ﬁfteen years, earning 5% annual interest, compounded continuously? a) $20,789.28 b) $21,170.00 c) $21,137.04 d) $21,162.37

3.

A couple wants to present a $25,000 gift to their newborn grandson on his 20th birthday. If they can earn 8% annual interest, compounded quarterly, how much do they need to invest now? a) $121,886 b) $5047 c) $18,165 d) $5128

4.

The graph in Figure 11.9 is the graph for what function? a) y ¼ ð23Þx1 b) y ¼ ð23Þxþ1 c) y ¼ ð32Þx1 d) y ¼ ð32Þxþ1

Fig. 11-9.

5.

The population of a country is growing at an annual rate of 1.5%. If the population in 2004 is 4 million, estimate the population for the year 2015. a) 3.5 million b) 4.1 million c) 4.7 million d) 5.2 million

6.

The population of a certain species of bird in a region is approximated by the function n(t) ¼ 115e0.01t where t is the number of years after 1998 and n(t) is the population in thousands. Estimate the bird population in the region for the year 2005. a) About 107,000 b) About 111,000 c) About 117,000 d) About 121,000

CHAPTER 11

Exponents and Logarithms

7.

Rewrite t ¼ logb m as an exponential equation b) bm ¼ t c) m ¼ bt d) mt ¼ b a) t ¼ mb

8.

1 log9 81 ¼ a) 1 b) 2 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ log 10 ¼ a) 1 b) 12

9 10. 11. 12.

13.

c) 2 c)

1 2

431

d) Does not exist d) 2

2t

ln e ¼ a) 2 b) t

c) 2t

ln x 2 ln y ¼ x b) 2 ln 2y a) ln 2y pﬃﬃﬃ log5 x y ¼ a) log5 x þ 12 log y pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ d) ðlog5 xÞ log5 y log8 10 ¼ b) a) lnln10 8

SOLUTIONS 1. a) 2. b) 9. c) 10. c)

ln 8 ln 10

3. d) 11. c)

d) Cannot be determined without a calculator c) ln yx2

d)

b) log5 x þ

c)

ln 8 ln 10

ln x 2 ln y

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ log5 y

d)

c)

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ log5 x þ log5 y

ln 10 ln 8

4. a) 5. c) 6. a) 12. a) 13. a)

7. c)

8. b)

Final Exam

1.

What is the slope of the line y ¼ 4? a) 4 b) 0 c) 4 d) The slope does not exist.

2.

What is the range for the function f ðxÞ ¼ x2 þ 2x 3? a) ½4ó 1Þ b) ð1ó 4 c) ½1ó 1Þ d) ð1ó 1

3.

What kind of triangle do the points ð3ó 1Þ, ð1ó 3Þ, and ð2ó 0Þ form? a) Isosceles triangle (exactly two sides are equal) b) Right triangle c) Equilateral triangle (all three sides are equal) d) None of the above

4.

What is the solution for j6x þ 1j ¼ 5? b) x ¼ 23 a) x ¼ 23 2 2 c) x ¼ 3 and x ¼ 3 d) x ¼ 23 and x ¼ 1

5.

$5000 is deposited into a retirement account. If it earns 8% annual interest, compounded annually, what will it be worth in 25 years? a) $36,223.23 b) $11,098.20 c) $34,242.38 d) $36,947.28

432 Copyright © 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click here for terms of use.

Final Exam 6.

433

What is x þ y for the solution to the system? 5x 2y ¼ 2 x þ 2y ¼ 10 a) 3 b) 4 c) 5 d) 6

7.

What is the solution for the inequality x2 2x 3 0? a) ½1ó 3 b) ð1ó 1 [ ½3ó 1Þ c) ð1ó 1Þ [ ð3ó 1Þ d) ð1ó 1 [ ½1ó 3

8.

Which of the following correctly completes the square for y ¼ x2 þ 6x 4? b) y ¼ ðx2 þ 6x þ 9Þ 4 þ 9 a) y ¼ x2 þ 6x þ 9 4 2 c) y ¼ x þ 6x þ 9 d) y ¼ ðx2 þ 6x þ 9Þ 4 9

9.

Is f ðxÞ ¼ 3=x2 þ 2 an even function, odd function, or neither? a) Even b) Odd c) Neither d) Cannot be determined

10.

What is the midpoint for the points ð2ó 5Þ and ð1ó 6Þ? b) ð 32 ó 12Þ c) ð32 ó 12Þ d) ð72 ó 52Þ a) ð12 ó 11 2Þ

11.

