It's been awhile since I got the mods, but the last Enhancement I got, which was about two weeks ago maybe, gave me four choices. Crit/Surge, Power/Alacrity, Defense/Surge (I think) and Shield/Absorption all with Endurance as the third stat.
As for the armorings, I just used daily coms to buy the armorings/hilts/barrels for my companions. You could get higher level stuff if you want to watch your companions solo gold mobs I guess, but I find for solo questing at 50 the daily commendation stuff works out just fine. Trick out your most commonly used companion first and it just makes the whole thing go much smoother.
I'm worried about getting a set of moddable gear for myself. What I'm doing is I'm grabbing augment slot gear every time I get a full set of the mods to fill them with. I'll worry about looks once I have the valor to wear the war hero gear. Granted, by then 1.3 will probably be out and adding augment slots will be pathetically easy.
As far as companions, the only ones I ever use are Talos Drellik and Ashara Zaros. Talos' gear is good enough to keep me alive tanking whatever I'm crazy enough to tank. Now that I have 2 of the lightsabers for Ashara from that one Belsavis daily she does more than good enough damage. Although I am considering grabbing mods that suit them better once my suit is filled out and finding them some cheap moddable gear.
Actually, I can craft some decent gear for Asahara and Khem and a buddy of mine is an armormech so he can craft some gear for Talos and Andronikos. Whatever I cast off will go to Xalek.