What is the present value of $100,000 due in ten years, earning 6% annual interest, compounded monthly? a) $54,963 b) $54,881 c) $55,840 d) $48,780

12.

The (a) (b) (c) (d)

13.

The graph shown in Fig. A-1 is the graph of what function? b) y ¼ ð32Þx1 c) y ¼ ð23Þxþ1 d) y ¼ ð23Þx1 a) y ¼ ð32Þxþ1

graph of a polynomial function whose leading term is 6x5 goes up on the left and up on the right. goes up on the left and down on the right. goes down on the left and up on the right. goes down on the left and down on the right.

Fig. A-1.

The next three problems refer to the function f ðxÞ whose graph is shown in Fig. A-2.

Final Exam

434

Fig. A-2.

14. 15.

What is the domain for f ðxÞ? a) ½5ó 3 b) ½5ó 4 c) ½4ó 2 What is f ð3Þ? a) 2 b) 2

c) 0

d) ½0ó 4

d) 4

16.

For what interval(s) of x is this function decreasing? a) ð2ó 2Þ b) ð5ó 2Þ [ ð0ó 4Þ c) ð3ó 1Þ d) ð5ó 3Þ [ ð0ó 3Þ

17.

A purchasing agent rents a car during a business trip. Her bill for Wednesday was $33 for driving 45 miles. Her bill for Thursday was $39 for driving 60 miles. Find an equation that gives the daily cost in terms of the number of miles driven. a) y ¼ 0:40x þ 31:80 b) y ¼ 2:50x 79:50 c) y ¼ 0:40x þ 44:40 d) y ¼ 0:40x þ 15

18.

Evaluate log7 p1ﬃﬃ7. c) 1 a) 2 b) 12

19.

d) 12 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ What is the domain for f ðxÞ ¼ x2 9? a) ½3ó 1Þ b) ð1ó 3Þ [ ð3ó 3Þ [ ð3ó 1Þ c) ð1ó 3 [ ½3ó 1Þ d) ½3ó 1Þ [ ½3ó 1Þ

20.

What are the x-intercepts of the polynomial function f ðxÞ ¼ ðx þ 4Þðx þ 1Þ ðx 3Þ2 ðx 5Þ? a) 4ó 1ó 3ó 5 b) 4ó 1ó 9ó 5 c) 4ó 1ó 3ó 5 d) 4ó 1ó 9ó 5

21.

What 6Þ? pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ between pﬃﬃð5ó ﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃis the distance pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃð2ó 3Þ and a) 40 b) 122 c) 58 d) 2

Final Exam 22.

23.

24.

25.

435

The cost per unit of a product is given by the function CðxÞ ¼ 0:05x2 40x þ 8002:5, where x is the number of units produced and C is in dollars. How many units should be produced to minimize the cost per unit? a) 400 b) 450 c) 500 d) 550 Expand the logarithm ln ðxy2 =zÞ: ln x 2 ln y a) ln x þ 2 ln y ln z b) ln z c) ln x þ ln y ln z d) ln x þ ðln yÞ2 ln z Are the lines 6x 2y ¼ 5 and 2x þ 6y ¼ 9 parallel, perpendicular, or neither? a) Parallel b) Perpendicular c) Neither d) Cannot be determined What is x þ y for the solution to the system? y ¼ 2x 5 y ¼ 3x 7 a) 2

b) 1

c) 0

d) 1

26.

Find the x- and y-intercepts for y ¼ ðx þ 1Þ=ðx 3Þ. (a) The x-intercepts are 1 and 3, and the y-intercept is 13. (b) The x-intercepts are 1 and 3, and there is no y-intercept. (c) The x-intercept is 1, and the y-intercept is 13. (d) There is no x-intercept, the y-intercept is 13.

27.

Which of the following lines is perpendicular to the line y ¼ 23? b) y ¼ 32 x c) x ¼ 2 d) None a) y ¼ 32

28.

Evaluate gðu þ vÞ for gðxÞ ¼ 12x þ 10. a) 12u þ 12v þ 10 b) 12u þ v þ 10 c) ðu þ vÞð12x þ 10Þ d) 12x þ 10 þ u þ v

29.

What is the solution for jx þ 3j < 4? a) ð1ó 7Þ [ ð1ó 1Þ b) ð7ó 1Þ

c) ð1ó 1Þ

30.

d) ð1ó 1Þ pﬃﬃﬃ What is the domain for f gðxÞ when f ðxÞ ¼ x2 and gðxÞ ¼ x? a) ð1ó 1Þ b) ½0ó 1Þ c) ð1ó 0Þ [ ð0ó 1Þ d) ð0ó 1Þ

31.

What are the zeros for the polynomial function f ðxÞ ¼ x4 16? a) 4 b) 2 c) 2ó 4 d) 2ó 2i

32.

Find the equation of the line containing the points ð1ó 0Þ and ð0ó 1Þ. a) y ¼ x þ 1 b) y ¼ x þ 1 c) y ¼ x 1 d) y ¼ x 1

Final Exam

436 33.

What is the center and radius for the circle whose equation is ðx þ 5Þ2 þ ðy 6Þ2 ¼ 9? (a) The center is ð5ó 6Þ, and the radius is 81. (b) The center is ð5ó 6Þ, and the radius is 3. (c) The center is ð5ó 6Þ, and the radius is 81. (d) The center is ð5ó 6Þ, and the radius is 3.

34.

What is the domain for f ðxÞ ¼ xxþ1 2 4? a) ð2ó 1Þ c) ð1ó 2Þ [ ð2ó 1Þ

b) ð1ó 2Þ [ ð2ó 2Þ [ ð2ó 1Þ d) ð1ó 1Þ [ ð1ó 2Þ [ ð2ó 1Þ

35.

Is a ¼ 3 a lower bound for the real zeros of the polynomial function f ðxÞ ¼ x4 x3 þ x2 þ x 4? a) Yes b) No c) Cannot be determined

36.

x2 þ x 1 ¼ 0 is equivalent to b) ðx þ 12Þ2 ¼ 32 a) ðx þ 14Þ2 ¼ 54 c) ðx þ 12Þ2 ¼ 54 d) ðx þ 12Þ2 ¼ 34

37.

Rewrite log5 3x in base 8. log8 3x log8 5 a) b) log8 5 log8 3x

c)

log8 3x ln 5

d)

log8 5 log 3x

38.

What is the solution for the inequality x2 > 1? a) ð1ó 1Þ b) ð1ó 1Þ [ ð1ó 1Þ c) ð1ó 1Þ [ ð1ó 1Þ d) ð1ó 1Þ

39.

The (a) (b) (c) (d)

40.

Evaluate f ð2Þ for f ðxÞ ¼ 6. a) 2 b) 12 c) 6 d) Cannot be determined

41.

Find an equation of the line whose slope is 53 and contains the point ð6ó 8Þ. a) 5x 3y ¼ 6 b) 5x 3y ¼ 22 c) 3x 5y ¼ 22 d) 3x 5y ¼ 6

42.

What are the zeros for the polynomial function f ðxÞ ¼ 6x3 11x2 þ 6x 1?

graph of 12 f ðxÞ is the graph of f ðxÞ reﬂected about the x-axis and vertically stretched. reﬂected about the x-axis and vertically ﬂattened. reﬂected about the y-axis and vertically stretched. reﬂected about the y-axis and vertically ﬂattened.

Final Exam a) 12 ó 3ó 1 mined.

437 b)

1 1 2ó 3ó

1

c) 12 ó

1 3ó

1

d) Cannot be deter-

43.

The population of a certain type of ﬁsh in a lake is approximated by the function nðtÞ ¼ 25e0:024t , where t is the number of years after 2000 and nðtÞ is the size of the population in hundreds. Estimate the size of the ﬁsh population in the lake for the year 2006. a) About 2300 b) About 2500 c) About 2700 d) About 2900

44.

If f ðxÞ ¼ x3 and gðxÞ ¼ 1=ðx þ 1Þ, ﬁnd f gð2Þ. c) 18 d) 8 a) 1 b) 17

45.

What is x þ y for the solution for the system? y ¼ 2x2 x þ 3 3x y ¼ 1 a) 2 b) 3 c) 5 d) 6

46.

What is the vertex for y ¼ 12 x2 þ 3x 4? a) ð6ó 32Þ b) ð3ó 17 c) ð 32 ó 25 2Þ 4Þ

d) ð3ó

19 2Þ

47.

What is the solution for j7 xj > 2? a) ð1ó 5Þ [ ð9ó 1Þ b) ð1ó 5Þ [ ð1ó 9Þ c) ð9ó 5Þ d) ð5ó 9Þ

48.

The solid graph in Fig. A-3 is the graph of f ðxÞ ¼ x3 . The dashed graph is the graph of which function? a) y ¼ ðx þ 1Þ3 þ 1 b) y ¼ ðx þ 1Þ3 1 c) y ¼ ðx 1Þ3 þ 1 3 d) y ¼ ðx 1Þ 1

Fig. A-3.

Final Exam

438 49.

According to the Rational Zero Theorem, which of the following is not a possible zero for the polynomial function f ðxÞ ¼ 12x4 x2 þ 9? c) 92 d) All are possible rational zeros a) 4 b) 13

50.

Evaluate gð3Þ for gðxÞ ¼ a) 8

51.

b) 24

c) 10

8 xþ7

if x 1 if x > 1

d) 8 and 10

Rewrite mt ¼ u as a logarithm equation. b) logm u ¼ t c) logu m ¼ t a) logm t ¼ u

d) logu t ¼ m

2

the function f ðxÞ ¼ 12 x þ 3x þ 4 the maximum functional value is 17 2. 17 the minimum functional value is 2 . the maximum functional value is 3. the minimum functional value is 3.

52.

For (a) (b) (c) (d)

53.

What are the zeros for the function PðxÞ ¼ x3 þ 3x2 2x 8? (Hint: x ¼ 2 is a zero.) pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 1 17 1 17i a) 2ó b) 2ó 2 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2 c) 2ó 2 17 i d) 2ó 2 3i What is the center and radius for the circle whose equation is x2 þ y2 þ 8x þ 6y ¼ 11? (a) The center is ð4ó 3Þ, and the radius is 6. pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ (b) The center is ð4ó 3Þ, and the radius is 11. (c) The center is ð4ó 3Þ, and the radius is 6. pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ (d) The center is ð4ó 3Þ, and the radius is 11.

54.

55.

To complete the square, what numbers should be used to ﬁll in the blanks for y ¼ 23 ðx2 6x þ Þ þ 2 þ ? (a) Use 9 for the ﬁrst blank and 6 for the second blank. (b) Use 9 for the ﬁrst blank and 6 for the second blank. (c) Use 9 for the ﬁrst blank and 9 for the second blank. (d) Use 9 for the ﬁrst blank and 9 for the second blank.

56.

Find the quotient and remainder for ð4x3 x þ 2Þ ðx2 þ 1Þ. (a) The quotient is 4x2 þ 3x þ 3, and the remainder is 5. (b) The quotient is 4x, and the remainder is 5x þ 2. (c) The quotient is 4x, and the remainder is 3x þ 2. (d) The quotient is 4x, and the remainder is 3x þ 2.

Final Exam

439

57.

Is f ðxÞ ¼ x3 4 an even function, odd function or neither? a) Even b) Odd c) Neither d) Cannot be determined.

58.

eln 2 = a) e2

b) 2eln

c) 2

d) ln 2

59.

Find an equation of the circle with center ð8ó 5Þ containing the point ð5ó 9Þ. b) ðx 8Þ2 þ ðy 5Þ2 ¼ 25 a) ðx 8Þ2 þ ðy 5Þ2 ¼ 5 2 2 d) ðx þ 8Þ2 þ ðy þ 5Þ2 ¼ 25 c) ðx þ 8Þ þ ðy þ 5Þ ¼ 5

60.

Solve for x:

xþ2 > 0: x2

a) ð2ó 1Þ c) ð2ó 1Þ [ ð2ó 1Þ 61.

b) ð2ó 2Þ d) ð1ó 2Þ [ ð2ó 1Þ

What is the vertex for y ¼ x2 8x þ 1? a) ð4ó 49Þ b) ð8ó 1Þ c) ð4ó 15Þ

d) ð8ó 129Þ

62.

The (a) (b) (c) (d)

graph of f ðxÞ ¼ ðx þ 4Þ 5 is the graph of f ðxÞ shifted to the left 4 units and down 5 units. shifted to the left 4 units and up 5 units. shifted to the right 4 units and down 5 units. shifted to the right 4 units and up 5 units.

63.

The graph in Fig. A-4 is the solution to which system? (a) y <x1 y < 3x þ 3 (b)

y <x1 y > 3x þ 3

(c)

y >x1 y < 3x þ 3

(d)

y >x1 y > 3x þ 3

Final Exam

440

Fig. A-4.

64.

Solve for x: a) ½ 52 ó 6

2x þ 5 0. x6 b) ½ 52 ó 6Þ

c) ð 52 ó 6Þ

d) ð 52 ó 6

65.

In the equation x2 þ y2 ¼ 25, is y a function of x? a) Yes b) No c) Cannot be determined

66.

What is the vertex for y ¼ 12 ðx 4Þ2 3? a) ð4ó 3Þ b) ð4ó 3Þ c) ð2ó 3Þ

d) ð2ó 3Þ

4

67.

Find the quotient and remainder for ð3x 5x þ 2Þ ðx 4Þ. (a) The quotient is 3x3 þ 12x2 48x þ 187, and the remainder is 746. (b) The quotient is 3x þ 7, and the remainder is 30. (c) The quotient is 3x3 12x2 48x 197, and the remainder is 790. (d) The quotient is 3x3 þ 12x2 þ 48x þ 187, and the remainder is 750.

68.

What are the intercepts for y ¼ x2 þ 2x 24? (a) The x-intercepts are 4 and 6, and the y-intercept is 24. (b) The x-intercepts are 8 and 9, and the y-intercept is 24. (c) The x-intercepts are 8 and 9, and the y-intercept is 24. (d) The x-intercepts are 4 and 6, and the y-intercept is 24.

69.

A property manager wants to fence the back of an oﬃce building for storage. The side against the building will not be fenced. If 100 feet of fencing is available and if the area to be fenced is rectangular, what is the maximum area? a) 1000 square feet b) 1250 square feet c) 1500 square feet d) Cannot be determined.

Final Exam 70.

441

The solid graph in Fig. A-5 is the graph of f ðxÞ ¼ jxj. The dashed graph is the graph of which function? a) y ¼ 3jxj b) y ¼ 3jxj c) y ¼ 13 jxj d) y ¼ 13 jxj

Fig. A-5.

71.

72.

73.

74.

State the zeros and their multiplicity for the polynomial function f ðxÞ ¼ x2 ðx þ 2Þ3 ðx 6Þ5 . (a) The zeros are 2 (multiplicity 1), 3 (multiplicity 2), and 5 (multiplicity 6). (b) The zeros are 0 (multiplicity 2), 2 (multiplicity 3), and 6 (multiplicity 5). (c) The zeros are 0 (multiplicity 2), 2 (multiplicity 3), and 6 (multiplicity 5). (d) The zeros are 2 (multiplicity 3), and 6 (multiplicity 5). 3x Solve for x: > 5. xþ3 a) ð3ó 1Þ [ ð2ó 1Þ b) ð3ó 3Þ c) ð1ó 3Þ [ ð3ó 1Þ d) ð3ó 2Þ Put the quotient ð7 4iÞ=ð1 þ 3iÞ in the form a þ bi, where a and b are real numbers. 1 17 1 5 4 19 17 a) þ i b) i c) 7 i d) þ i 2 2 2 2 3 10 10 What numbers should be used to ﬁll in the blank for y ¼ ðx2 10x þ Þ þ 6 þ ? (a) Put 25 in the ﬁrst blank and 25 in the second blank. (b) Put 25 in the ﬁrst blank and 25 in the second blank. (c) Put 25 in the ﬁrst blank and 25 in the second blank. (d) Put 25 in the ﬁrst blank and 25 in the second blank.

Final Exam

442 75.

Evaluate ð f ða þ hÞ f ðaÞÞ=h for f ðxÞ ¼ 4x 1. a) h b) 1 c) 4h þ 8 d) 4

SOLUTION 1. b) 2. 8. d) 9. 15. b) 16. 22. a) 23. 29. b) 30. 36. c) 37. 43. d) 44. 50. c) 51. 57. c) 58. 64. b) 65. 71. c) 72.

a) a) d) a) b) a) a) b) c) b) d)

3. 10. 17. 24. 31. 38. 45. 52. 59. 66. 73.

b) a) d) b) d) b) c) a) b) a) b)

4. 11. 18. 25. 32. 39. 46. 53. 60. 67. 74.

d) a) d) d) b) b) b) a) d) d) c)

5. 12. 19. 26. 33. 40. 47. 54. 61. 68. 75.

c) b) c) c) d) c) a) a) c) d) d)

6. 13. 20. 27. 34. 41. 48. 55. 62. 69.

d) b) a) c) b) a) d) a) a) b)

7. 14. 21. 28. 35. 42. 49. 56. 63. 70.

a) a) c) a) a) b) a) b) d) b)

INDEX

Absolute value equations, 15–20 function 240, 247–250 inequalities, 20–27 of a number, 14–15 Addition and subtraction of complex numbers (see Complex numbers) of functions, 262, 263 Applications of exponential functions, 404–410 linear, 92–102 of linear systems, 366–370 quadratic, 205–216 Area, maximizing, 208–213 Base change of, 428–429 of exponent, 417 of logarithm, 417 Center of circle (see Circles) Change of base formula, 428–429 Circles, 45–56 center, 46–48 completing the square, 53–56 diameter, 51–53 graphing, 48–50 radius, 46–48 Coeﬃcients, 278 and synthetic division, 301 Combinations of functions, 262–274

arithmetic combinations, 262–263 composition, 264–274 Completing the square, 1–13 for the center and radius of a circle, 53–56 to solve a quadratic equation, 6–12 for the vertex of a parabola, 113–119 Complex numbers arithmetic, 327–336 conjugate, 331–332 as zeros of a polynomial, 336–345, 347–351 Composition of functions, 264–274 Constant function, 157, 239, 278 Constant interval (see Interval) Continuous interest, 407–408 Coordinates, 29–33 and evaluating functions, 172–174 Cubic function, 240–243 Decreasing interval (see Interval) Degree of a polynomial, 278–282 Dependent variable, 148 Descartes’ Rule of Signs, 317–319 Diameter of a circle, 51–53 Distance between two points, 33–43 Division of complex numbers, 333–336 of functions, 262–263 of polynomials, 292–327 Divisor polynomial, 292 Domain, 150–156

443 Copyright © 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click here for terms of use.

INDEX

444 in function composition, 270–272 from a graph, 174–178 Elimination by addition, 359–366 End behavior of polynomials, 278–282 Equations (see also Equations of lines) of circles, 46–56 exponential, 404–410 quadratic, 102–103, 109–120, 199–216 of polynomials, 278–327, 341–351 systems of, 354–366, 371–377 Equations of lines in applications, 92–102 graphing, 45, 58–62, 72–74, 81–87 horizontal lines, 72–74 parallel lines, 84–85, 88–90 perpendicular lines, 86–90 point-slope form, 75–79 slope-intercept form, 80–84 vertical lines, 73–74 Evaluating functions, 156–168 from a graph, 172–174 Even functions, 257–261 Exponential functions, 240 applications of, 404–410 graphs of, 410–415 growth, 402–410 Exponential properties, 419, 422, 424 Factoring of polynomials, 308–311, 313–317 unusual quantities, 114–115, 117–118 and zeros of a polynomial, 282–288, 346–351 Fahrenheit and Celsius, 93–95 Fencing problems, 208–213 FOIL method, 1 Functional value, 157 and graphs, 172–174 Functions, 148–194 combining, 262–274 composition of, 264–274 constant, 157 domain and range, 150–156, 174–178 evaluating, 156–168, 172–174 even and odd, 257–261 graphs of, 168–194

increasing/decreasing/constant intervals, 178–183 and Newton’s quotient, 163–168 piecewise, 158–160, 183–194 polynomial, 278–351 quadratic, 199–216 special, 239–254 vertical line test, 168–172 y as a function of x, 149–150 Fundamental Theorem of Algebra, 341, 346 Graphs of circles, 48–50 and domain and range, 174–178 of equations, 45 and function composition, 268–270 and function evaluation, 172–174 and functions, 168–194 of inequalities, 377–398 intercepts of, 62–69 of lines, 45, 58–62, 72–74, 81–87 of parabolas and quadratic functions, 102–112,199–200 of piecewise functions, 183–194 of polynomials, 278–292, 323–327 reﬂections of, 224–226, 227–231, 254 of special functions, 240–254 of systems of equations, 355, 357, 371, 373 of systems of inequalities, 377–398 transformations of, 219–254 vertical line test, 168–172 Horizontal line, 72–74 transformations, 220–224, 230–239 Increasing interval, (see Interval) Independent variable, 148 Inequalities absolute value, 20–27 graphing, 377–398 nonlinear, 129–146 systems of, 378–398 Intercepts, 62–69 x-intercepts and zeros of a polynomial, 282–292 Interval, constant/decreasing/increasing, 178–183

INDEX

445

Laws of logarithms, 418–428 Leading coeﬃcient, 278, 280–282 Leading term, 278, 280–282 Line segment midpoint, 43–45 length, 33–43 Linear functions, 240 (see also Linear equations) Lines graphs of, 45, 58–62, 72–74, 81–87 horizontal, 72–74 parallel, 84–85, 88–90 perpendicular, 86–90 point-slope form, 75–79 slope of, 69–74 slope-intercept form, 80–84 systems of, 354–366 vertical, 72–74 Linear equations (see Equations of lines) Logarithms, 416–429 Long division of polynomials, 292–301 Lower bounds (see Upper and Lower Bounds Theorem)

ﬁnding the vertex, 103, 113–120, 200–201 and quadratic functions, 199 Parallel lines, 84–85, 88–90, 371–372 Perpendicular lines, 86–90 Piecewise functions evaluating, 158–160 graphing, 183–194 Point-slope formula, 75–79 Polynomial division long division, 292–301 synthetic division, 301–309 Polynomial functions, 278–351 complex zeros of, 336–345, 347–351 division of, 292–327 graphs of, 278–292, 323–327 rational zeros of, 311–313 real zeros of, 282–283 x-intercepts of, 282–288 Population growth, 408–410 Present value, 415–416 Properties of logarithms (see Laws of logarithms) Pythagorean theorem, 36, 38–40, 41–42

Maximizing (and minimizing) functions applied, 205–216 quadratic, 202–204 Maximum (and minimum) functional value, 202–204 Midpoint formula, 43–45 and ﬁnding the center of a circle, 51–52 Multiplication of complex numbers, 330–331 of functions, 262, 263 Multiplicity of zeros, 346

Quadratic equations, (see also quadratic functions) 1, 199 completing the square to solve, 6–12 Quadratic formula, 1 completing the square to ﬁnd, 12–13 Quadratic functions, 199–216, 240 applications of, 205–216 graphs of (see also Parabola), 102–112, 199–200 maximizing and minimizing, 202–204 range of, 201–202 Quotient polynomial, 292

Newton’s quotient, 163–168 Nonlinear inequalities, 129–146 graphs of, 383–386 systems of, 387–392 Odd functions, 257–261 Origin, 29, 30 symmetry, 254 Parabola, 102–120 graphs of, 102–112, 199–200

Radius of a circle, 46–48 Range, 150 from a graph, 174–178 of quadratic functions, 201–202 Rational exponent, 424 Rational zeros of a polynomial, 311–313 Reﬂection of a graph, 224–226, 227–231, 254 Remainder Theorem, 307–308 Revenue, maximizing, 206, 213–216

INDEX

446 Shifting graphs, 220–253 Sign graphs and the domain of a function, 153–156 and inequalities, 131–146 Slope of a line, 69–74 applications, 98–102 and ﬁnding the equation of a line, 90–92 and graphing a line, 81–84 Slope-intercept form of a line, 80–84 Special functions, 239–254 Square root function, 240, 243–247 Substitution method, 355–359, 374–377 Symmetry, 254–257 Synthetic division of polynomials, 301–309 Systems of equations, 354–377 applications of, 366–370 elimination by addition, 359–366 having no solution, 371–372 linear, 354–366 nonlinear, 372–377 substitution, 355–359, 374–376 Systems of inequalities, 377–398 having no solution, 392 linear, 386–387, 389–391, 393–394 nonlinear, 387–388, 390–391, 394–398 Transformations of graphs/functions, 219–253

Upper and Lower Bounds Theorem, 317, 319–322 Vertex, 103 ﬁnding by completing the square, 113–120 using b 2a , 200–204 used to maximize/minimize functions, 202–216 Vertical lines, 72–74 transformations, 221–239 Vertical line test, 168–172 x- and y-axis, 29 in the complex plane, 336 symmetry, 255–257 x- and y-coordinates, 29–33 as coordinates of intercepts, 62–69 and evaluating functions, 172–174 x-intercepts as zeros of a polynomial, 282–289 xy coordinate plane, 29–56 Zeros complex, 336–345, 347–351 of a polynomial function, 282–288, 311, 313, 341–351 and x-intercepts, 282–289

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Rhonda Huettenmueller has taught mathematics at the college level for over 14 years. Popular with students for her ability to make higher math understandable and even enjoyable, she incorporates many of her teaching techniques in this book. She received her Ph.D. in mathematics from the University of North Texas.

2 Copyright © 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click here for terms of use.

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